<br><h3> Chapter One </h3> <b>Governors of New Mexico</b> <p> <p> As you read this book, you will see that the Catholic Church played a big part of what went on in New Mexico. You will see until the 1900s, the governors of New Mexico had troubles with the church. <p> To really understand Mexico, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, you have to go back to when Spain invaded Mexico. Spain invaded Mexico with soldiers and Franciscan priests. Mexico was the home of the Aztec Indians. The Aztecs were very smart, prayed to their god, built temples and sun clocks, and could predict the future. <p> Spaniards landed in Mexico and the first thing they did was kill the heretic Indians. They didn't just kill the men; they raped the women and turned the Indians into slaves. Once the Spaniards taught the Indians their language, the soldiers and politicians made babies with the Aztec women. They created a new race of Mexican people. <p> The next thing that Spain did was to have the Franciscan priests convert the heathens to Catholicism. Catholicism is easy; you have to love God, Jesus, and the Holy Ghost. They forbid praying to God or Jesus because the Mexicans were not pure enough. They told the Mexicans that they had to pray to Mother Mary. They had to go through the mother of God. <p> If you don't believe me, go to the house of a Mexican family and you will see a statue of Mary and a bunch of other church stuff. If you look at Mexican gang members, you will see tattoos of Mary on their backs, arms, legs, and chests. As long as they have Mary with them, they will be safe. <p> The Catholic Church played a big part in brainwashing the Mexican people—and not only Mexico, but Europe and Asia too. <p> Today, the Catholic Church has changed. They teach you to pray to God and Jesus—not Mary or the saints. You can talk to Mary and the saints, but if you want something or give glory and thanks, then you do it directly. God and Jesus see all and know all—and they don't forget. <p> The only culture in New Mexico that felt the sting and pain of Spain were the Indians. The Catholic Church has changed in a very good way since the turn of the century. The Catholic Church works closer with people and other Christian churches. <p> <p> <b>Governors of New Mexico under the Spanish Crown <p> Juan de Oñate (1598–1608)</b> <p> Juan de Oñate was born around 1550 in the frontier settlement of Zacatecas, Mexico. Juan de Oñate married Isabel de Tolosa Cortes Moctezuma, a descendant of the famous conquistador Hernan Cortes and the Aztec emperor Moctezuma. On September 21, 1595, King Phillip II of Spain awarded Oñate a contract to settle New Mexico. <p> In December 1598, Captain Juan de Zaldivar and his soldiers stopped at Acoma for provisions. While there, the Acomas accused one of the soldiers of stealing and raping an Acoma woman. <p> Don Juan de Onate became the first governor-general of New Mexico and established the capital in 1598 in San Juan Pueblo, just north of Santa Fe. One year later, they moved the capital to Santa Fe. <p> A Spanish punitive expedition to Acoma resulted in a three-day battle. When the fighting was over, several hundred Indians were dead and hundreds of surviving Acoma were held prisoner. <p> Oñate severely punished the people of Acoma. Men over twenty-five had one foot cut off and were sentenced to twenty years of personal slavery to the Spanish colonists; young men between the ages of twelve and twenty-five received twenty years of personal slavery; young women over twelve years of age were given twenty years of slavery; sixty young girls were sent to Mexico City to serve in the convents there, never to see their homeland again; and two Hopi men caught at the Acoma battle, had their right hands cut off, and were set free to spread the news of Spanish retribution. <p> In 1606, King Phillip III summoned Oñate to Mexico City, where he would stay until allegations against him could be investigated further. Unaware of the order, Oñate resigned as governor in 1607 because of the condition of the colony and financial problems. He remained in New Mexico to witness the establishment of the new capital in Santa Fe. In 1613, the Spanish government accused Oñate of several violations, including the use of excessive force during the Acoma rebellion, the hanging of two Indians, the execution