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Moser, Petra

Overview
Works: 24 works in 27 publications in 2 languages and 70 library holdings
Genres: History  Biography 
Roles: Author, Editor, Thesis advisor
Classifications: LB775.W952, 370
Publication Timeline
Key
Publications about Petra Moser
Publications by Petra Moser
Most widely held works by Petra Moser
Kritik der Kindheit Eine Apologie des 'pädagogischen Eros' by Gustav Wyneken( Book )
2 editions published in 2015 in German and held by 23 libraries worldwide
Zeitlich hochaufgelöste emissionsspektroskopische Untersuchung des Verbrennungsvorgangs im Otto-Motor by Petra Möser( Book )
1 edition published in 1995 in German and held by 10 libraries worldwide
Regeneration and utilization of Faidherbia albida and Acacia erioloba along ephemeral rivers of Namibia by Petra Moser( Book )
1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 7 libraries worldwide
Taste-based discrimination : empirical evidence from a shock to preferences during WWI by Petra Moser( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2009 in English and held by 3 libraries worldwide
Prinzessin (N)Immerfroh : [ein Erlebnismärchen] ( Book )
1 edition published in 2004 in German and held by 2 libraries worldwide
The law and economics of generic drug regulation by Christopher Scott Hemphill( file )
1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
This dissertation examines the law and economics of generic drug entry, and the problems that arise from specific U.S. regulatory arrangements that govern innovation and competition in the market for patented pharmaceuticals. As Chapter 1 explains, competitive entry by generic drug makers is limited by both patents and industry-specific regulation, which together provide the means for brand-name drug makers to avoid competition and thereby recoup large investments in research, development, and testing. At the same time, the complex rules of the Hatch-Waxman Act furnish a pathway by which generic drug makers may challenge the validity or scope of brand-name patents, with a view to entering the market with a competing product prior to patent expiration. The subsequent chapters examine several aspects of the competitive interaction between brand-name and generic drug makers. Chapter 2 analyzes settlements of patent litigation between brand-name and generic drug makers, in which the brand-name firm pays the generic firm in exchange for delayed market entry. Such pay-for-delay settlements are an important, unresolved question in U.S. antitrust policy. The analysis reveals that the pay-for-delay settlement problem is more severe than has been commonly understood. Several specific features of the Act--in particular, a 180-day bounty granted to certain generic drug makers as an incentive to pursue pre-expiration entry--widen the potential for anticompetitive harm from pay-for-delay settlements, compared to the usual understanding. In addition, I show that settlements are "innovation inefficient" as a means of providing profits and hence ex ante innovation incentives to brand-name drug makers. To the extent that Congress established a preferred tradeoff between innovation and competition when it passed the Act, settlements that implement a different, less competition-protective tradeoff are particularly problematic from an antitrust standpoint. Chapter 3 synthesizes available public information about pay-for-delay settlements in order to offer a new account of the extent and evolution of settlement practice. The analysis draws upon a novel dataset of 143 such settlements. The analysis uncovers an evolution in the means by which a brand-name firm can pay a generic firm to delay entry, including a variety of complex "side deals" by which a brand-name firm can compensate a generic firm in a disguised fashion. It also reveals several novel forms of regulatory avoidance. The analysis in the chapter suggests that, as a matter of institutional choice, an expert agency is in a relatively good position to conduct the aggregate analysis needed to identify an optimal antitrust rule. Chapter 4 examines the co-evolution of increased brand-name patenting and increased generic pre-expiration challenges. It draws upon a second novel dataset of drug approvals, applications, patents, and other drug characteristics. Its first contribution is to chart the growth of patent portfolios and pre-expiration challenges. Over time, patenting has increased, measured by the number of patents per drug and the length of the nominal patent term. During the same period, challenges have increased as well, and drugs are challenged sooner, relative to brand-name approval. The analysis shows that brand-name sales, a proxy for the profitability of the drug, have a positive effect on the likelihood of generic challenge, consistent with the view that patents that later prove to be valuable receive greater ex post scrutiny. The likelihood of challenge also varies by patent type and timing of expiration. Conditional on sales and other drug characteristics, drugs with weaker patents, particularly those that expire later than a drug's basic compound patent, face a significantly higher likelihood of challenge. Though the welfare implications of Hatch-Waxman patent challenge provisions are complicated, these results suggest these challenges serve a useful purpose, in promoting scrutiny of low quality and late-expiring patents
Does compulsory licensing discourage invention? : evidence From German patents after WWI by Joerg Baten( Book )
2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 2 libraries worldwide
This paper investigates whether compulsory licensing -- which allows governments to license patents without the consent of patent-owners -- discourages invention. Our analysis exploits new historical data on German patents to examine the effects of compulsory licensing under the US Trading-with-the-Enemy Act on invention in Germany. We find that compulsory licensing was associated with a 28 percent increase in invention. Historical evidence indicates that, as a result of war-related demands, fields with licensing were negatively selected, so OLS estimates may underestimate the positive effects of compulsory licensing on future inventions
Spatial Errors in Count Data Regressions by Marinho Bertanha( Book )
