gt;gt; Chapter One gt; gt;Basic Elasticity and Viscoelasticitygt; gt; gt; In the physically stressful environment there are three ways in which a material can respond to external forces. It can add the load directly onto the forces that hold the constituent atoms or molecules together, as occurs in simple crystalline (including polymeric crystalline) and ceramic materials—such materials are typically very rigid; or it can feed the energy into large changes in shape (the main mechanism in noncrystalline polymers) and flow away from the force to deform either semipermanently (as with viscoelastic materials) or permanently (as with plastic materials). gt; gt; gt;1.1 Hookean Materials and Short-Range Forcesgt; gt; The first class of materials is exemplified among biological materials by bone and shell (chapter 6), by the cellulose of plant cell walls (chapter 3), by the cell walls of diatoms, by the crystalline parts of a silk thread (chapter 2), and by the chitin of arthropod skeletons (chapter 5). All these materials have a well-ordered and tightly bonded structure and so broadly fall into the same class of material as metals and glasses. What happens when such materials are loaded, as when a muscle pulls on a bone, or when a shark crunches its way through its victim's leg? gt; In a material at equilibrium, in the unloaded state, the distance between adjacent atoms is 0.1 to 0.2 nm. At this interatomic distance the forces of repulsion between two adjacent atoms balance the forces of attraction. When the material is stretched or compressed the atoms are forced out of their equilibrium positions and are either parted or brought together until the forces generated between them, either of attraction or repulsion, respectively, balance the external force (figure 1.1). Note that the line is nearly straight for a fair distance on either side of the origin and that it eventually curves on the compression side (the repulsion forces obey an inverse square law) and on the extension side. With most stiff materials the extension or compression is limited by other factors (see section 1.6) to less than 10% of the bond length, frequently less, so that the relationship between force and distance is essentially linear. When the load is removed, the interatomic forces restore the atoms to their original equilibrium positions. gt; It is a fairly simple exercise to extend this relationship to a material such as a crystal of hydroxyapatite in a bone. This crystal consists of a large number of atoms held together by bonds. The behavior of the entire crystal in response to the force is the summed responses of the individual bonds. Thus one arrives at the phenomenon described by Hooke as gt;ut tensio, sic visgt;, "as the extension, so the force." In other words, extension and force are directly and simply proportional to each other, and this relationship is a direct outcome of the behavior of the interatomic bond. However, when one is dealing with a piece of material it is obvious that measurements cannot conveniently be made of the interatomic distance (though they have been made using X-ray diffraction, which confirms the following). What is actually measured is the increase in length of the whole sample or a part of the sample (making the verifiable assumption that in a homogeneous material one part will deform as much as the next). This difference is then expressed as a function of the starting length called the gt;straingt;, ε. Strain can be expressed in a number of ways, each offering certain advantages and insights into the processes of deformation. The most commonly encountered form is conventional, nominal, engineering, or Cauchy strain, which is the increase in length per unit starting length: gt; εgt;ITLITLgt; = Δgt;l/Lgt;gt;0gt; [Eq. 1.1] gt; This estimate of extension works well if the material is extended by no more than a tenth of its starting length. Strain is expressed either (as in this text) as a number (e.g., 0.005) or as a percentage (e.g., 0.5%). gt; The force acting on each bond is a function of the number of bonds available to share the load. Thus if the area over which the force acts is doubled, then the load carried by each bond will be halved. It is therefore important, if one is to bring the data to the (notionally) irreducible level of the atomic bond, to express the force as a function of the number of bonds that are responding to it. In practice this means expressing the force as force divided by the area across which the force is acting, which is called the gt;stressgt;, σ: gt; σ = gt;f/Agt;gt;0gt; [Eq. 1.2] gt; However, just as with strain, this simple equation is suitable only for small extensions. gt; In SI units, the force is expressed in newtons (a function of mass and the acceleration due to gravity: one newton is approximately the force due to 100 g, which can be produced by an average apple falling under the influence of gravity), the area in square meters. One newton acting over an area of one square meter is a pascal (Pa). Other units are in use in many parts of the world. For instance, in the United States the unit of force is the dyne (the force exerted by one gram under the influence of gravity), and the unit of area is the square centimeter. One dyne per square centimeter is one hundred-thousandth (10gt;-5gt;) of a pascal. Traditional engineers in Britain often use pounds and square inches as their measures of "force" and area. gt; The slope of the straight, or Hookean, part of the curve in figure 1.1 is characteristic of the bond type and is a function of the energy of the bond. For the same reason, the ratio of stress to strain is a characteristic of a material. This ratio is the stiffness or Young's