<h3>Excerpt</h3> <div><div> <h2>CHAPTER 1</h2> <p><b>Dictionary</b></p> <br> <p>A</p> <p><b>Aaronic Blessing</b>. Prayer of blessing drawn from Nm 6:24–26. An optional blessing at the close of An Order of Worship for the Evening (BCP, p. 114). The form of committal in the Burial of the Dead is an adaptation of the Aaronic Blessing (BCP, pp. 485, 501). It is provided as a Seasonal Blessing by the <i>BOS</i> for Trinity Sunday.</p> <p><b>Abbess</b>. Female leader or superior of a religious community, usually a community following the Benedictine Rule. In community matters, the abbess has the same authority as an abbot, but without the abbot's sacramental function. The abbess is the spiritual, administrative, and jurisdictional superior of the community.</p> <p><b>Abbey</b>. A monastic community of religious persons along with the buildings of the community. The abbey consists of monks ruled by an abbot, or of nuns under an abbess. Abbeys are independent of the jurisdiction of the local bishop. The traditional plan of the buildings included an oratory (chapel), a chapter room (for assemblies of the community in which a chapter of the rule is read), a refectory (dining area), and dormitories, all of which are arranged around a cloister or an open inner court.</p> <p><b>Abbot</b>. Male leader or superior of a religious community. The title is derived from the Latin <i>abbas</i> or the Aramaic <i>abba</i>, "Father." The abbot functions as the "father" of the community. He is elected for life and receives authority from a bishop. The role of the abbot is to regulate the life of the community in accordance with the rule of life of his community.</p> <p><b>Abjuration</b>. A solemn renunciation of any belief, thing, or person to which one was previously loyal. This formal retraction of errors, made before witnesses, often concerned matters of apostasy, heresy, or schism. Prior to 1972, this solemn disavowal was required of baptized Christians being received into the Roman Catholic Church. The Greek Church has required particular forms of abjuration by which former members of other churches must specifically disavow certain beliefs of their previous faith community. The Episcopal Church has no such requirements for persons being received from other denominations. See Anathema; <i>see</i> Apostasy; <i>see</i> Reception (Christian Commitment).</p> <p><b>Abjure</b>. <i>See</i> Abjuration.</p> <p><b>Ablutions</b>. Liturgical and ceremonial cleaning of the paten and chalice with water, or with water and wine, following the communion of the people at the Holy Eucharist. If the consecrated bread and wine are not reserved for later use, they are consumed by the ordained and lay ministers of the eucharist either after the communion of the people or after the dismissal. The ablutions may also include the cleaning of the celebrant's fingers before and after communion, depending on the liturgical custom of the congregation.</p> <p><b>Absalom Jones Theological Institute</b>. A unit of the Interdenominational Theological Center, Atlanta, from 1972 to 1978. Named for the first African American priest in the Episcopal Church, it was to be a resource institution for Episcopal seminarians who wanted to serve African American communities. Its only dean was Quinland Reeves Gordon.</p> <p><b>Absolution</b>. The formal act by a bishop or priest of pronouncing God's forgiveness of sins through Jesus Christ. The absolution of sins reflects the ministry of reconciliation committed by Christ to the church. Absolution may be pronounced following private confession of sins, as provided for by the two forms for The Reconciliation of a Penitent in the BCP (pp. 447–452). Absolution may also be pronounced following a general confession of sin in the Holy Eucharist, the Daily Offices, the Ash Wednesday service, and the Penitential Order. The BCP provides that a deacon or lay person may make a "Declaration of Forgiveness" by God of the penitent's sins after private confession, and that a deacon or lay person may pray for God's forgiveness following the general confession in the Daily Offices.</p> <p><b>Abstinence, Days of</b>. <i>See</i> Days of Abstinence.</p> <p><b>Acclamation</b>. A salutation or greeting in the opening dialogue of the eucharistic liturgy arranged by versicle and response and varied according to the liturgical season. The memorial acclamation is a congregational response that may follow the institution narrative in the eucharistic prayers.