1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Count data regressions are an important tool for empirical analyses ranging from analyses of patent counts to measures of health and unemployment. Along with negative binomial, Poisson panel regressions are a preferred method of analysis because the Poisson conditional fixed effects maximum likelihood estimator (PCFE) and its sandwich variance estimator are consistent even if the data are not Poisson-distributed, or if the data are correlated over time. Analyses of counts may be affected by correlation in the cross-section. For example, patent counts or publications may increase across related research fields in response to common shocks. This paper shows that the PCFE and its sandwich variance estimator are consistent in the presence of such dependence in the cross-section - as long as spatial dependence is time-invariant. In addition to the PCFE, this result also applies to the commonly used Logit model of panel data with fixed effects. We develop a test for time-invariant spatial dependence and provide code in STATA and MATLAB to implement the test
Essays on international and innovation economics by Lisa Kamran Bilir( Computer File )
1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This dissertation examines the influence of intellectual property institutions on cross-border economic activity. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the investment strategies of multinational firms in the presence of intellectual property risk. Chapter 3 examines the impact of patent treaties on international technology transfer. In Chapter 1, I develop a theoretical model of multinational firms' location and production decisions in the presence of cross-country differences in intellectual property rights and cross-sector differences in the length of product lifecycles. I show that patent reforms are irrelevant to firms' sourcing decisions in industries with rapid product turnover. By contrast, strong patent laws attract affiliate activity in industries with longer product lifecycles, because products in these industries are more likely to be imitated prior to obsolescence and are thus more reliant on patent enforcement to protect revenues. These effects are more pronounced for less-productive firms. Using comprehensive panel data on the sales, assets, and employment of U.S. multinationals and their affiliates abroad and a new measure of product obsolescence, I find robust empirical support for these predictions. Effects are significant along all margins of multinational activity, including multinational presence by country and sector, total affiliate sales conditional on presence, the number of affiliates, and affiliate-level sales. In addition, I find that stronger patent rights tilt the balance of cross-border activity away from exports and toward multinational activity. Finally, my identification strategy allows me to isolate the causal effect of patent reforms on multinational operations, which the prior literature has struggled to establish because of concurrent policy reforms. In Chapter 2, I develop a theory of global supply chains in the presence of imitation risk, where sectors vary in fragmentation costs and product obsolescence rates. The model provides detailed predictions regarding the sensitivity of multinationals' offshoring decisions to intellectual property rights abroad. In particular, when intellectual property rights abroad are strengthened, firms are found to increase the technology intensity and level of offshoring, with the largest effects in sectors with high fragmentation costs. Similar to Chapter 1, these effects are also larger in sectors with long product lifecycles. In addition, the model predicts that each firm determines the number of offshore countries involved in its supply chain based on a simple trade-off: on one hand, fragmentation allows the firm to better protect its intellectual property, but on the other hand, fragmentation generates increasing coordination costs. Chapter 3 examines the influence of the Paris Convention of 1883, the first international patent treaty, on the flow of patented technologies across countries; this chapter is co-authored with Petra Moser. U.S. accession to the Convention in 1887 strengthened patent protection for nationals from current treaty members, but had no effect on the patent rights of non-members. Data on over 86,000 U.S. patents granted between 1865 and 1914 indicate that strengthened intellectual property rights encouraged inventors from member countries to increase patenting in the United States, relative to inventors from non-member countries. The data also reveal that stronger intellectual property rights had the most significant effects on technology transfer from member countries with high pre-treaty levels of education and per-capita income. In addition, responsiveness to the Paris Convention was higher in industries that were more dependent on patent protection compared with industries that were less dependent on patents
Freiraumgestaltung der Vogelmühle bei Waiblingen by Petra Moser( Book )
1 edition published in 1988 in German and held by 1 library worldwide
Was electricity a general purpose technology? evidence from historical patent citations by Petra Moser( Article )
1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Patent citations and the size of the inventive step : evidence from hybrid corn by Petra Moser( Book )
2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Patents are the main source of data on innovation, but there are persistent concerns that patents may be a noisy and biased measure. An important challenge arises from unobservable variation in the size of the inventive step that is covered by a patent. The count of later patents that cite a patent as relevant prior art -- so called forward citations -- have become the standard measure to control for such variation. Citations may, however, also be a noisy and biased measure for the size of the inventive step. To address this issue, this paper examines field trial data for patented improvements in hybrid corn. Field trials report objective measures for improvements in hybrid corn, which we use to quantify the size of the inventive step. These data show a robust correlation between citations and improvements in yields, as the bottom line measure for improvements in hybrid corn. This correlation is robust to alternative measures for improvements in hybrid corn, and a broad range of other tests.We also investigate the process, by which patents generate citations. This analysis reveals that hybrids that serve as an input for genetically-related follow-on inventions are more likely to receive self-citations (by the same firm), which suggests that self-citations are a good predictor for follow-on invention