modulus, gt;Egt;: gt; gt;Egt; = σ/ε. [Eq. 1.3] gt; The units of gt;Egt; are the same as for stress, since strain is a pure number. Graphs showing the relationship between stress and strain are conveniently plotted with the strain axis horizontal and the stress axis vertical, irrespective of whether the relationship was determined by stretching the test piece in a machine and recording the developed forces or by hanging masses onto the test piece and recording the extension. Do not be surprised if it takes a long time for the mental distinctions between stress and strain to become totally clear. Not only are the concepts surprisingly difficult to disentangle, but the confusion is compounded by their uncritical use in everyday speech. gt; One other characteristic of Hookean materials is that they are elastic. That is to say, they can be deformed (within limits) and will return to their original shape almost immediately after the force is removed (gt;almostgt; immediately because the stress wave travels through the material at the speed of sound in that material. Thus when you pull on the brake lever of your bicycle, the brake blocks begin to move a short time later, the time dependent partly on the speed of sound in the steel cable and partly on the length of the cable). This use of the word gt;elasticgt; must not be confused with the use of the term as in "elastic band," where "elastic" is taken to mean highly extensible. gt; Young's modulus is a measure of stiffness in simple extension or compression. There are ways of deforming a material that have different effects on the interatomic forces and therefore different effects on the material. Such a mode of deformation, frequently met, is shear. (Another mode of deformation—volume change, from which is derived the bulk modulus—is ignored here.) As with Young's modulus, the shear modulus is defined as the ratio of stress to strain. The shear stress, τ, is defined as (figure 1.2) gt; τ = gt;f/Agt;sgt;gt;. [Eq.1.4] gt; The shear strain is defined somewhat differently (figure 1.3). The strain, gt;ygt;, is measured in radians, and the shear modulus, gt;Ggt;, is given by gt; gt;Ggt; = τ/gt;ygt;. [Eq.1.5] gt; The simple picture given here is for isotropic materials whose structure and, therefore, mechanical response, is the same in all directions. Young's modulus and the shear modulus in an isotropic material can be related to each other by the expression gt; gt;G = E/gt;2(1 + gt;vgt;). [Eq.1.6] gt; where gt;vgt; is Poisson's ratio. This important ratio is discussed at greater length in section 4.3. A material that is Hookean in extension is usually Hookean in shear. The mathematics for high strain shear deformation is not considered here and, indeed, remains to be established! gt; gt; gt;1.2 Non-Hookean Materials and High Strainsgt; gt; With greater deformation, another form of strain—true or Hencky strain—is a better indicator of what is going on in the material. With true strain, each small extension is expressed as a fraction of the immediately preceding or instantaneous length. It is slightly more cumbersome to calculate, gt; [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Eq.1.1a] gt; and has the curious property that the sample does not "remember" its strain history. True strain is an instantaneous measure of strain. Figure 1.4 compares true and conventional strain, showing that the mutual deviation is far greater in compression. gt; At larger strains (greater than 0.1 or so), Poisson's ratio effects in an isotropic material (section 4.3) will cause the sample to become narrower, reducing the area over which the force is being transmitted. This will cause the true stress to increase at a higher rate than the conventional stress (figure 1.5). However, since, as will be seen, Poisson's ratio frequently varies with strain, especially with soft biological materials that are complex, extensible, and fibrous, it is not possible to give a universal formula for calculating true stress from the starting conditions. The cross-sectional area has to be measured at the particular strain for which the stress is to be calculated. To give you a feel for the relationship between engineering stress and true stress, assume that Poisson's ratio varies in the same way as a rubber, that is to say, the volume of the material remains constant (for many biological materials a doubtful assumption). Thus if the cross-sectional area at any time is A, and A0 the area at zero strain (gt;Lgt;gt;0gt;), then gt; [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] [Eq.1.2a] gt; so gt; [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] gt; so that gt; [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] gt; which relates the true stress to the apparent or engineering stress. gt; Both true and conventional methods of expressing stress and strain are used; in the small-strain elastic range, the conventional measures are more usually used and are more convenient, though not strictly accurate. However, at the strains that soft biological materials reach, true stress and strain are the proper indicators of what is happening in the material, although these parameters are seldom used. When the material starts to yield (section 1.6), even true stress and strain are inadequate, since neither is uniform across the yield zone. Even so, it seems reasonable to use these measures rather than the conventional parameters, although finite element modeling is probably the preferred compromise. However, since all biological materials show some form of relaxation (section 1.4), an estimate of cross- sectional area for the calculation of true stress has to be made instantaneously. In practice, where such data