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Moser, Petra

Works: 22 works in 44 publications in 2 languages and 222 library holdings
Genres: History  Criticism, interpretation, etc 
Roles: Author, Thesis advisor
Classifications: PT2647.A64, 833.912
Publication Timeline
Publications about Petra Moser
Publications by Petra Moser
Most widely held works by Petra Moser
Do patent pools encourage innovation? evidence from the 19th-century sewing machine industry by Ryan L Lampe( file )
7 editions published in 2009 in English and held by 43 libraries worldwide
Members of a patent pool agree to use a set of patents as if they were jointly owned by all members and license them as a package to other firms. Regulators favor pools as a means to encourage innovation: Pools are expected to reduce litigation risks for their members and lower license fees and transactions costs for other firms. This paper uses the example of the first patent pool in U.S. history, the Sewing Machine Combination (1856-1877) to perform the first empirical test of the effects of a patent pool on innovation. Contrary to theoretical predictions, the sewing machine pool appears to have discouraged patenting and innovation, in particular for the members of the pool. Data on stitches per minute, as an objectively quantifiable measure of innovation, confirm these findings. Innovation for both members and outside firms slowed as soon as the pool had been established and resumed only after it had dissolved
Patent laws and innovation evidence from economic history by Petra Moser( file )
4 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 32 libraries worldwide
What is the optimal system of intellectual property rights to encourage innovation? Empirical evidence from economic history can help to inform important policy questions that have been difficult to answer with modern data: 1) Does the existence of strong patent laws encourage innovation? And 2) May patent laws influence the direction -- as opposed to the rate -- of technical change? Economic history can also help to shed light on the effectiveness of policy tools that are intended to address problems with the current patent system: 3) How do patent pools, as a mechanism to mitigate litigation risks, influence the creation of new technologies? 4) Will compulsory licensing, as a mechanism to improve access to essential innovations in developing countries, discourage innovation in the developing countries? This essay summarizes results of existing research and highlights promising areas for future research
Do patent pools encourage innovation? evidence from 20 U.S. industries under the New Deal by Ryan L Lampe( file )
4 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 31 libraries worldwide
Patent pools, which allow competing firms to combine their patents, have emerged as a prominent mechanism to resolve litigation when multiple firms own patents for the same technology. This paper takes advantage of a window of regulatory tolerance under the New Deal to investigate the effects of pools on innovation within 20 industries. Difference-in-differences regressions imply a 16 percent decline in patenting in response to the creation of a pool. This decline is driven by technology fields in which a pool combined patents for substitute technologies by competing firms, suggesting that unregulated pools may discourage innovation by weakening competition to improve substitutes
Nah am Tabu : Experimentelle Selbsterfahrung und erotischer Eigensinn in Robert Walsers "Jakob von Gunten" by Petra Moser( Book )
6 editions published between 2013 and 2014 in German and English and held by 29 libraries worldwide
Erstmals werden in diesem Buch die sexuellen und erotischen Motive in Robert Walsers" Jakob von Gunten"zum zentralen Gegenstand gemacht. Angesichts der aktuellen Debatte um den Missbrauch in pädagogischen Institutionen erscheint der Roman von 1909 auf überraschende Weise als Provokation: Bildung als Selbstexperiment jenseits der Norm. Robert Walsers Romanheld zeigt uns, dass dies möglich ist. Entschlossen," von aller hochmütigen Tradition abzufallen", tritt er in eine Dienerschule ein. Seine Existenz ist demütig und eigensinnig zugleich. In Konfrontation mit dem Schulleiter führt sie in die Nähe eines Tabus, zu einer erotisch aufgeladenen Lehrer-Schüler-Beziehung, bei der unklar bleibt, wer dominiert. Petra Moser zeigt die Entstehungsgeschichte des Textes auf und fragt nach dem bildungstheoretischen Gehalt dieses radikalen Anti-Bildungsromans - unter Einbeziehung bisher nicht erschlossener Quellen und unpublizierter Briefe Robert Walsers." Ein Aufeinandertreffen von Literatur und Pädagogik zu beider Gunsten."(Jürgen Oelkers)
Copyright and the profitability of authorship evidence from payments to writers in the Romantic period by Megan MacGarvie( file )
3 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 29 libraries worldwide
