<br><h3> Chapter One </h3> <b>The Definition of an Architect</b> <p> <p> <i>He looked at the granite. To be cut, he thought, and made into walls. He looked at a tree. To be split and made into rafters. He looked at a streak of rust on the stone and thought of iron ore under the ground. To be melted and to emerge as girders against the sky. These rocks, he thought, are here for me; waiting for the drill, the dynamite and my voice; waiting to be split, ripped, pounded, reborn, waiting for the shape of my hands will give to them.</i> <p> Ayn Rand, The Fountainhead <p> <p> <b>AFTER READING THE PRECEDING TEXT</b> from <i>The Fountainhead</i> by Ayn Rand, what are your thoughts and feelings? Can you relate to the main character, Howard Roark, in this passage? Are you overcome with the possibilities of creating with the materials around you? <p> Do you want to be an architect? Do you wish to study architecture? If your answer is "Yes" to any of these questions, this book is for you. <p> What is the definition of an architect? <i>The American Heritage Dictionary</i> defines <i>architect</i> as: <p> 1. One who designs and supervises the construction of buildings or other structures. <i>r-ki-tekt,</i> n. [MF architecte, fr. L architectus, fr. Gk architekton master builder, fr. Archi+ tekton builder] <p> <p> Of course, this definition simply scratches the surface. Becoming and being an architect are much more. <p> <p> <b>What Do Architects Do</b> <p> People need places in which to live, work, play, learn, worship, meet, govern, shop, eat-private and public spaces, indoors and out; rooms, buildings, and complexes; neighborhoods and towns; suburbs and cities. Architects, professionals trained in the art and science of building design and licensed to protect public health, safety, and welfare, transform these needs into concepts and then develop the concepts into building images that can be constructed by others. <p> In designing buildings, architects communicate with and assist those who have needs-clients, users, and the public as a whole-and those who will make the spaces that satisfy those needs-builders and contractors, plumbers and painters, carpenters, and air conditioning mechanics. <p> Whether the project is a room or a city, a new building or the renovation of an old one, architects provide the professional services-ideas and insights, design and technical knowledge, drawings and specifications, administration, coordination, and informed decision making-whereby an extraordinary range of functional, aesthetic, technological, economic, human, environmental, and safety factors are melded into a coherent and appropriate solution to the problems at hand. <p> But how does an architect truly design? It begins with a client with the need for a building, a project. To design and build this project, an architect follows the architectural design process. This process begins with the schematic design phase, with the architect first gaining an understanding of the scope of the project to be built from the client. With the program determined, the architect develops preliminary concepts and ideas for the project and presents these to the client for approval or revision. In addition, the architect researches zoning or other restrictions. Next is the design development phase. <p> In design development, the initial concepts and ideas are further refined. The architect begins to determine the building materials of the project as well as detailing the mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and structural aspects of the project. The architect will formally present the project, at this stage of development, to the client for approval. Next is the construction document phase. <p> During construction document phase, the architect produces detailed drawings and specifications of the project to be used for construction. These construction documents include all pertinent information necessary for construction. Once completed, the construction documents (CDs) are sent to potential contractors for bidding. Next is the bid or negotiation phase. <p> In preparation for actual construction, the architect prepares the bid documents. The bid documents include a number of documents for potential contractors to use in preparing a bid (cost estimate) to construct the project. Once bids are received from contractors, the architect will assist the client in evaluating and selecting the winning proposal. In the end, a contract is awarded to the selected bidder, which allows construction to begin. Next is the construction phase. <p> During construction, the architect's responsibilities will vary depending on the agreement with the client, but most commonly the architect will assist the contractor to construct the project as specified in the construction documents. As questions or issues arise on the construction site, the architect is there to address them. Depending on the issue, the architect may be required to issue additional drawings. <p> Thus, an architect must be equipped with a number of talents and skills to take a project from its initial idea to final construction. In the profession, almost all projects are undertaken by an architectural firm consisting of teams of architects, related professionals, and consultants, although there may be some smaller projects, usually residential, that might be led by a sole architect. <p> <p> <b>Why Architecture?