are required, it is often found that the best technique is to record the test with a number of cameras using split-screen video and to make the necessary measurements of the specimen after the test is completed. This sort of complexity at the practical level goes a long way to explaining why there are so few data on biological materials in which true stress has been measured. When it is measured it is often found to be distributed nonuniformly, so that the assumption of affine (i.e., average or distributed) deformation is not valid. gt; gt; gt;1.3 The Energy Approachgt; gt; It is often easier to consider elasticity not as stress and strain but as their product—that is to say, energy. When material is deformed (stretched, perhaps), energy (usually referred to as gt;straingt; energy) is stored in the deformation of its bonds, and it is this energy that brings the material back to its original shape—or perhaps not, since that energy can be dissipated in a number of ways, such as heat, sound, surface energy, plastic deformation, or kinetic energy. With a Hookean material the strains are relatively small, and all the energy is stored in stretching the interatomic bonds, termed the gt;internalgt; energy. However, if the material is made of relatively long and unrestrained molecules, the energy can also be stored in changes in their shape and mobility, termed the gt;entropicgt; energy. This is typical of the long-range elasticity exhibited by rubbers, which can stretch up to six times their original length. When a rubbery material is deformed, its molecules lose mobility, and the energy that has been powering their random movements is dissipated as heat. If you stretch a rubber band while you hold it to your lip (very sensitive skin), you will detect an increase in temperature. Relax the band, and the molecules resume their motions, taking energy from their surroundings, and you will feel the band go cool. The entropic component can be characterized by this exchange of heat. In simple terms, gt; gt;A = U - TSgt;, [Eq. 1.7] gt; where gt;Agt; is the Helmholtz free energy, gt;Ugt; is the internal energy component, and -gt;TSgt; is the entropic component, made up of temperature, gt;Tgt;, and entropy, gt;Sgt;. Note that the entropic component is negative. If you increase the temperature of a material that relies on internal energy for its elastic behavior, it will expand, but an entropic-based material will contract. This is the corollary of the experiment with the rubber band. gt; To introduce external work (i.e., your stretching the material) we have to introduce force, gt;fgt;, multiplied by change in length, gt;dlgt;: gt; gt;dA = -PdV - SdT + f dlgt;. Eq. 1.8] gt; This formulation can now be developed to give the basis for measurement of the mechanical properties of a material at a variety of temperatures, which yields the relative contributions of the internal and entropic components of the elastic restoring force. But we need to see what this measurement means in terms of molecular interactions, since this is the starting point for biology. How does the entropic component work at the molecular level? gt; A technical rubber is composed of very long chains (molecular weight of about 10gt;5gt;) of one or more monomer units, with each unit more or less freely jointed into the chain, so that each joint allows a wide range of movement. This motion is called "free rotation" about the bonds of the backbone and is what distinguishes a rubbery polymer from a crystalline one: in a crystalline polymer (or in areas of crystallinity) the units cannot move freely because they are packed so closely, and rubbery behavior is impossible. In fact, it takes more than one monomer unit or residue to make a freely rotating unit or "random link," because the monomer units are of a finite size and shape and so cannot move with absolute freedom without hitting their neighbors ("steric hindrance"). With paraffin chains with a tetrahedral valence angle it takes three C — C links to make up a freely rotating or equivalent random link; with cis-polyisoprene units, as in rubber made from the latex of gt;Hevea brasiliensisgt;, the number of monomer units per random link is 0.77, since there are four bonds to each isoprene unit (Treloar 1975). Under the influence of Brownian motion the free rotation of the equivalent random links about the backbone of the polymer allows the chain to assume a random conformation. In other words, there is no pattern to the angles that each link makes with its neighbor other than a statistical one. The fact that the molecules are in Brownian motion also leads to the concept of kinetic freedom, which is a way of saying that the chains are free to writhe in any direction. Brownian motion is temperature dependent—as the temperature increases, the movement of the molecules and their subunits becomes more and more frenetic. Conversely, as the temperature decreases, the activity of the molecules slows until, finally, at a temperature dependent on the particular rubber in question, it ceases altogether and any force that is exerted on the rubber meets the resistance of the covalent bonds linking the atoms, probably bending rather than stretching them. A rubber at the temperature of liquid nitrogen is Hookean and is said to be glassy. The temperature at which this phenomenon occurs is called the gt;glass transition temperaturegt;. gt; gt;(Continues...)gt; gt; gt; gt; gt;gt; gt;gt;gt; Excerpted from gt;Structural Biomaterialsgt; by gt;JULIAN VINCENTgt; Copyright © 2012 by Princeton University Press. Excerpted by permission of PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.gt;Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.