Proponents of stronger copyright terms have argued that stronger copyright terms encourage creativity by increasing the profitability of authorship. Empirical evidence, however, is scarce, because data on the profitability of authorship is typically not available to the public. Moreover at current copyright lengths of 70 years after the author's death, further extensions may not have any effects on the profitability of authorship. To investigate effects of copyright at lower pre-existing levels of protection, this chapter introduces a new data set of publishers' payments to authors of British fiction between 1800 and 1830. These data indicate that payments to authors nearly doubled following an increase in the length of copyright in 1814. These findings suggest that - starting from low pre-existing levels of protection - policies that strengthen copyright terms may, in fact, increase the profitability of authorship
German-Jewish emigres and U.S. invention by Petra Moser( file )
3 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 23 libraries worldwide
Historical accounts suggest that Jewish émigrés from Nazi Germany revolutionized U.S. science. To analyze the émigrés' effects on chemical innovation in the U.S. we compare changes in patenting by U.S. inventors in research fields of émigrés with fields of other German chemists. Patenting by U.S. inventors increased by 31 percent in émigré fields. Regressions that instrument for émigré fields with pre-1933 fields of dismissed German chemists confirm a substantial increase in U.S. invention. Inventor-level data indicate that émigrés encouraged innovation by attracting new researchers to their fields, rather than by increasing the productivity of incumbent inventors
Spatial errors in count data regressions by Marinho Bertanha( file )
2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Count data regressions are an important tool for empirical analyses ranging from analyses of patent counts to measures of health and unemployment. Along with negative binomial, Poisson panel regressions are a preferred method of analysis because the Poisson conditional fixed effects maximum likelihood estimator (PCFE) and its sandwich variance estimator are consistent even if the data are not Poisson-distributed, or if the data are correlated over time. Analyses of counts may be affected by correlation in the cross-section. For example, patent counts or publications may increase across related research fields in response to common shocks. This paper shows that the PCFE and its sandwich variance estimator are consistent in the presence of such dependence in the cross-section -- as long as spatial dependence is time-invariant. In addition to the PCFE, this result also applies to the commonly used Logit model of panel data with fixed effects. We develop a test for time-invariant spatial dependence and provide code in STATA and MATLAB to implement the test
Zeitlich hochaufgelöste emissionsspektroskopische Untersuchung des Verbrennungsvorgangs im Otto-Motor by Petra Möser( Book )
1 edition published in 1995 in German and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Regeneration and utilization of Faidherbia albida and Acacia erioloba along ephemeral rivers of Namibia by Petra Moser( Book )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 6 libraries worldwide
Taste-based discrimination : empirical evidence from a shock to preferences during WWI by Petra Moser( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
Prinzessin (N)Immerfroh : [ein Erlebnismärchen] ( Book )
1 edition published in 2004 in German and held by 2 libraries worldwide
The law and economics of generic drug regulation by Christopher Scott Hemphill( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
This dissertation examines the law and economics of generic drug entry, and the problems that arise from specific U.S. regulatory arrangements that govern innovation and competition in the market for patented pharmaceuticals. As Chapter 1 explains, competitive entry by generic drug makers is limited by both patents and industry-specific regulation, which together provide the means for brand-name drug makers to avoid competition and thereby recoup large investments in research, development, and testing. At the same time, the complex rules of the Hatch-Waxman Act furnish a pathway by which generic drug makers may challenge the validity or scope of brand-name patents, with a view to entering the market with a competing product prior to patent expiration. The subsequent chapters examine several aspects of the competitive interaction between brand-name and generic drug makers. Chapter 2 analyzes settlements of patent litigation between brand-name and generic drug makers, in which the brand-name firm pays the generic firm in exchange for delayed market entry. Such pay-for-delay settlements are an important, unresolved question in U.S. antitrust policy. The analysis reveals that the pay-for-delay settlement problem is more severe than has been commonly understood. Several specific features of the Act--in particular, a 180-day bounty granted to certain generic drug makers as an incentive to pursue pre-expiration entry--widen the potential for anticompetitive harm from pay-for-delay settlements, compared to the usual understanding. In addition, I show that settlements are "innovation inefficient" as a means of providing profits and hence ex ante innovation incentives to brand-name drug makers. To the extent that Congress established a preferred tradeoff between innovation and competition when it passed the Act, settlements that implement a different, less competition-protective tradeoff are particularly problematic from