<h3>Excerpt</h3> <div><div> <h2>CHAPTER 1</h2> <p><b>The World in 2020</b></p> <br> <p>The world today is experiencing change of unprecedented speed and scope. And you don't need to be a historian to know that some organizations cope with, or indeed flourish from, change better than others. And you don't need exceptional foresight to know that the ability to handle change is going to be required more acutely in the future. This will be what separates the true leader from the rest of the pack.</p> <p>Transformative leaders will require fundamental skills of leadership. An effective leader must be able to uncover and drive insight from changes specific to his or her industry and the world at large, translate this insight into an operable and sustainable strategy, underpin it with innovation, and drive it to conclusion through relentless, hard-nosed operational implementation. In our view this is Leadership, Pure and Simple. Regrettably, such skills are not as pervasive as one might expect. But they can be learned or acquired. That's why we wrote this book.</p> <p>Confronted by change, the first question to be answered by any leader is, "Where are we going?" This question is becoming increasingly more difficult to answer. Or is it?</p> <p>During one of his final lectures, Peter Drucker, the founder of modern management thinking, was asked, "Professor Drucker, you seem to have this incredible ability to predict the future. How do you do that?" To which he replied, "I cannot do that. What I do is to look out of the window and see things that others do not see."</p> <p>So how can one gain more insight through one's own window into the future? Some research will help.</p> <p>One trove of observations and foresight is the excellent Future Agenda open insight initiative led by Vodafone, the largest provider of mobile communications in Europe and Africa. This ambitious project convened collaborations of experts in a wide range of business, scientific, and economic disciplines to assemble a broad view of possible futures around the world. Many of the trends uncovered by the Future Agenda project and described in the organization's report <i>The World in 2020</i> have often cropped up during our client assignments. Here is some of what we see.</p> <br> <p><b>THE FOUR CERTAINTIES</b></p> <p>Peering out through the window of the future can be a daunting task if one doesn't know where to look. The first things to look for are future certainties that can be clearly separated from speculative events. <i>Future certainties</i> are trends in which "the train has left the station" and the destination is known and is virtually certain. Obvious examples are the rise of China and India as political and economic powers. Other examples are changing demographics, such as developed nations getting "older" and developing nations getting "younger." According to Future Agenda, there will be four <i>macro certainties</i> developing in the next decade:</p> <p>• A continued imbalanced population growth</p> <p>• More key resource constraints</p> <p>• An accelerating Asia wealth shift</p> <p>• The achievement of universal data access</p> <br> <p><b>TEN BROAD TRENDS</b></p> <p>The next level of inquiry can be built around these certainties. In our view the following 10 broad trends will impact almost all industries and organizations on the planet.</p> <br> <p><b>TREND 1. WEALTH CREATION</b></p> <p>Future Agenda has described it this way: "How wealth is created, valued, shared, and used over the next decade is subject to a number of possible changes."</p> <p>We agree. Powered by globalization, an unstoppable yet not fully understood force, previously unseen methods and centers of wealth creation will emerge. One could argue that the wealth creators of recent history were the Europeans (Industrial Revolution) followed by the United States (the American Century). There are clear signs that this is changing. China, India, and other emerging markets are operating on new definitions of <i>capitalism</i> that make hefty research and development investment more palatable. So-called <i>state capitalism</i> is characterized by state-owned or family-controlled firms that don't have the short-term, "beat the analyst forecasts" mentality of their Western counterparts. In the future, leaders will no longer be able to plan without considering the longer-term global marketplace.</p> <p>Continuing its analysis, the Future Agenda proceeds:</p> <p>Globalization has connected many of us in ways we never conceived of, that allow new ideas to be shared and innovations to accelerate. It has also linked us together in ways that mean shocks in one region can quickly be transferred to another. A "flatter" world is providing opportunities for those with talent to leapfrog ahead of others, but at the same time there is a growing imbalance between the haves and the have-nots in society.</p> <p>The next decade will see new technologies that will drive new business models that will, in turn, change how wealth is created and shared, but it will also see political and social needs drive other changes in how we manage and use the wealth and resources that we have available. There is also a clearly significant influence in this area from the certain shift in the center of gravity to Asia and the consequences that this will have for wealth creation, trading and even currencies.</p> <br> <p>Which raises the question: What will be the specific impacts of these macro wealth creation trends on the outlook of your industry?</p> <br> <p><b>TREND 2. WEALTH DISTRIBUTION</b></p> <p>The wealth gap between the rich and poor will continue to expand, fueled by widening differences in wealth between and within urban and rural communities. But, predicts Future Agenda, the rich and poor will still need each other:</p> <p>In recent years the gap between richer and poorer households has widened in most areas of the world despite strong economic growth that has created millions of jobs.