<br><h3> Introduction </h3> <i>"A Citizen of the World"</i> <p> <p> It is not surprising that few people know the name Emily Greene Balch. The stories of countless individuals from the past flit across our history pages, but very few wend their way into the public consciousness. We tend to uphold and preserve the memories of those who pursued grand achievements, those who became leaders of nations or groups, and those who invented revolutionary technologies. It is these individuals who, in one way or another, wield great influence over the masses and capture our attention. <p> In many ways, Emily Greene Balch was an ordinary citizen. She never ran for or held public office. She never served her government in an official capacity. Neither did she act as the sole founder or promoter of a new ideology. But she did make essential contributions to some of the major social reform movements of her day. She was an active participant in local, national, and international communities and politics. She was pioneering in her ideas and activities, consistently focused on the power of internationalism. The story of her life, as is the case with many others, contains lessons in history and inspiration for the future. <p> Who was Emily Greene Balch? She was an intellectually driven child who grew into a woman with an avid appetite for knowledge. Balch participated in a spectrum of social reform activities and authored many publications. A member of Bryn Mawr's first graduating class, she undertook two courses of graduate study, one in France and another, later, in Germany. She established herself as a leader of Boston's burgeoning settlement movement during the 1890s. In 1896, she accepted a teaching post at Wellesley College, where she remained for nearly twenty years and became widely published as a recognized scholar on American immigration. With the onset of the First World War, Balch joined her reform-minded colleagues and made great contributions to the international movement to secure an end to the war through neutral mediation. Following the war, the Wellesley College Board of Trustees refused to welcome her back; she then dedicated the remaining four decades of her life to the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom and became the principal organizer of its international office in Geneva. Her leadership culminated with worldwide recognition for her achievements; in 1946, she won the Nobel Peace Prize. Although Balch was a well-known academic and a leading figure in several movements for social reform, she remains an obscure figure in American history. <p> Balch's forgotten place in our history contrasts with that of her close friend and colleague, the famous social reformer Jane Addams. Both women were active leaders in the settlement movement in the United States, and both were instrumental in the international women's peace movement. Intellectual curiosity and a moral compulsion drove them both; they were individuals of ideas as well as action. Most notably, both received the Nobel Peace Prize for their life achievements. Why, then, did Addams become such an icon in American history, while Emily Greene Balch moved to the periphery? <p> A difference in their personalities accounts, in part, for their relative degrees of fame. Addams was first and foremost a public figure, an icon. By contrast, Balch preferred organizing behind the scenes. Though certainly not afraid of public attention, Emily Greene Balch truly thrived in private meetings and negotiations. She gave numerous speeches in her life, but she tended toward expression through her published scholarship. In addition, Jane Addams arrived on the scene first. Addams's position as the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize understandably relegates Balch to a position of comparison to the original. Whatever the reasons for Balch's relative historical obscurity, this book represents one important step in bringing her life and work back into the mainstream of progressive, reform, transnational, women's, and peace history. <p> This work traces Emily Greene Balch's development from a civic-minded child to an avid scholar. It portrays her not as a woman <i>destined</i> to be a peace leader but instead as a scholar whose devotion and skills led to multiple careers. Balch's diverse professional experiences honed those talents that made her a successful peace activist in her later life. Her three careers-settlement worker, professor, peace organizer-offer a convenient outline for examining her life, but they also provide a window for understanding her personality and the forces that drove her. At nearly every turn, she was motivated equally by her intellectual curiosity and ambition as by a moral compulsion. This book thus considers what elements and individuals in her life inspired each of Balch's career choices. As the story of her life unfolds, certain threads become apparent. The most obvious is her desire to live a life of service. <p> Balch's deep and earnest commitment to improving her world, however, is only part of her story. Over these pages we meet a woman who secretly struggled with her ambition. We understand that Balch constantly pushed herself to be a better, more moral person. We empathize with her intense personal insecurity. We discern how she weighed her intellectual curiosity against her devotion to her family, and how she matured into a woman who consistently endeavored to follow her conscience. We are able to identify the trends that dominated her life: networks of women, intellectual demands, service and reform, pacifism, and diplomacy. <p> The life of Emily Greene Balch spanned from 1867 to 1961, from the Gilded Age