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Galsworthy, Michael J. 1976-

Overview
Works: 12 works in 12 publications in 1 language and 12 library holdings
Publication Timeline
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Publications about Michael J Galsworthy
Publications by Michael J Galsworthy
Most widely held works by Michael J Galsworthy
X inactivation as a source of behavioural differences in monozygotic female twins ( Article )
1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Although members of monozygotic twin pairs are identical in genome sequence, they may differ in patterns of gene expression. One early and irreversible process affecting gene expression, which can create differences within pairs of female monozygotic twins, is X inactivation - one twin can express mainly paternally-received genes on the X chromosome while the other twin expresses mainly maternally-received genes. It follows that non-identical X chromosome expression may cause female monozygotic twins to correlate less strongly than male monozygotic twins on complex behavioural traits affected by X-linked loci. We tested this hypothesis using data from around 4000 same-sex twin pairs on 9 social, behavioural and cognitive measures at ages 2, 3 and 4. Consistent with our hypothesis, monozygotic males were generally more similar than monozygotic females. Three of four significant differences were in traitsshowing higher correlations in males than females, and these traits - prosocial behaviour, peer problems, and verbal ability - have all been proposed previously in the literature as being influenced by genes on the X chromosome. Interestingly, dizygotic twins showed the reverse pattern of correlations for similar variables, which is also consistent with the X inactivation hypothesis; taken together, then, our monozygotic and dizygotic results suggest the presence of quantitative trait loci on the X chromosome
The XVth World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, October 7-11, 2007 : rapporteur summaries of oral presentations ( Article )
1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics (WCPG) has become an annual event since the early 1990's sponsored by the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG). Each year the latest published and unpublished findings are aired for discussion by representatives of the majority of research programs on this topic world-wide. The 2007 congress was held in New York City and attracted over 1000 researchers. The topics emphasized included results from whole genome association studies, the significance of copy number variation and the important contributions of epigenetic events to psychiatric disorders. There were over 20 oral sessions devoted to these and other topics of interest. Young investigator recipients of travel awards served as rapporteurs to summarize sessions and these summaries follow
Sex differences in early verbal and non-verbal cognitive development ( Article )
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Assessing reliability, heritability and general cognitive ability in a battery of cognitive tasks for laboratory mice ( Article )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This report includes the first sibling study of mouse behavior, and presents evidence for a heritable general cognitive ability (g) factor influencing cognitive batteries. Data from a population of male and female outbred mice (n= 84), and a replication study of male sibling pairs (n = 167) are reported. Arenas employed were the T-maze, the Morris water maze, the puzzle box, the Hebb-Williams maze, object exploration, a water plus-maze, and a second food-puzzle arena. The results show a factor structure consistent with the presence of g in mice. Employing one score per arena, this factor accountsfor 41% of the variance in the first study (or 36% after sex regression) and 23% in the second, where this factor also showed sibling correlations of 0.17-0.21, which translates into an upper-limit heritability estimate of around 40%. Reliabilities of many tasks are low and consequently set an even lower ceiling for inter-arena or sibling correlations. Nevertheless, the factor structure is seen to remain fairly robust across permutations of the battery composition and the current findings fit well withother recent studies
Test standardization in behavioural neuroscience : a response to Stanford ( Article )
1 edition published in 2007 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Intelligence and cognition by Robert Plomin( Article )
1 edition published in 2003 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Evidence for general cognitive ability (g) in heterogeneous stock mice and an analysis of potential confounds ( Article )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
The heterogeneous stock (HS) is a genetically outbred line of mice establishedmore than 30 years ago from an 8-way cross of C57BL/6, BALB/c, RIII, AKR, DBA/2, I, A/J and C3H inbred mouse strains. The present study compared the performance of 40 HS mice across a battery of diverse cognitive tasks under a variety of motivations. Indices of emotionality were also included in order to assess their influence on performance. All measures of ability loaded positively on an unrotated first principal component that accounted for 31% of the variance, suggesting the presence of a common factor of general cognitive ability (g) underlying all tasks. A first factor derived from anxiety indices correlated nonsignificantly with all cognitive tasks and nonsignificantly with this g factor, supporting the hypothesis that the factoris cognitive rather than temperamental in nature. The factor was also robust in relation to outliers and sex differences, accounting for 28% of the variance after removal of outlier individuals and also after correcting for variance owing to sex differences. A general cognitive ability (g) appears to underlie the performance of HS mice on a battery tapping diverse cognitive demands