</p> <p>This has applied not only in the gaps between some rich countries and some poor ones but also within many nations. The rich/poor gap in the United States has increased, just as it has in Brazil, India, and Africa.</p> <br> <p>We would agree with many in saying that urbanization is perhaps the most significant issue. However, there are no clear signs of governments making significant changes to taxation and spending policies to redress the imbalance. Access to good education will remain the catalyst to breaking through the divide. One analyst put it bluntly: "If it was simply a matter of robbing Peter to give to Paul, humanity would have solved it [wealth redistribution] years ago."</p> <p>According to Future Agenda, "Over the next decade, the gap between the haves and the have-nots will grow, even though there will be ever more interdependence, in some areas, between wealth-generation across the social spectrum."</p> <p>One of the early authorities to recognize the wealth gap was C. K. Prahalad. In his book <i>The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid</i>, he asks how this gap can potentially be closed or addressed. Prahalad ponders the question of "why we cannot create inclusive capitalism, and why all of our technology, managerial know-how and investment capacity cannot make even a minor contribution to the problem of pervasive global poverty and disenfranchisement." He then suggests that "refining developmental aid, subsidies, governmental support, reliance on deregulation and privatization of public assets, and the solutions of localized nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) is important, but it has not redressed the problem of poverty." Prahalad asks, "Why can't we mobilize the investment capacity of large firms with the knowledge and commitment of NGOs and the communities that need help?" Searching for unique solutions led him on a journey to understand and motivate organizations to imagine and act on their role in creating a more just and humane society.</p> <p><i>The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid</i> does not look to answer the debates raging over whether globalization is good or bad or whether small or large corporations can tackle problems more efficiently. Instead, it focuses on what works, and it suggests ways that NGOs, domestic organizations, multinational corporations, governments, and even the poor themselves, through entrepreneurial activities, can come together and work to solve the problem of poverty and the growing divide between rich and poor.</p> <p>Whether such collaboration is possible is open to question. Grameen Bank, the microcredit organization founded by Mohammed Yunus, appeared to have hit the magic formula and earned Yunus fame and a Nobel Prize along the way. However, recent criticisms leveled against Grameen in the Norwegian television documentary <i>Caught in Micro Debt</i> and controversies over the role and benefits of other microcredit organizations in other developing nations have been a setback. Nevertheless, Prahalad's analysis and Grameen's early successes at least indicate ways in which the wealth gap could be closed.</p> <p>Which raises the question: What effects will this richer/poorer trend bring for your particular industry and company?</p> <br> <p><b>TREND 3. THE FUTURE OF GLOBALIZATION AND THE MYTH OF A SINGLE MARKET</b></p> <p>Accelerated globalization will have impacts and consequences on all organizations and therefore must be an input into the leaders' strategic thinking and planning. Decisions affecting product design, manufacturing sites, marketing approaches, distribution systems, and customer service will vary greatly from one market to another. The reason is simple. Although the marketplace will be global in scope, it is not now, nor will it be, homogeneous in character. In Europe, language and culture differ in each country. Customs and traditions vary greatly from one Asian nation to the next. Yet local market strategies, while adapting to the nuances of individual markets, must also ensure that the underlying basis of the corporate strategy remains the gyroscope that keeps the various units in sync.</p> <p>The CEO of Ascendas, a Decision Processes International (DPI) client based in Singapore and the leading provider of business space in Asia, bears testimony to this reality. Chong Siak Ching states it this way: "Because we run an international organization, it is critical that the HQ organization and country-level management are part of the development of the corporate strategy. They own it and can ensure alignment to it." The key word here is <i>alignment</i>. Rather than push the corporate strategy down the throats of the regional management, Ascendas went on to develop fine-tuned country-level strategies for each major Asian market.</p> <p>The United States has always been a multicultural mixture. In the last 30 years or so, Hispanic, Korean, Japanese, Filipino, and Vietnamese immigrants—to name but a few groups—have continued to change the fabric of the country. Companies operating in an environment like this will often need to adapt local market strategies even within one such country. An example is American food companies that create market approaches specifically tailored to emerging Hispanic and Asian communities.</p> <p>Those operating in these widely varied and changing markets will need to decide how, and to what extent, their approaches will need to be customized to accommodate these local differences. Like Ascendas, they need to answer the question: "How do we bring together and optimize the benefits of global and local trends?"</p> <p>To "Think Global, Act Local" will be a fundamental rule of success in the future for international business. 3M, one of Decision Processes International's long- term clients, has been a rare exception to the common failure of companies to adapt to local circumstances. At 3M the notion of "Think Global, Act Local" is part and parcel of their operating culture. Companies will have to act locally, in a marketing and selling sense, in order to flush out the distinctive needs of each market. But they will have to think globally on a manufacturing, distribution, and customer service basis in order to achieve the required levels of critical mass for costs and value.