</p> <p><b>Acolyte</b>. In contemporary Anglicanism, a general term which covers not only servers, torchbearers, and lighters of candles but also crucifers, thurifers, and banner-bearers. Acolytes are mentioned as a minor order (along with porters, lectors, and exorcists) as early as a letter of Pope Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch in 252. They were also mentioned in Cyprian's writings. They assisted deacons or subdeacons at the preparation of the table. Later they carried candles in processions. In Rome they carried fragments of the bread consecrated at the papal Mass to other churches. In the late middle ages, when candles began to appear upon altars, they lighted the altar candles. Eventually lay servers or sacristans performed duties earlier associated with acolytes, and the order of acolyte was normally conferred upon a candidate for priesthood in the course of his training. The minor orders were not perpetuated in Anglicanism. Some of the duties earlier performed by persons in the minor order of acolyte were taken over by lay clerks. In the later nineteenth century the clerks were suppressed and their duties were largely taken over by lay "acolytes" and sacristans or altar guilds. See Minor Orders.</p> <p><i><b>Acts 29</b>. See</i> Episcopal Renewal Ministries (ERM).</p> <p><b>Adams, William (July 3, 1813–Jan. 2, 1897)</b>. One of the founders of Nashotah House, he was born in Monaghan, Ireland, and received his B. A. in 1836 from Trinity College, Dublin. In 1838 he came to the United States and entered the General Theological Seminary, New York, graduating in 1841. He was ordained deacon on June 27, 1841, and in Sept. of that year went to Wisconsin with two of his classmates, James Lloyd Breck and John Henry Hobart Jr., to do missionary work under Bishop Jackson Kemper. They formed the Nashotah mission and founded Nashotah House. Adams was ordained priest on Oct. 9, 1842, and served as professor of systematic divinity at Nashotah House from 1843 until his retirement in 1893. He died at Nashotah House and is buried there. Among his published works are <i>Mercy to Babes</i> (1847) and <i>A New Treatise Upon Regeneration in Baptism</i> (1871).</p> <p><b>Addison, James Thayer (Mar. 21, 1887–Feb. 13, 1953)</b>. A leader and authority in overseas missionary work, Addison was born in Fitchburg, Massachusetts, and received his B.A. from Harvard in 1909. He received his B.D. from the Episcopal Theological School in 1913. Addison was ordained deacon on June 7, 1913, and priest on Dec. 13, 1913. After serving as a missionary in Oklahoma, he joined the faculty of the Episcopal Theological School as a lecturer in the History of Religion and Missions, 1915–1918, and then professor of the same, 1919–1940. From 1940 until 1947, he was vice-president of the National Council of the Episcopal Church, with supervision of its overseas missionary work. Among his numerous books are <i>Our Expanding Church</i> (1930) and <i>The Episcopal Church in the United States, 1789–1931</i> (1951, reprinted 1969). He died in Boston.</p> <p><b><i>Adiaphora</i></b>. From the Greek, "things indifferent," matters which can be accepted or rejected without prejudice to belief. Such practices or beliefs may be tolerated or permitted, but may not be required of faithful members of the church. A sixteenth-century dispute among German Protestants over Roman Catholic practices such as Extreme Unction and Confirmation was finally resolved by the Formula of Concord (1577), which allowed individual churches to use or alter ceremonies not commanded or forbidden by scripture. During this controversy, the <i>"adiaphorists"</i> urged that the disputed rites and practices were matters of indifference. In Anglicanism, many practices are allowed but not required.</p> <p><b>Administration, Sentences of</b>. Words said by the ministers of the eucharist at the distribution of the consecrated bread and wine during the communion of the people.</p> <p><b><i>Adonai.</i></b> A Hebrew word literally meaning "my lord," or simply "lord." It is frequently used in the OT to refer to human lords. However, in the period following the Exile when the proper name for God, <i>Yahweh</i>, was understood to be too holy to pronounce, <i>Adonai</i> was substituted. In most English translations, following this tradition, the Lord in upper case is used rather than the name Yahweh, which stands in the original Hebrew.