an antitrust standpoint. Chapter 3 synthesizes available public information about pay-for-delay settlements in order to offer a new account of the extent and evolution of settlement practice. The analysis draws upon a novel dataset of 143 such settlements. The analysis uncovers an evolution in the means by which a brand-name firm can pay a generic firm to delay entry, including a variety of complex "side deals" by which a brand-name firm can compensate a generic firm in a disguised fashion. It also reveals several novel forms of regulatory avoidance. The analysis in the chapter suggests that, as a matter of institutional choice, an expert agency is in a relatively good position to conduct the aggregate analysis needed to identify an optimal antitrust rule. Chapter 4 examines the co-evolution of increased brand-name patenting and increased generic pre-expiration challenges. It draws upon a second novel dataset of drug approvals, applications, patents, and other drug characteristics. Its first contribution is to chart the growth of patent portfolios and pre-expiration challenges. Over time, patenting has increased, measured by the number of patents per drug and the length of the nominal patent term. During the same period, challenges have increased as well, and drugs are challenged sooner, relative to brand-name approval. The analysis shows that brand-name sales, a proxy for the profitability of the drug, have a positive effect on the likelihood of generic challenge, consistent with the view that patents that later prove to be valuable receive greater ex post scrutiny. The likelihood of challenge also varies by patent type and timing of expiration. Conditional on sales and other drug characteristics, drugs with weaker patents, particularly those that expire later than a drug's basic compound patent, face a significantly higher likelihood of challenge. Though the welfare implications of Hatch-Waxman patent challenge provisions are complicated, these results suggest these challenges serve a useful purpose, in promoting scrutiny of low quality and late-expiring patents
Patent pools licensing strategies in the absence of regulation by Ryan Lampe( Article )
1 edition published in 2012 in Undetermined and held by 1 library worldwide
Lokale Agenda 21 Stadt Esslingen, Untersuchung zu den Fahrradparkmöglichkeiten am Esslinger Bahnhof by Anne Faßbender( Book )
1 edition published in 1999 in German and held by 1 library worldwide
Essays on international and innovation economics by Lisa Kamran Bilir( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This dissertation examines the influence of intellectual property institutions on cross-border economic activity. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the investment strategies of multinational firms in the presence of intellectual property risk. Chapter 3 examines the impact of patent treaties on international technology transfer. In Chapter 1, I develop a theoretical model of multinational firms' location and production decisions in the presence of cross-country differences in intellectual property rights and cross-sector differences in the length of product lifecycles. I show that patent reforms are irrelevant to firms' sourcing decisions in industries with rapid product turnover. By contrast, strong patent laws attract affiliate activity in industries with longer product lifecycles, because products in these industries are more likely to be imitated prior to obsolescence and are thus more reliant on patent enforcement to protect revenues. These effects are more pronounced for less-productive firms. Using comprehensive panel data on the sales, assets, and employment of U.S. multinationals and their affiliates abroad and a new measure of product obsolescence, I find robust empirical support for these predictions. Effects are significant along all margins of multinational activity, including multinational presence by country and sector, total affiliate sales conditional on presence, the number of affiliates, and affiliate-level sales. In addition, I find that stronger patent rights tilt the balance of cross-border activity away from exports and toward multinational activity. Finally, my identification strategy allows me to isolate the causal effect of patent reforms on multinational operations, which the prior literature has struggled to establish because of concurrent policy reforms. In Chapter 2, I develop a theory of global supply chains in the presence of imitation risk, where sectors vary in fragmentation costs and product obsolescence rates. The model provides detailed predictions regarding the sensitivity of multinationals' offshoring decisions to intellectual property rights abroad. In particular, when intellectual property rights abroad are strengthened, firms are found to increase the technology intensity and level of offshoring, with the largest effects in sectors with high fragmentation costs. Similar to Chapter 1, these effects are also larger in sectors with long product lifecycles. In addition, the model predicts that each firm determines the number of offshore countries involved in its supply chain based on a simple trade-off: on one hand, fragmentation allows the firm to better protect its intellectual property, but on the other hand, fragmentation generates