The Science of Uniform and Unconditional Reality
By Terence Witt


Copyright © 2007 Terence Witt
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-9785931-3-1

Chapter One



The Big Bang is by no means the only hypothesis offered to account for the universe's existence. There are a number of other explanations, referred to by mainstream theorists as alternative cosmologies, that have aspirations of competing with the current paradigm. Let's begin our investigation by comparing and contrasting all of the most prominent theories available prior to the introduction of Null Physics. They are (in descending order of popularity):

Big Bang Cosmology (quantitative)

Quasi Steady State Cosmology (quantitative)

Plasma Cosmology (qualitative)

Machian Cosmology (qualitative)

Cosmologies are identified as either quantitative or qualitative theories, based on their approach. Quantitative theories are the hallmark of science; here calculations can be performed based on formal premises and compared to experimental results. Qualitative theories focus on the philosophical incompleteness and observational failures of quantitative theories, and generally have a foundation too poorly defined to allow for a definitive assessment of their own premises. Speculation is easy; there are countless possibilities for every reality. The hard part is matching an idea to nature.

Let's review all of these theories from the standpoint of a critical outsider with no vested interest other than curiosity about the true nature of reality. In the comparison to follow, responses of each theory to key cosmological observations are included, as well as the contemporary physical principles they violate (something common in theories requiring a primordial universe where the rules are different from our current universe).

One of the most prevalent limitations of modern cosmology is the uncertainty of its data. The Hubble constant is thought to contain as much as 50% error, but the actual error range is unknown. Other universal parameters, like average matter density, are barely known to the nearest order of magnitude. The only cosmological measurement with any reasonable degree of accuracy is the intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation field. This being the prevailing environment, our comparison among different cosmologies will focus on observationally known aspects of the universe - phenomena whose existence is beyond a reasonable amount of doubt. Dark energy, relic neutrinos, and other hypothetical entities will not be addressed.

As it turns out, the indisputable facts of the large-scale universe are few:

CMB: There is a diffuse background of microwave radiation permeating the known limits of space. Its spectrum is that of a perfect 2.724 ��K blackbody with slight intensity fluctuations (~18 ��K) distributed randomly across the entire sky. This field also has a dipole anisotropy (opposing blueshift/redshift) corresponding to Earth's motion through it at 370 km/s:


The horizontal red streak in Figure (1.1) is the microwave emission along the plane of our own galaxy, the Milky Way.

Elements: The universe's material is composed of a wide variety of elements, 92 of which occur naturally on Earth. Hydrogen makes up the majority of the luminous universe, ~70% by mass, helium is the second most abundant, at ~25%, and all of the other elements comprise the remaining ~5%.

Redshift: The light from distant objects is redshifted in (roughly) direct proportion to the distance of the object. The Hubble constant defines the ratio of redshift to distance.

Structure: Most of the universe's material is concentrated in galaxies of various types, ~30% of which are spiral like our own. Ellipticals and lenticulars are the most common galactic morphologies, and tend to congregate into clusters and superclusters, which in turn form the walls of a foam-like structure of interconnected cells stretching throughout the observable universe. These cells are about 100 to 300 Mly (million light years) in diameter, as shown below:


The interiors of these intergalactic cells consist of empty intergalactic space sprinkled with a few isolated galaxies.

Olbers: Named after the famous astronomer Henrick Olbers, Olbers' paradox is a problem of astrophysical thermodynamics. The luminous energy given off by stars heats space. Any cosmology supporting an infinitely old universe must deal with the unchecked accumulation of this energy.

How do our cosmologies account for these basic facts?


Reference: Principles of Physical Cosmology, P.J. Peebles.

Theorist(s): George Gamov, Ralph Alpher, Robert Herman, 1946.

Premise: The universe is a solution to the field equations of General Relativity. It emerged as a rapidly expanding mote of pure energy/space about 13.7 billion years ago. Its frenetic initial growth is known as the inflationary period. This was followed by a slowly accelerating expansion that resulted in a steady decrease in energy density. The sequence of events associated with the universe's adiabatic expansion is (1) separation of the four universal forces from a single unifying force; (2) formation of elementary particles from pure energy; (3) formation of selected light isotopes, such as helium; and (4) formation of initial stars/proto-galaxies, galaxies, and large structures. The continued and accelerating expansion of the universe is powered by a cosmic abundance of dark energy.