</p> <p><b>Adoptionism</b>. The teaching that Jesus was born an "ordinary man" who lived an exemplary life pleasing to God and was consequently "adopted" by God as the divine Son. The moment of adoption was usually considered to be his baptism. Jesus' resurrection was also considered by some the moment of his adoption. Adoptionism relaxes the paradoxical divine-human relationship in Jesus in the interest of emphasizing his independent humanity. The church has regularly found this teaching one-sided and heretical in its failure to give full expression to Jesus' divine nature. Anglican theology has characteristically avoided it. See Chalcedon, Council of.</p> <p><b>Adoration</b>. An expression of supreme love and worship for God alone. Adoration, one of the six principal kinds of prayer, "is the lifting up of the heart and mind to God, asking nothing but to enjoy God's presence." (BCP, p. 857).</p> <p><b>Advent</b>. The first season of the church year, beginning with the fourth Sunday before Christmas and continuing through the day before Christmas. The name is derived from a Latin word for "coming." The season is a time of preparation and expectation for the coming celebration of our Lord's nativity, and for the final coming of Christ "in power and glory."</p> <p><b>Advent Festival of Lessons and Music</b>. A service held during the pre-Christmas Advent season in which the reading of the scriptural history of salvation from the creation to the coming of Christ is interspersed with the singing of the great music of the season, including but not limited to carols. A traditional form of service is included in the <i>BOS</i>. The most popular forms of service are those based loosely on that used on Christmas Eve at King's College, Cambridge.</p> <p><b>Advent Wreath</b>. A circle of greenery, marked by four candles that represent the four Sundays of the season of Advent. An additional candle is lit as each new Sunday is celebrated in Advent. Advent wreaths are used both in churches and in homes for devotional purposes. The candles may be blue, purple, or lavender, depending on local custom. Some Advent wreaths include a white candle in the center known as the "Christ Candle," which is lit on Christmas Eve.</p> <p><b>Adventures in Ministry, Inc. (AIM)</b>. On May 3–5, 1985, twenty-three concerned Episcopalians met in Orlando, Florida, to discuss issues of renewal and lay ministry. AIM was organized at that time, with Jack and Nancy Ousley of Pensacola, Florida, as the leaders. Its purpose is to assist priests and parishes to become equippers and enablers for lay ministry in the church and in the world.</p> <p><b>Advowson</b>. The right to appoint a member of the clergy to a parish or other ecclesiastical benefice. The term also means the patronage of a church living. The right of advowson is a property right under English law. Advowson reflects the control that was exercised by feudal lords over churches on their estates. It also reflects earlier pagan practice in Teutonic Europe. The right of advowson may be held by a bishop or by a lay patron. The patron may also be a university or corporation. The patron may nominate or present a candidate to the bishop or ecclesiastical superior, and this nomination cannot be refused without legal cause. Under English law, an advowson may be transferred by gift or sale. This practice led to abuses and scandals. There is no right of advowson in the Episcopal Church.</p> <p><b>Aelred (1109–Jan. 12, 1167)</b>. The son of a Saxon priest in Hexham, Northumberland, England, Aelred was a Cistercian monk at the abbey of Rievaulx who became the abbot there in 1147. His two major writings are <i>Mirror of Charity</i> and <i>Spiritual Friendship</i>. A biography of Aelred was written by his pupil, Walter Daniel. His ministry is commemorated in the Episcopal calendar of the church year on Jan. 12.</p> <p><b>"Affirmation of St. Louis, The."</b> A statement adopted by the St. Louis Congress, called by the Fellowship of Concerned Churchmen, Sept. 14–16, 1977. The Affirmation stated the basis for the structure of continuing Anglicanism in the United States and Canada. It argued that the Episcopal Church had "departed from Christ's One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church" and that the holy orders of bishops, priests, and deacons consist "exclusively of men in accordance with Christ's will and institution." It insisted that the only standard of worship for Episcopalians was the 1928 BCP. The Affirmation said that the World Council of Churches was non-Apostolic, humanist and secular in purpose and practice, and that the Consultation on Church Union was non-Apostolic and non-Catholic. "The Affirmation of St. Louis" was the theological and ecclesiological basis for a number of new churches which were formed later.