increasing coordination costs. Chapter 3 examines the influence of the Paris Convention of 1883, the first international patent treaty, on the flow of patented technologies across countries; this chapter is co-authored with Petra Moser. U.S. accession to the Convention in 1887 strengthened patent protection for nationals from current treaty members, but had no effect on the patent rights of non-members. Data on over 86,000 U.S. patents granted between 1865 and 1914 indicate that strengthened intellectual property rights encouraged inventors from member countries to increase patenting in the United States, relative to inventors from non-member countries. The data also reveal that stronger intellectual property rights had the most significant effects on technology transfer from member countries with high pre-treaty levels of education and per-capita income. In addition, responsiveness to the Paris Convention was higher in industries that were more dependent on patent protection compared with industries that were less dependent on patents
Fremdwährungskredite : Quo Vadis? by Petra Moser( Book )
1 edition published in 2007 in German and held by 1 library worldwide
Freiraumgestaltung der Vogelmühle bei Waiblingen by Petra Moser( Book )
1 edition published in 1988 in German and held by 1 library worldwide
Pflege von Menschen mit Hemiplegie ( visu )
1 edition published in 1988 in Undetermined and held by 1 library worldwide
Prizes and the publication of ideas by Petra Moser( Archival Material )
1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
We examine whether prizes encourage innovation and, if so, how. We compare changes in U.S. patents per year for technology areas where U.S. inventors won prizes for exceptional innovations at the World's Fair in London in 1851 with technology areas where U.S. inventors exhibited but did not win a prize. We also compare changes in technology areas for inventions that were advertised in 1851 as lead articles in the Scientific American, a major science journal of the time. We find comparable increases in invention after 1851 through prizes and publication relative to other U.S. technologies. Since the signaling component of a World's Fair prize was replicated through publication of an invention in the Scientific American, our results suggest that publicity for promising research fields is an important mechanism by which prizes encourage innovation
Essays on development economics by Nadeem Mahedi Karmali( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This dissertation is comprised of three chapters, all of which deal with topics in development economics. The first chapter explores the extent to which ability accounts for the observed differences in private school test scores versus public school test scores. The second chapter looks at the effects of an exogenous indigo price change in the nineteenth century on innovation. Finally, the third chapter looks at victims of violence during a civil war and tests whether victims of violence are targeted for their wealth, and particularly if this is the case for more liquid households. In school choice, and between private and public schools, sorting plays an important role. A sharp general equilibrium model of school choice is employed in Chapter 1 to estimate how much of the difference between private and public school test scores is due to ability differences. By calibrating a general equilibrium model and combining it with the universe of grade 8 test scores from Kenya across ten years, a distributional analysis is conducted to estimate the private school effect after controlling for ability sorting. Using the equilibrium distributions of ability from the model, the results suggest that, in the base case, the robust one standard deviation difference in test scores reduces to 0.50 standard deviations once heterogeneous ability is accounted for in each sector. Furthermore there is strong evidence that higher ability students perform better at private schools. Induced innovation, the idea that a relative change in factor prices will lead to innovation of the factor that has become relatively expensive, has strong theoretical foundations but scant empirical evidence. Chapter 2 uses the historical events of riots in Bengal, India and the American Civil War both in close succession in the late nineteenth century, to show how these events increased prices of natural indigo and induced innovation in synthetic colors. Identification comes from the substitutability of synthetic colors for natural colors. In terms of numbers, the induced effect is estimated to be an extra 97 patents, or roughly one fifth of the existing patents in dyeing at the time. Chapter 3 considers the determinants of violence in Sudan with a unique household dataset to characterize the degree to which victims are targeted for economic reasons. Wealthier households are found to have disproportionately worse outcomes across both physical (e.g. loss of assets) and human (e.g. personal injury) measures of the impact of the conflict. This pattern of targeting is robust, and furthermore there is evidence that violence was especially targeted at those who had lootable wealth
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English (30)
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