Violation(s): Conservation of energy and gravitation (antigravitational dark energy).

CMB: Microwaves are the relic radiation generated from the formation of helium during the first few moments of the universe's birth. They have a thermal distribution because when the universe was young, matter was so dense that photons were in thermal equilibrium with it. Universal expansion has occurred in just such a way as to preserve this thermal spectrum even though the wavelengths of its component photons have expanded by a factor of over a thousand.

Elements: Selected light elements arose immediately after the initial formation of matter. All other elements are produced in stellar interiors as a normal consequence of fusion, by supernovae, or through the collision of cosmic rays with other elements.

Redshift: Energy loss in light from distant celestial objects is caused by the recession velocities of universal expansion. This expansion is uniform, so an observer located in any galaxy would see the same redshift effect in all directions.

Structure: Quantum fluctuations in the primordial energy density.

Olbers: The paradox is avoided by the expansion of the universe into progressively larger volume, reducing the energy density of the light released by stars.

Comments: This is a complicated theory. The reason gravity is listed as a violation is because the antigravity required for universal expansion has never been experimentally verified. Energy conservation is listed as a violation because no known interactions create or destroy energy. Cosmologists claim the Big Bang doesn't violate conservation; they maintain that the universe's total energy is offset by its own negative gravitational potential. This is fantasy. The creation of even the smallest amount of energy, along with a comparable amount of negative gravitational potential, has never been observed. The other way to resolve the conservation problem is for the Big Bang to originate from a prior universe, but this only leads to additional theoretical fabrication. And the issues keep coming. The origin of the elements is a problem, as it is difficult to envision why only a few specific light elements were created in the beginning. Current stellar models require heavy elements to initiate fusion, so one wonders how the first stars were able to ignite in their absence. Also, since there are billions of galaxies containing billions of stars, all burning hydrogen into helium, the ratio of primordial helium to recently minted helium is yet another complication and its value is arbitrary. Finally, there are no cases in our contemporary universe where a redshifted thermal spectrum remains thermal. A detailed explanation is given for how the CMB remains perfectly thermal after a redshift of over a thousand, but this just adds to the artificiality and complexity of this model. The Big Bang is an ad hoc, retrospective theory. In the final analysis it doesn't even address causation, so it doesn't explain why the universe exists. Everything else is incidental.


Reference: A Different Approach to Cosmology, Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge, Jayant Narlikar.

Theorist(s): Hermann Bondi, Thomas Gold, Fred Holye, 1948.

Premise: The universe is a solution to the field equations of General Relativity. It has cyclical periods of expansion and is of indeterminate age and size. Matter is continuously created as either a by-product of, or driving force behind, universal expansion. New matter accumulates into stars and galaxies, expanding outward under the influence of antigravitational potential.

Violation(s): Conservation of energy and gravitation (antigravitational component).

CMB: Cosmic microwaves are an equilibrium concentration of the luminous energy given off by fusion. They are thermalized into the CMB spectrum by their interaction with the tiny iron whiskers that supernovae explosions release throughout space.

Elements: All elements are formed in stellar interiors or through the collision of cosmic rays with other elements.

Redshift: Energy loss in light from distant celestial objects is caused by the recession velocities of universal expansion. This expansion is uniform, so an observer located in any galaxy would see the same redshift effect in all directions.

Structure: Built slowly over hundreds of billions of years (or longer) by the interaction of matter in deep space.

Olbers: Expansion of the universe into larger volume maintains universal temperature.

Comments: This theory is in some ways identical to the Big Bang and in other ways entirely divergent. It relies on a hypothetical antigravitational force for universal expansion, but also needs an additional unknown mechanism for the continuous creation of matter. Observationally, the known fraction of universal helium corresponds fairly well to the CMB's energy density. In other words, if hydrogen were continuously created and burned, the energy density it generated would be close to the CMB's current value. The iron whisker hypothesis for thermalizing the CMB is suspect but more scientific than the Big Bang's explanation because it is at least testable in a contemporary universe. The continuous creation of matter is difficult to support either theoretically or empirically. Like the Big Bang, this theory provides no explanation for why the universe exists.