</p> <p><b>Affirming Anglican Catholicism</b>. A loose association of members of the Episcopal Church in the United States and of the Anglican Church of Canada who affirm developments in the life of the church such as the ordination of women and Prayer Book revision. In England, Scotland, and Wales it is called Affirming Catholicism. In 1990 a group of laity and clergy of the Church of England and the Scottish Episcopal Church, led by Bishop Richard Holloway of Edinburgh, met to assess the state of the Catholic tradition within the Anglican Communion. In July 1991 an Affirming Anglicanism conference was held in York, and in Nov. 1991 a conference was held in Chicago, led by Bishop Frank T. Griswold III of Chicago. On June 1–4, 1994, the "Living the Catholic Mystery in the 21st Century" conference was held at the University of St. Mary of the Lake, Mundelein, Illinois, with Bishop Rowan Williams of Monmouth, Wales, as leader. The British group publishes <i>Affirming Catholicism</i> and the North American group publishes <i>The Anglican Catholic</i>.</p> <p><b>Affusion</b>. A method of administering baptism by pouring water over the head of the candidate. Baptism may also be administered by immersion of the candidate.</p> <p><b>African Mission School</b>. Mission school for training African American Episcopal clergy and laypersons for work in Africa, especially Liberia. It opened on Oct. 6, 1828, in Hartford, Connecticut. It was founded by the African Mission School Society, which was formed on Aug. 10, 1828. The rector of the school was the Rev. Nathaniel Sheldon Wheaton. Six students, Gaylord Jackson, William Johnson, Edward Jones, Gustavus V. Caesar, James Henry Franklin, and Henry Williams, eventually matriculated at the school. Of these six original students, Jones, Caesar, and Williams graduated. Jones was born in 1807 or 1808, in Charleston, South Carolina. He was ordained deacon on Aug. 6, 1830, and priest on Sept. 6, 1830. Jones was sent as a missionary to Sierra Leone, and in 1840 he became the principal of Fourah Bay College, Freetown, where he served until 1858. Later he moved to England and died in Chatham, Kent, on May 14, 1865. Caesar was ordained deacon on Aug. 6, 1830, and priest on Sept. 6, 1830. He and his wife, Elizabeth, went to Liberia. In 1834 he drowned in the St. Paul River, near Monrovia. Little is known about Williams. The first African American priest ordained in Connecticut was Jacob Oson, who was born around 1763. He was ordained deacon on Feb. 15, 1828, and priest the next day. He died on Sept. 8, 1828. The school closed during the nineteenth century.</p> <p><b>African Orthodox Church</b>. This church was founded by George Alexander McGuire, a priest of the Episcopal Church, at a time when American Negro self-consciousness was developing as a result of the activities of Marcus Garvey, who wanted to establish a nation in Africa for American Negroes. In 1919 McGuire founded the Independent Episcopal Church of the Good Shepherd, New York, for Negro Episcopalians dissatisfied with the Episcopal Church. On Sept. 2, 1921, the First General Synod of the African Orthodox Church was held in New York City. At that meeting McGuire was elected bishop and was ordained and consecrated on Sept. 28, 1921, by Joseph Rene Vilatte, exarch and metropolitan of the American Catholic Church, one of the <i>episcopi vaganti</i>. It has its headquarters at the Holy Cross Pro-Cathedral, New York.</p> <p><b><i>Afro-American Churchman</i></b>. This periodical was established by George F. Bragg in 1886 at Petersburg, Virginia. It was published from 1886 until 1888. Beginning in 1889 it became a monthly and was published at Norfolk, Virginia. It ceased publication in 1890.</p> <p><b>Agape</b>. Selfless Christian love. Agape reflects the love of God, and it is the kind of love that Christians are called to share with one another. The term is also used for a common meal or "Love Feast" of the early church, from which the eucharist developed as a separate rite. </div></div><br/> <i>(Continues...)</i> <!-- Copyright Notice --> <div><blockquote><hr noshade size="1"><font size="-2">Excerpted from <b>AN EPISCOPAL DICTIONARY OF THE CHURCH</b> by <b>DON S. ARMENTROUT</b>. Copyright © 2000 by Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum. Excerpted by permission of Church Publishing Incorporated.<br/>All rights reserved. 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