How do patent laws influence innovation? evidence from nineteenth-century world's fairs by Petra Moser( Article )
1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
Patent pools licensing strategies in the absence of regulation by Ryan Lampe( Article )
1 edition published in 2012 in Undetermined and held by 1 library worldwide
Lokale Agenda 21 Stadt Esslingen, Untersuchung zu den Fahrradparkmöglichkeiten am Esslinger Bahnhof by Anne Faßbender( Book )
1 edition published in 1999 in German and held by 1 library worldwide
Fremdwährungskredite : Quo Vadis? by Petra Moser( Book )
1 edition published in 2007 in German and held by 1 library worldwide
Essays in public and labor economics by Frédéric Panier( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This thesis is composed of three empirical papers in the field of labor and public economics. The first paper uses historical data from the New-York Stock Exchange to investigate the importance of ethnic discrimination, ethnic networks and ethnic homophily in the field of finance. The second paper studies the role of parental insurance on the job search behavior of new entrants in the labor market. It also uses parental shocks around the time of the child's entry into the labor force as an instrument to test for the existence of persistent effects from a temporary increase in job search effort at the beginning of a worker's career. The third paper takes advantage of an important tax reform that took place in Belgium in 2006 to answer a longstanding question in the field of public economics and corporate finance: what is the role of corporate taxes in determining the observed levels of leverage among incorporated firms
Pflege von Menschen mit Hemiplegie ( visu )
1 edition published in 1988 in Undetermined and held by 1 library worldwide
Essays in the economics of education and innovation by Nicola Bianchi( file )
1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 library worldwide
This dissertation contains three essays on the economics of education and innovation. In the first essay, I study the effects of increased access to higher education by examining a dramatic 1961 Italian reform that increased university enrollment in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields by more than 200 percent in a few years. The peculiar features of the reform allow me to identify students who were unaffected, directly affected, and indirectly affected. They also allow me to identify key channels through which the effects ran. Using data I collected from tax returns and hand-written transcripts on more than 27,000 students, I show that the direct effects of the reform were as intended: many more students enrolled and many more obtained degrees. However, I also find that those induced to enroll earned no more than students in earlier cohorts who were denied access to university. I reconcile these surprising results by showing that the education expansion reduced returns to skill and lowered university learning through congestion and peer effects. I also demonstrate that apparently inframarginal students were significantly affected: the most able of them abandoned STEM majors rather than accept lower returns and lower human capital. The promotion of STEM education, realized by inducing more students to enroll in university STEM majors, might have large positive externalities by fostering the production of innovation. In the second essay (joint work with Michela Giorcelli), we use the 1961 Italian reform of college admissions as a positive shock to the amount of STEM workers in the economy. We isolate the effect of the policy on invention using a variety of techniques. At the individual level, we link the school and income data of students that were in school around the policy implementation with information on each Italian patent that they owned or developed. At the national level, we exploit differential increases of STEM skills in municipalities that were at varying distance from a STEM school. In both cases, we do not find strong evidence that easier access to university STEM majors led to higher level of patenting. In the third essay (joint work with Joerg Baten and Petra Moser), we investigate whether compulsory licensing - which allows governments to license patents with- out the consent of patent-owners - discourages invention. Our analysis exploits new historical data on German patents to examine the effects of compulsory licensing under the US Trading-with-the-Enemy Act on invention in Germany. We find that compulsory licensing was associated with a 28 percent increase in invention. Historical evidence indicates that, as a result of war-related demands, fields with licensing were negatively selected, so that OLS estimates may underestimate the positive effects of compulsory licensing on future inventions
Patents and innovation in economic history by Petra Moser( file )
1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 0 libraries worldwide
A strong tradition in economic history, which primarily relies on qualitative evidence and statistical correlations, has emphasized the importance of patents as a primary driver of innovation. Recent improvements in empirical methodology -- through the creation of new data sets and advances in identification -- have produced research that challenges this traditional view. The findings of this literature provide a more nuanced view of the effects of intellectual property, and suggest that when patent rights have been too broad or strong, they have actually discouraged innovation. This paper summarizes the major results from this research and presents open questions
 
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Languages
English (14)
German (7)
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