</p> <p>Long ago Sir John Harvey-Jones, the former chair of Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), explained the phenomenon well at a meeting of the American Chamber of Commerce in London: "The cliché that the world is a single market is, in reality, not true. Each market requires different responses, and it is the ability to read that response and apply that response which will be the key." This will require companies to be global in perspective but culturally sensitive on a market-to-market basis.</p> <p>Gary DiCamillo, when he was CEO of Black & Decker, explained how his company coped with this phenomenon: "As you go around the world, many power tools are used in similar ways so that there need not be major differences in the products. We don't need to reinvent the power tool in every country, but rather, we have a common product and adapt it to individual markets. The products are marketed quite differently in some cases due to local customs."</p> <p>The need for executives to become global strategists, able to work as deftly in Beijing as in Toledo or Cape Town, will accelerate exponentially. Businesses will have to learn global strategies and tactics in order to compete successfully. In the light of global expansion, leaders will need to compete with new international rivals, many of whom play to a different set of rules.</p> <p>For example, SABMiller has become the second largest global brewer, with more than 200 beer brands and some 70,000 employees in over 75 countries. They are also one of the world's largest bottlers of Coca-Cola products. For 50 years, as a South African–based company, they were confined to the South African market by international sanctions. After the miraculous change to democracy in South Africa, the sanctions were lifted, and immediately, using the skills honed in the South African market, they embarked on a major international acquisition strategy.</p> <p>As SABMiller's own history document states: "We've become a global leader by excelling locally—nurturing strong, local brands and building brand portfolios that meet the needs of consumers in each of our markets. Our portfolio of brands includes premium international beers such as Pilsner Urquell, Peroni Nastro Azzurro, Miller Genuine Draft, and Grolsch, as well as leading local brands such as Aguila, Castle, Miller Lite, and Tyskie."</p> <p>Theirs is a phenomenal success story based on the principle of "Think Global, Act Local." It shows what is possible when leaders are equipped with the ability to navigate unfamiliar terrain. Corporate management teams will require finely tuned competitive skills to prosper against such global foes in the future.</p> <p>Which raises the question: How will you and other leaders within your organization craft agile strategies and business models that are built around a central core yet are reflective of local strategic variables?</p> <br> <p><b>TREND 4. THE FUTURE OF DIFFERENTIATED KNOWLEDGE</b></p> <p>We couldn't put it better ourselves than Thomas Friedman, the Pulitzer Prize—winning author of <i>The World Is Flat</i>, in which he said: "As information is shared globally and insight is commoditized, the best returns go to those who can produce nonstandard, differentiated knowledge." This is the essence of innovation and can be generated only by finely tuned critical thinking skills that enhance the ability of managers to synthesize information—many leaders may stare at the same set of facts but not all are equipped to draw "winning" conclusions.</p> <p>Friedman has made a convincing case that quicker and easier knowledge sharing has flattened the world. Through his multiple examples from India and China, in particular, he has highlighted how the alignment of increasing globalization, high-speed Internet connections, and new business models have all helped the likes of Infosys, Wipro, and Tata to become knowledge engines.</p> <p>He makes the point that the steady transfer of know-how from the developed to the developing world has given rise to a greater need for innovation than has ever before existed in industrialized history.</p> <p>Which raises the question: How will you harness the insights of leaders within your organization and channel these insights toward greater degrees of innovation?</p> <br> <p><b>TREND 5. THE INNOVATION RACE</b></p> <p>3M has a standard by which it measures the performance of all its business units. Twenty-five percent of each unit's sales must come from products that did not exist five years before. This criterion has caused 3M to introduce some 200 new products each year and has given it a reputation as one of America's most innovative companies. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said for many companies in the United States. In general, U.S. companies are losing their innovative edge.</p> <p>Many of these firms' market losses can be attributed to a lack of emphasis on product and process innovations. <i>Product innovations</i> create new market opportunities, and in many industries are the catalyst behind growth and profitability. <i>Process innovations</i>, on the other hand, enable firms to produce existing products more efficiently. As such, process innovations are among the main determinants of productivity growth. In this technologically dynamic era, without a continual stream of product <i>and</i> process innovations, firms soon lose their ability to compete effectively. </div></div><br/> <i>(Continues...)</i> <!-- Copyright Notice --> <div><blockquote><hr noshade size="1"><font size="-2">Excerpted from <b>LEADERSHIP PURE AND SIMPLE</b> by <b>David Wilkins, Greg Carolin</b>. Copyright © 2013 by David Wilkins and Greg Carolin. Excerpted by permission of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc..<br/>All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.<br/>Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.</font><hr noshade size="1"></blockquote></div>