of mutineers and deserters, and rape. He was fined, banned from Mexico City for four years, and banished from New Mexico forever. He died in Spain in 1626. <p> <p> <b>Santa Fe</b> <p> Santa Fe is the oldest capital city in America; it is also the oldest European city west of the Mississippi. Santa Fe is the site of the Palace of the Governors. A community celebration, the Santa Fe Fiesta, was established in 1712 to remember the Spanish conquest of New Mexico in the summer of 1692. From 1050 until 1607, Santa Fe was occupied by Pueblo Indians, mostly the Tewa people. New Mexico was claimed for Spain by the conquistador Don Francisco Vasques de Coronado in 1540. Santa Fe was founded sixty-seven years later. <p> Today, Santa Fe has a beautiful cultural center. They also have Old Town and New Town. In some areas of Santa Fe, there are certain building codes such as a required architectural style. Property owners in Santa Fe have to get permission to sell their houses or turn them into bread and breakfasts. When I say property, I mean 250 acres or more. The Old West is dead; there are no more cattle drives or Indians with tepees and culture. <p> It is a regulated state for the corrupt government. It's too bad that we don't have the laws of the Old West because gang activity and crimes would be settled at the end of the rope. If they brought back some of those laws, people in New Mexico would not be afraid to go out in the daytime or at night. If murderers, rapists, and child molesters swung at the end of a rope, life would be wonderful and safe. <p> <p> <b>Don Cristóbal de Oñate (1608–1609)</b> <p> Don Cristóbal de Oñate was New Mexico's second governor, from 1608–1610. Don Cristóbal must have been well liked by the colonists because of what occurred in 1608. <p> In February of that year, the viceroy in Mexico City appointed Juan Martinez de Montoya of San Gabriel as governor of New Mexico. He was tall and had rather good features, wore a black beard, and was about forty years old. <p> History does not say whether Montoya was well thought of, but the colonists rejected him hotly. During the summer of 1608—in a sort of town meeting—they elected Don Cristóbal to succeed his father as governor of New Mexico. This arrangement was unsatisfactory to the viceroy. <p> Don Cristóbal was governor from 1608 until 1610. In May 1610, when his father was recalled to Mexico, Don Cristóbal went with him. <p> Stark tragedy stalked them on the trail when a band of savage Indians killed Don Cristóbal somewhere in New Mexico. His father buried a promising, ambitious youth of twenty years old. <p> <p> <b>Pedro de Peralta (1610–1614)</b> <p> Don Pedro de Peralta was the third governor of New Mexico. By March of 1609, Don Pedro de Peralta was issued instructions to leave Mexico City. When Don Pedro arrived in the new land, he became acquainted with his new home. It was not until after Peralta become governor of New Mexico that the villa of Santa Fe was permanently established. <p> In the autumn of 1612, an unusually dramatic and terrifying event unfolded. With the caravan from Mexico, a Franciscan named Ordonez returned to Santa Fe. Upon arrival, he claimed to represent the Inquisition (the tribunal for examination and punishment of heretics). It was perhaps only natural for Governor Peralta to request that the Franciscan show his credentials, but the friar refused. The governor interfered with the activities of Ordonez and Don Pedro was excommunicated! Peralta was impenitent and unyielding; the governor was arrested. <p> Ordonez then spoke from the pulpit of the church in Santa Fe. With a crucifix in his hands and, in a stern voice, he placed the whole community under a prohibitive order, proclaiming that he hoped to be rewarded—and made a bishop—for imprisoning the governor. <p> Peralta's imprisonment lasted almost a year. When he escaped, he was able to return to Santa Fe. During this time, he managed to dispatch a message to Mexico City, resulting in his release. <p> In 1613, another governor for New Mexico was appointed. It is reasonable to assume that Peralta returned to Mexico when the new <i>adelantado</i> arrived in 1614. <p> <p> <b>Don Bernardino de Zavallos (1614–1618)</b> <p> The fourth governor of New Mexico was Admiral Don Bernardino de Zavallos. Zavallos was nominated as governor of New