</b> <p> Why do you desire to become an architect? Have you been building with Legos since you were two? Did a counselor suggest architecture to you because of a strong interest and skills in mathematics and art? Or are there other reasons? Aspiring architects cite a love of drawing, creating, and designing; a desire to make a difference in the community; an aptitude for mathematics and science; or a connection to a family member in the profession. Whatever your reason, are you suited to become an architect? <p> <p> <b>Is Architecture for You</b> <p> How do you know if the pursuit of architecture is right for you? Those within the profession suggest that if you are creative or artistic and good in mathematics and science, you may have what it takes to be a successful architect. However, Dana Cuff, author of <i>Architecture: The Story of Practice,</i> suggests it takes more: <p> There are two qualities that neither employers nor educators can instill and without which, it is assumed, one cannot become a "good" architect: dedication and talent. Dana Cuff <p> <p> Because of the breadth of skills and talents necessary to be an architect, you may be able to find your niche within the profession regardless. It takes three attributes to be a successful architecture student-intelligence, creativity, and dedication-and you need any two of the three. Also, your education will develop your knowledge base and design talents. <p> Unfortunately, there is no magic test to determine if becoming an architect is for you. Perhaps the most effective way to determine if you should consider becoming an architect is to experience the profession firsthand. Ask lots of questions and recognize that many related career fields might also be appropriate for you. <p> <p> <b><i>What is architecture?</i></b> <p> > The creation of space. <p> <b><i>John W. Myefski, AIA, Principal, Myefski Cook Architects, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the physical and spiritual transformation of chaos into order, darkness into light, and space into place. <p> <b><i>Nathan Kipnis, AIA, Principal, Nathan Kipnis Architects, Inc.</i></b> <p> > As a creative science, architecture is the marriage of art and science. <p> <b><i>Lisa A. Swan, Residential Designer, Design Forward</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the design and manipulation of the built environment to create a sense of place. It is a confluence of science and art that addresses programmatic and aesthetic requirements within the constraints of budget, schedule, life safety, and social responsibility. <p> <b><i>Robert D. Roubik, AIA, LEED AP, Project Architect, Antunovich Associates Architects and Planners</i></b> <p> > To me, architecture is anything that can be designed-a chair, a light fixture, a website, a logo, a building, or a city. <p> <b><i>William J. Carpenter, Ph.D., FAIA, Associate Professor, Southern Polytechnic State University; President, Lightroom</i></b> <p> > Architecture is an attempt to consciously control the built environment through the balanced application of art and science. Those of us who practice architecture orchestrate economics, politics, art, and technology exclusively to create objects that impact the physical world we inhabit. <p> <b><i>W. Stephen Saunders, AIA, Principal, Eckenhoff Saunders Architects, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the design and construction of forms to create space. <p> <b><i>Margaret DeLeeuw, Marketing Director, Celli-Flynn Brennan Architects & Planners</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the result of all that is conceived, planned, and created by an architect. It involves taking leadership in the process of working with a client, societal, or business challenge, identifying and defining the specific problems and opportunities for that challenge, and then synthesizing them into the most basic components and developing solution alternatives. Architecture is the result of using this process under the direction of a technically knowledgeable professional. <p> <b><i>Randall J. Tharp, RA, Senior Vice-President, A. Epstein and Sons International, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the built environments that shape the daily lives of people. <p> <b><i>Grace H. Kim, AIA, Principal, Schemata Workshop, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is a passion, a vocation, a calling. It has been described as a social art and an artful science. Architecture creates space and formalizes relationships in the built environment. Architecture enriches and affects lives; it is both personal and public. Architecture provides great opportunity yet requires extreme discipline, restraint, and skill. Creativity, problem solving, a deep understanding of the objectives and underlying issues, and sensitivity to the effected environments (physical, social, economic) are key traits. Architecture creates form and inspires the future. <p> <b><i>Catherine McNeel Florreich, Associate AIA, Architectural Intern, Eley Guild Hardy Architects, PA</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the special place, the extraordinary space that enriches our lives. <p> <b><i>Diane Blair Black, AIA, Vice-President, RTKL Associates, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the forming of space and program into an aesthetic system. <p> <b><i>Douglas Garofalo, FAIA, Professor, University of Illinois at Chicago; President, Garofalo Architects</i></b> <p> > Architecture is a collaborative process, the result of which is a building, a series of buildings, or interventions in the landscape that enrich the environment. <p> <b><i>Lynsey Jane Gemmell, AIA, Project Manager/Associate, Holabird & Root</i></b> <p> > Architecture is construction that embraces the aesthetic, symbolic, tectonic, and cultural characteristics that best describe a particular place, people, and epoch. <p> <b><i>Robert M. Beckley, FAIA, Professor and Dean Emeritus, University of Michigan</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the shelter for human existence. The process of architecture is the blend of art and science. <p> <b><i>Patricia Saldana Natke, AIA, Principal and President, Urban Works, Ltd.