Reference: The Big Bang Never Happened, Eric Lerner.

Theorist(s): Hannes Alfv��n (Worlds-Antiworlds, 1966), Oskar Klein, 1961.

Premise: The universe is governed by electromagnetism, not gravitation. It is infinitely large and expanding. Its expansion is caused by a universal interaction between matter and antimatter. Electric currents define the universe's large-scale structure because plasma interactions cause the formation of stars, galaxies, and superclusters. The internal motion of galaxies is more in keeping with electromagnetic force than gravitation. The universe could not possibly be 13.7 billion years old since many massive celestial structures such as the Great Wall required hundreds of billions of years to form.

Violation(s): None.

CMB: This is the ambient radiation given off by the cosmic power grid. The solar wind of the universe's stars creates huge electrical currents in deep space. These currents, in turn, form galaxies and emit and absorb microwave radiation. This radiation is thermalized by scattering with microfilaments (plasma artifacts) or iron whiskers in deep space.

Elements: Not specifically referenced.

Redshift: Energy loss in light from distant celestial objects is caused by the recession velocities incurred during a cyclical and violent interaction between matter and antimatter.

Structure: Created by condensation and distribution of intergalactic plasma filaments.

Olbers: Not specifically referenced.

Comments: This theory seems more a counterpoint to specific aspects of the Big Bang than a cosmology of its own merit. The CMB, which can be measured more accurately than any other cosmic parameter, is only given incidental consideration. One is given to wonder how "microfilaments" of plasma can exist in deep space when there is essentially no material there. Plasma requires the motion of charged particles along magnetic and electric fields. Certainly such fields exist in deep space but charged particles are few and far in between. No calculations are presented that relate universal currents with the power needed to control the "nongravitational" motion of galaxies. As was the case with the other cosmologies, no reason is forthcoming about why the universe exists.


Reference: Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science, Halton Arp.

Theorist(s): Halton Arp, 1980.

Premise: The universe is arbitrarily large and not expanding. Matter is continuously created in areas of high density, such as the cores of stars and galaxies, and its elementary character changes over time. New particles emerge with a mass of zero and acquire their mass through a light-speed interaction with preexisting matter (based on Ernst Mach's concept of inertial mass). At a certain age, matter becomes unstable and disintegrates.

Violation(s): Conservation of energy.

CMB: Microwaves are an equilibrium concentration of the light energy given off by fusion. They are thermalized by some operator (perhaps iron whiskers) in extragalactic space.

Elements: Not specifically referenced.

Redshift: Energy loss in light from distant celestial objects is caused by the relationship between the age and mass of elementary particles. The farther the object, the younger the object was when it emitted the light we observe. Since the mass of particles has increased over time, objects farther away emit spectra of lower energy, appearing uniformly redshifted.

Structure: New matter, continuously created, acts like a superfluid with eddies of structure.

Olbers: Not specifically referenced.

Comments: This theory is certainly original. To say the mass of particles spontaneously increases over time, thereby changing the spectra of elements, is a novel approach for explaining intergalactic redshift. The only law it really violates is energy conservation, but the mechanics of having protons and electrons proportionately gain mass makes this theory in some ways more complex than the Big Bang. It eliminates universal expansion because redshift is directly proportional to the transit time of celestial light, yet doesn't reference Olbers' paradox, and any steady state theory ought to. There is little to no formal development of equations for any of the processes cited in the theory, and the CMB is mentioned in passing as if it were an unimportant phenomenon. Quasars are treated as local objects ejected from galactic cores. The entire theory is qualitative and for the most part untestable. It fails to explain why the universe exists in the first place.


Excerpted from OUR UNDISCOVERED UNIVERSE Introducing Null Physicsby Terence Witt Copyright © 2007 by Terence Witt. Excerpted by permission.
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