Mexico on August 5, 1613. He was appointed by the Marquis of Guadalcazar, who was then the viceroy in Mexico City. <p> As was usual with a new governor, he brought a supply train when he arrived in Santa Fe early in 1614. In the beginning of his term as governor, Zavallos did his utmost to maintain and promote friendly relations with the clergy. Unfortunately, before a year had passed, serious difficulties arose between them. <p> <p> <b>Don Juan de Eulate (1618–1625)</b> <p> Don Juan de Eulate was the fifth governor of New Mexico. He held office from December 22, 1618, when he arrived in Santa Fe, until December 21, 1625. <p> The duties of the governor included promoting the general and wide welfare of the province, seeing that justice was administered; defending New Mexico from internal revolt or attack by outside enemies, fostering and protecting the missions of the Catholic Church; and seeing to it that the settled Pueblo Indians were neither abused nor exploited. Eulate was the political leader of the province, the commander-in-chief of its military activities, its first legislator on matters of local policy, and certainly, its most important judicial officer. <p> Padre Esteban de Perea came to New Mexico with other friars in 1614. Governor Eulate did his best to keep peace with the people and church. After his term as governor he decided to go back to Mexico. In 1626, Eulate decided to speak to his superiors in Mexico City to have Eulate arrested by the Inquisition when they arrived in Mexico City. <p> <p> <b>Felipe Sotelo Osorio (1625–1629)</b> <p> When Admiral Felipe Sotelo Osorio was appointed governor on December 21, 1625, he was allowed to retain his title of admiral. Governor Osorio, the sixth governor of New Mexico, also had problems with the Catholic Church. Osorio knew that the Catholic Church was a dictatorship. Mexico City's cardinal told the president that if he wanted favors from God, he would have the church teach the people to respect the church. Osorio left office in 1629. <p> <p> <b>Francisco Manuel de Silva Nieto (1629–1632)</b> <p> Nieto's term as governor continued until the death of de Marta in September 1635 at Zia, New Mexico. <p> <p> <b>Francisco de la Mora y Ceballos (1632–1635)</b> <p> In March 1632, Captain Don Francisco de la Mora y Ceballos arrived in Santa Fe from Mexico City and became the eighth governor of New Mexico. <p> Ceballos immediately seized Indian orphans to work on his ranches. The ecclesiastics asserted that there seemed to be no end to the ingenuity of Ceballos at the expense of the Indians. Father Perea wrote a letter to the Holy Office in Mexico City on October 30, 1633, denouncing Mora Ceballos and some of his soldiers. <p> Most of the governors of New Mexico—with a few exceptions—were subjected to covert if not open opposition, destructive criticism, and even violence on the part of their own Spanish comrades in the province, both lay and ecclesiastical. It is asserted that Mora Ceballos was so persecuted that he had to take refuge in the convent at Galisteo. The king of Spain made sure the governors obeyed the Catholic church who held all power during this time. <p> Since another governor arrived in New Mexico in 1635, it is reasonable to assume that sometime during that year, Ceballos returned to Mexico. <p> <p> <b>Francisco Martínez de Baeza (1635–1637)</b> <p> Captain Don Francisco Martinez de Baeza became the ninth governor of New Mexico in 1635. It is assumed that, as was customary, he came from Mexico City, but there is no information as the exact date of his arrival. There is also no information on the activities of this governor. <p> <p> <b>Luis de Rosas (1637–1641)</b> <p> Captain Don Luis de Rosas became the tenth governor of New Mexico in 1637. It is also assumed that he traveled from Mexico City with the Mission Supply Service in 1636 and arrived in Santa Fe in 1637 to take over as governor. Almost from the start of Rosas's term as governor, discontent and strife ran amuck in New Mexico. <p> The Franciscans declared that Governor Rosas prosecuted them. They also accused him of complicity in the capture of friendly Apaches—some of whom were sold as slaves in New Spain and others were forced to work in the governor's own workshop in Santa Fe. <p> The friars accused Rosas of accepting bribes from former Governor Francisco