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the art of designing buildings and spaces within a given set of parameters. Those parameters may include the programmatic needs of the project, the client's budget, building code regulations, and the inherent properties of the materials being used. Great architecture finds the best solution to a design problem by using both creativity and practicality. Part sculpture, part environmental psychology, part construction technology, architecture is the combination of many separate forces into a harmonic whole. <p> <b><i>Carolyn G. Jones, AIA, Director, Callison</i></b> <p> > Architecture is a blend of art and science for the creation of spaces and places that elevate the human spirit. <p> <b><i>Kathryn H. Anthony, Ph.D., Professor, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the synthesis of art and science utilized to develop a solution to a challenge in the built environment. <p> <b><i>Elizabeth Kalin, Architectural Intern, Studio Gang Architects</i></b> <p> > Architecture is a method to solve issues relevant to a progressing contemporary culture. <p> <b><i>Brad Zuger, Architectural Designer, Shanghai MADA, S.P.A.M.</i></b> <p> > More than a building, architecture is beauty and function in form. <p> <b><i>Christopher J. Gribbs, Associate AIA; Senior Director, American Institute of Architects</i></b> <p> > Architecture is everything. It is the house in which one lives; it is the office in which one works. Architecture is the hospital in which one watches loved ones die or recover. It is the church in which people marry the people they love. Architecture is the movie theater where you had your first date. Architecture is the room you grew up in, on that quiet street in the country. It is the apartment building you lived in with your first college roommate. It is the playground where you first encountered the merry-go-round. <p> Architecture is in every memory you will ever have, because it is everything and everywhere. One might dare to ask, "What is <i>not</i> architecture?" At its purest, architecture is the form that follows the function. <p> <b><i>Ahkilah Z. Johnson, Chief of Staff Investment Services, Cherokee Northeast, LLC</i></b> <p> > Architecture is that form of building and place-making that elevates and illuminates the meaning of being human. <p> <b><i>Joseph Bilello, Ph.D., AIA, Professor and Former Dean, Ball State University</i></b> <p> > As the Greek origin of the word defines it, architecture is both art and science. It is the practice of bringing these two objectives together in a manner of achieving "form, function, and design." <p> <b><i>Kathy Denise Dixon, AIA, NOMA, Associate Principal, Arel Architects, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the thoughtful and expert integration of aesthetics, function, and usability in buildings and facilities. <p> <b><i>Lois Thibault, RA, Coordinator of Research, U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (Access Board)</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the art and science of planning and designing structures and environments to house the activities of humans. <p> <b><i>H. Alan Brangman, AIA, University Architect, Georgetown University</i></b> <p> > Grounded by a broad understanding, architecture is the conscious shaping of the mental and physical forces and relations within a specific environment to sustain and celebrate life. When entering an exemplary piece of architecture, our senses are heightened, we slow, pause, and upon reflection we are fundamentally changed. <p> <b><i>Max Underwood, AIA, Professor, Arizona State University</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the structuring of the built environment for the people who use it to solve their problems and needs including but not limited to the need for organization, association, separation, and shelter in a way that is inspirational, pleasing to the eye, generally is responsibly built (on budget and schedule), is sensitive to the environment in which it is found, (community and nature), is built to withstand the test of time, and improves their quality of life. <p> <b><i>Ambassador Richard N. Swett (r), FAIA, President, Swett Associates, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the design of the built environment through the programming of needs, three-dimensional design, and the application of appropriate building technologies. <p> <b><i>Eric Taylor, Associate AIA, Photographer, Taylor Design & Photography, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the art of building. Simply put, architecture is those buildings or places that inspire us. Architecture is also about the act of place-making, or making one feel comfortable. Architecture is not a slave to fads or trends. It is timeless and ages gracefully. God created a beautiful earth. Man has been charged with the stewardship of the earth. Good architecture enhances God's creation. <p> <b><i>Edward J. Shannon, AIA, Director of Design, Benvenuti & Stein Design, Inc.</i></b> <p> > Architecture is the immediate interface between people's lives and the societal frameworks in which they operate. It can facilitate opportunity, be used as a tool of oppression or reside in an arbitrary and benign middle ground. <p> <b><i>Wayne A. Mortensen, Associate AIA, NASW, Project Manager/Urban Designer, H3 Studio; Lecturer, Washington University</i></b> <p> <i>(Continues...)</i> <p> <!-- copyright notice --> <br></pre> <blockquote><hr noshade size='1'><font size='-2'> Excerpted from <b>Becoming an Architect</b> by <b>Lee W. Waldrep </b> Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Excerpted by permission.<br> All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.<br>Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.