A comparison of wild-caught wood mice and bank voles in the Intellicage : assessing exploration, daily activity patterns and place learning paradigms ( Article )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Our previous work has revealed very high baseline neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of wood mice as compared particularly to bank voles; a difference which may be related to learning capacity. This study explored whether the newly-developed Intellicage system could be used to compare these species in simple spatial learning paradigms. The Intellicage is essentially a group-housing cage that also allows continuous automatic recording of each individual's behaviour. Seven wild-caught bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)were compared with seven wild-caught long-tailed wood mice (Apodemussylvaticus) in the Intellicage system over 9 days. During the first 90 min after entering the cage, the wood mice were substantially more exploratory than the bank voles (P = 0.003). Over subsequent days, both species showed nocturnal activity increases with voles being 3.7 times more active overall. In the spatial learning paradigms, there were significant species-by-time interactions with wood mice outperforming bank voles on both place learning (P = 0.027) and subsequent reversal (P = 0.006). Conclusions are firstly that the wood mice show superior learning abilities in this paradigm, and secondly that the Intellicage serves as a valuable cognitive testing arena for small wild rodents, or for circumstances where cognition must be compared independent of different responses to handling or novel environments
Neuronal neprilysin overexpression is associated with attenuation of Aß-related spatial memory deficit ( Article )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Converging evidence links abnormally high brain concentrations of amyloid-betapeptides (Abeta) to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lowering brain Abeta levels, therefore, is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD. Neuronal neprilysin upregulation led to increased degradationof Abeta, reduced the formation of Abeta-plaques and the associatedcytopathology, but whether overexpression of neprilysin can improve cognition is unknown. We show that neuronal overexpression of neprilysin improved the Morris water maze memory performance in mice with memory deficitsresulting from overexpression of the AD-causing mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APP). This improvement was associated with decreased brain levels of Abeta and with unchanged endoproteolytic processing of APP. These results provide the evidence that lowering of brain Abeta levels by increasingits degradation can improve cognitive functions in vivo, and suggestthat increasing the activity of neprilysin in brain may be effective inpreventing cognitive decline in AD
Genetic and gender influences on nocturnal bladder control : a study of 2900 3-year-old twin pairs ( Article )
1 edition published in 2001 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Objective: The present study of over 2900 twin pairs born in England and Walesin 1994 examines the influences of genetics and gender on nocturnal bladder control at 3 years of age. Materials and methods: Parent report data was analysed in terms of means and components of variance, using a sex-limitation model to explore genetic and environmental variation within andbetween the sexes. Results: Both genetics and gender are seen to influence acquisition: bladder control at 3 years is moderately heritable (24%), and girls show on average slightly increased acquisition compared with boys, even within opposite-sex pairs. The sex-limitation modelling showed an interaction between genetic influence and gender whereby nocturnal bladder control was significantly more heritable in boys (33%) than girls (10%). Conclusions: Bothgenetics and gender are important and interacting factors in the aetiologyof nocturnal bladder control
Home-cage activity in heterogeneous stock (HS) mice as a model of baseline activity ( Article )
1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Behavioral genetic work in humans indicates that clinical hyperactivity is best viewed as the extreme end of activity levels in the population. However, current animal models of hyperactivity are not studied as quantitative traitsas they are either knockout models or inbred strains. Furthermore, theseanimal models generally demonstrate elevated locomotion in novel environments, but not in their home-cages. This is the opposite of the symptoms seen in the human condition where childhood hyperactivity is generally more pronounced in constant, unstimulating situations. In this studywe filmed an outbred population of 44 heterogeneous stock (HS) mice underred light during their active phase, to assess the reliability of individual differences in home-cage behavior and extract an index of home-cageactivity (HCA) level. We then compared this measure to locomotor behavior in a novel environment--the open-field. Reliable individual differences in home-cage behaviors such as running, swinging on bars, and burrowing were found, and principal component factor analysis yielded a general activity factor, which accounted for 32% of the variance and correlated 0.90 with a subjective impression of activity level. The correlation between HCA and locomotor activity in the open-field was 0.23, which was non-significant. However, the association with HCA level appeared toincrease over the five minutes of the open-field, presumably as the mice habituated. Furthermore, although mice displaying particularly high and low HCA were indistinguishable early in the open-field task, they became significantly differentiated over time. We conclude that home-cage behaviors and the open-field, after habituation, display good face and construct validity, and may provide a good model of baseline activity for quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery and functional genomics in the HS mice
Scopolia carniolica Jaq., Joannes Antonius Scopoli and scopolamine by Michael J Galsworthy( Article )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
 
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English (12)
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