Marketing Communications
Clarke L. Caywood, Ph.D.
Professor and Past Chairman, Department of Integrated Marketing Communications
Medill School of Journalism, Media, Integrated Marketing Communications
Northwestern University

Since the last time I edited this book, public relations (PR) practitioners have
continued their efforts to build strong leadership for businesses and other
complex organizations. These continued efforts to integrate at several levels of
business and society will create more integrated management processes,
protecting and preserving the reputation of the organization and its
stakeholders. In the past decade, public relations has moved beyond its self-
defined role of building "relations" to integrating relationships between an
organization and its publics.

Public relations is the profitable integration of an organization's new and
continuing relationship with stakeholders, including customers, by managing all
communications contacts with the organization, which creates and protects the
brand and the reputation of the organization.
After reading all the chapters in this second edition of the Handbook,
the big idea that emerges is that PR provides management a leadership
opportunity to integrate relationships both inside and outside their
organization, using a wide range of management strategies and tactics, including
communications. I was surprised to find that I only needed to modify my formal
definition slightly since the first edition.
Out of all the functions of management, PR has the broadest reach, appealing to
the greatest number of audiences or stakeholder groups and individuals. The
chief executive officer (CEO) understands that the shareholder, employee and
customer are all important stakeholders, although not the only ones. This book
begins its section on stakeholders with a chapter on employees by Insidedge CEO,
Keith Burton (Chapter 8), which makes this important point.
However, PR is still naturally focused on communications as its strategic
advantage and knowledge base. Because of what we are presently calling social
media, the field of communications has exploded. The social media chapter,
written by part of the leadership team at Edelman, reinforces the concept that
PR has gained the greatest ownership and understanding of the use of these
applications. Reputation management is now under the wing of public relations,
as demonstrated in the chapter by John Graham of Fleishman-Hillard (Chapter
Although some teachers and practitioners continue to waiver between the fields
being called strategic communications and public relations, I
prefer not to begin to label all the sister fields of marketing, advertising,
and human resources with the now overused descriptor of strategy or
Possibly the most confusing part of my working definition of PR is the word
profitable. My defense is the effort to align PR with driving corporate
and organizational goals rather than the use of a more narrow definition of PR,
focusing only on the functions of PR. With my background in ethical political
campaigns, government service, public television, business and academics, I know
that the word profit has a special meaning in business. I have argued
that the word profitable can be viewed as it appears in
dictionary.com: "beneficial" or "useful." Using instead synonyms such as
advantageous, valuable and helpful, the meaning for nonbusinesses such as
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other organizations may be clearer.
Naturally, the link to profit reminds the reader of what they already know:
profit is a financial term for the use of capital while profitable seems a bit
less capitalistic.
The terms new and continuing are also prescient to the common
marketing word loyalty. Perhaps loyalty is a more pithy representation
of the idea, but new and continuing are dynamic. Finally, relationship
is defined as a two-way interaction, obviously augmented by Web 2.0, which
allows for the conversation to occur on the Internet. This idea continues to be
defined by public relations.

Most of the authors in this field have the idea that integration is more than a
simple (although useful) combination of the fields of advertising, promotions,
direct marketing, events and marketing public relations. The growth of
integrated marketing communications (IMC) as a practical field was based on the
initial value of this useful combination of communication tactics into a more
comprehensive strategy. However, what is still missing from the general teaching
and understanding of IMC is a broader understanding of the importance of
integration and why public relations is the ideal professional field to guide
and lead in integration.
First, PR will lead corporations and other organizations on several levels,
including the integration of relationships with various stakeholders, the
integration of corporate and organizational structures, the integration with
industry and competitive groups, and finally, the integration with society. The
integration of complex organizations demonstrates the range of leadership that
public relations professionals can offer, from a macro level of interaction with
society to a more micro level with individual stakeholders. This range of
relationship building and management is what is ultimately appealing to many
professionals in the field, with a broader view of the ultimate role of
individuals and organizations.

The first level of integration relies on the PR professional's intellectual and
skill-based fostering of new relationships with valuable stakeholders to
maintain and enhance the reputation of her organization. Stakeholders include
individuals and organizations that have a stake in the failure or success of an
As the name suggests, public relations manages relations with various publics.
Rather than focusing on the important, but more narrow, relationship of
marketing with customers, for example, public relations is expected to manage
the corporation's or organization's relationships and reputation with many
groups. More than other professions, public relations strengthens the
outside–in perspective of an organization by managing relationships with
many stakeholder groups inside and outside of the organizational boundaries.
Borrowed from Chapter 7, with some modification from the energy
industry, is a strong listing of stakeholders. In my experience, it is possible
to double and triple the listings with specific names of stakeholder groups and
Management and executives

Individual investors

Federal elected officials
State elected officials
Local elected officials
Staffs of elected officials

Non–U.S. Government
Elected officials

National, state, and local

Traditional News Media
Point-of-view journalists

Social Media, Blogging, Tweeting, Facebook
Industry bl