de Baeza. Bribery was employed to thwart justice, and more than one governor went free on this account. <p> In 1640, Viceroy Don Diego Lopez Pacheco gave orders that Rosas's regime be thoroughly investigated and justice be done. In consequence, Rosas was placed under arrest, and it was during his imprisonment and while in a cell that he was murdered, stabbed to death. <p> <p> <b>Juan Flores de Sierra y Valdés (1641-1641)</b> <p> General Don Juan Flore de Sierra y Valdés, eleventh governor of New Mexico, was appointed to office in Mexico City in 1641. <p> Valdés placed Luis de Rosas—his predecessor as governor—under arrest. Each governor was obliged to submit to this official investigation at the end of his term. Valdéz desired to leave some of the friends of Rosas in the town council of Santa Fe, but he found many of them were persons of mixed blood, not pure Spaniards. <p> The difficult journey of more than fifteen hundred miles from Mexico City to Santa Fe had taken much of the strength from Valdés and he became seriously ill. Realizing that he had little chance of recovery, Valdés appointed Sergeant Francisco Gomez to act as lieutenant governor in his place. Valdes died in the autumn of 1641. Valdés served the shortest stint as Spanish governor—from spring of 1641 until autumn of 1641. <p> <p> <b>Francisco Gomez (1641)</b> <p> Francisco Gomez served as governor of New Mexico under the administration of the Spanish Crown in 1641. <p> <p> <b>Alonso de Pacheco de Heredia (1641–1644)</b> <p> Captain Don Alonso Pacheco de Heredia was appointed New Mexico's twelfth governor in Mexico City in November 1641. He was given instructions to get to Santa Fe as quickly as possible. Heredia arrived sometime around the spring of 1642. <p> The Franciscans constantly accused the governors of being negligent in their respect of religion—not to mention disobedience. Heredia was called back to Mexico sometime in 1644, and a new governor arrived in Santa Fe that same year. <p> <p> <b>Fernando de Arguello Caravajal (1644–1647)</b> <p> Captain Don Fernando de Arguello Caravajal, thirteenth governor of New Mexico, was warned of a conspiracy and possible revolt from the Jemez Indians who had enlisted the assistance of the Apaches. <p> In the spring of 1647, Governor Caravajal was sent out of New Mexico as a prisoner. While being taken back to Mexico, he escaped somewhere near Parral, Mexico. All his property was dissipated and destroyed and another governor was sent from Mexico City to Santa Fe. <p> <p> <b>Luis de Guzmán y Figueroa (1649–1653)</b> <p> Captain Don Luis de Guzmán y Figueroa was the fourteenth governor of New Mexico. <p> He was accused of taking bribes from his predecessor when he was in office. Due to this serious charge, Figueroa decided to leave New Mexico before his term expired. Rumors started that he was killed in a duel in Mexico in November 1650. <p> <p> <b>Juan de Samaniego y Xaca (1653–1656)</b> <p> Don Juan de Samaniego y Xaca was the sixteenth governor of New Mexico. Just like the other governors, he came with a caravan of goodies for the mission in Santa Fe. There was nothing more that I could find, so maybe he did well and died a natural death. <p> <b>Note:</b> This is a far as I am going to go with the governors of the Spanish Crown. I'm sure you see the similarities of these governors—the rest from the Spanish Crown are pretty much the same. Most of the governors of New Mexico were in the military with the rank of captain or higher. <p> <b>1607–1692.</b> Spanish soldiers and officials, as well as Franciscan missionaries, tried to conquer and convert the Pueblo Indians of the region. Pueblo Indians revolted against 2,500 Spanish colonists in New Mexico, killing four hundred colonists and driving the rest back to Mexico. The conquering Pueblos attacked and burned down Santa Fe, except the Palace of the Governors. Pueblo Indians occupied Santa Fe until 1692, when Don Diego de Vargas retook the city. <p> <i>(Continues...)</i> <p> <p> <!-- copyright notice --> <br></pre> <blockquote><hr noshade size='1'><font size='-2'> Excerpted from <b>History of New Mexico</b> by <b>Stew Cosentino</b> Copyright © 2010 by Stew Cosentino. Excerpted by permission of iUniverse, Inc.. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.<br>Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.