to the cold war. She lived through the aftermath of the Civil War. She witnessed the incredible economic, social, and cultural changes that accompanied rapid industrialization and immigration in the United States. She assisted struggling workers to obtain better living and working conditions. She survived two world wars and campaigned to reduce the causes for conflict. In the midst of a rapidly changing world, Balch remained engaged with both her local and the increasingly close global community, and she refused to become discouraged when faced with personal or international upheaval. She witnessed a century of terrific change yet never lost hope (despite almost inconceivable global calamity) that the human community was working toward a new and improved world order. She consistently sought to arrive at fair and just solutions through methodical analysis. <p> Balch's ideas, in almost every context, shared a common denominator: internationalism. Although she did not originally conceive the term "global citizenship," she doggedly promoted it. Balch saw herself as part of a new generation of women. She and her peers viewed themselves as "citizens of the world, conscious partakers in the sacrament of all human life." Balch's personal and public declarations of global citizenship were the product of a lifetime of learning the necessity of cooperation across national borders and loyalties. Balch continually advanced the concept of global citizenship as the path to peace. Further, in all facets of her life, she emphasized negotiation over conflict. Mediation and the promotion of peace remained constant driving forces in her life and are central elements of her legacy. <p> The prophetic ideas and interests of Emily Greene Balch continue to be surprising. Her mind was finely tuned to the issues of her day, and she had a knack for discerning and discussing those issues that would become central in the future. Her interest in immigration made her a pioneering scholar in that field. Well before the outbreak of the First World War, she wrote extensively about Pan-Slavism and nationalist movements in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, warning of the potential conflicts that would arise if they were not carefully mediated. Before and during World War I, she argued passionately to bring international attention to the problem of colonialism. She correctly foretold that war reparations would lead to an aggressive Germany. She revered the League of Nations as an attempt at internationalism but accurately pointed to flaws in its structure that would lead to its demise. In 1926, she urged the United States to withdraw from its imperialistic interest in Haiti. Like many of her peers, she campaigned throughout the 1930s against the rising tide of fascism. She urged her own government and, especially, the international community through the League of Nations to take steps to mitigate the economic and political factors that were edging the world close to another war. <p> Balch embraced pacifism and saw violence, militarism, and war as antithetical to progress. Yet pacifism for her was never an easy choice. She endured public approbation for her beliefs during the First World War. Still, she was not a moral absolutist. During the Second World War, she reconceived her views, determining that violence as a means was less threatening to progress than global fascism as an end. Balch's willingness to reexamine her perspective is telling: the defining characteristic throughout her life was diplomacy. She had many talents, but mediation, without question, was her strongest. She could listen for hours to various viewpoints and then brilliantly synthesize all aspects of the different arguments into a coherent and acceptable solution for all. She demonstrated this skill in numerous and varied capacities: on a daily level, when sitting around a conference table, or as a delegate to the Neutral Conference for Continuous Mediation, in 1916. <p> This book argues that Balch's professional development was an intellectual journey as well as a moral quest. I aim to uncover why Balch made the choices she did and what factors contributed to her decisions. Specifically, I explore why Balch chose academia over social work in the 1890s and why she chose international peace advocacy in 1919. Balch's leadership in the peace movement, which is the focus of most studies of her life, can only be understood following a survey of the decisions she made and experiences she had when she was younger. How she emerged as a leading figure in the international peace movement is only part of the narrative. This book reveals what led her to that point and how her personality and motivation for her work changed over time. Viewing Balch mainly as a peace leader and interpreting her life as a predetermined journey to that point muddies our understanding of who she was and how her ideas developed over time. <p> So, who was Emily Greene Balch? Most concisely, she was a progressive reformer turned peace advocate. Throughout this text, we gain an understanding of Balch's complex character. Her relationships and experiences reveal a woman who was at once a scholar, teacher, writer, reformer, diplomat, sister, daughter, friend, and leader. <p> <i>(Continues...)</i> <p> <p> <!-- copyright notice --> <br></pre> <blockquote><hr noshade size='1'><font size='-2'> Excerpted from <b>Emily Greene Balch</b> by <b>Kristen E. Gwinn</b> Copyright © 2010 by Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. Excerpted by permission of University of Illinois Press. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.<br>Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.