WorldCat Identities

Ivins, Bruce E.

Works: 22 works in 28 publications in 1 language and 1,015 library holdings
Roles: Author
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Bruce E Ivins
Short-Course Postexposure Antibiotic Prophylaxis Combined with Vaccination Protects Against Experimental Inhalational Anthrax( Book )

4 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Prevention of inhalational anthrax after Bacillus anthracis spore exposure requires a prolonged course of antibiotic prophylaxis. In response to the 2001 anthrax attack in the United States, ̃10,000 people were offered 60 days of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax, but adherence to this regimen was poor. We sought to determine whether a short course of antibiotic prophylaxis after exposure could protect non-human primates from a high-dose spore challenge if vaccination was combined with antibiotics. Two groups of 10 rhesus macaques were exposed to ̃1,600 LD(sub 50) of spores by aerosol. Both groups were given ciprofloxacin by orogastric tube twice daily for 14 days, beginning 1-2 h after exposure. One group also received three doses of the licensed human anthrax vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) after exposure. In the ciprofloxacin-only group, four of nine monkeys (44%) survived the challenge. In contrast, all 10 monkeys that received 14 days of antibiotic plus anthrax vaccine adsorbed survived (P = 0.011). Thus, postexposure vaccination enhanced the protection afforded by 14 days of antibiotic prophylaxis alone and completely protected animals against inhalational anthrax. These data provide evidence that postexposure vaccination can shorten the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis required to protect against inhalational anthrax and may impact public health management of a bioterrorism event
Binding, uptake, and expression of diptheria toxin in cultured mammalian cells by Bruce E Ivins( Book )

1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Determination of Antibiotic Efficacy Against Bacillus Anthracis in a Mouse Aerosol Challenge Model( Book )

2 editions published in 2007 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

An anthrax-spore aerosol infection mouse model was developed as a first test of in vivo efficacy of antibiotics identified as active against Bacillus anthracis. Whole-body, LD50 aerosol challenge doses in a range of 1.9 x10(3) to 3.4 x 10(4) with spores of the fully virulent Ames strain were established for three inbred and one outbred mouse strain (A/J, BALB/c, C57BL and Swiss Webster). The BALB/c strain was further developed as a model for antibiotic efficacy. Time-course microbiological examination of tissue burdens in mice after challenge showed that spores could remain dormant in the lungs while vegetative cells disseminated to the mediastinal lymph nodes and then to the spleen accompanied with bacteremia. For antibiotic efficacy studies, BALB/c mice were challenged with 50-100 LD50 of spores followed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either ciprofloxacin 30 mg/kg (q12h), or doxycycline 40 mg/kg (q6h). A control group was treated with PBS q6h. Treatment was begun 24 h after challenge in groups of 10 mice for 14 or 21 days. The PBS-treated control mice all succumbed (10/10) to inhalation anthrax infection within 72 h. Sixty-day survival rates for ciprofloxacin and doxycycline-treated groups were 8/10, 9/10 for 14-day treatment and 10/10, 7/10 for 21-day treatment. Delayed treatment with ciprofloxacin initiated 36- and 48-h postexposure resulted in 80% survival and was statistically no different than early postexposure (24 h) treatment. This mouse model correlates closely with clinical observations of inhalational anthrax in humans and with earlier antibiotic studies in the non-human primate inhalational-anthrax model
Efficacy of a standard human anthrax vaccine against Bacillus anthracis spore challenge in guinea pigs by Bruce E Ivins( Book )

2 editions published in 1993 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The efficacy of an anthrax vaccine licensed for human use, MDPH-PA, was tested in guinea pigs intramuscularly challenged with 10, 100 or 1,000 LD50s of spores from two virulent strains of Bacillus anthracis, Vollum 1B and Ames. As demonstrated in other investigations, immunization with MDPH-PA provided better protection against challenge from the Vollum 1B strain than from the Ames strain, although vaccine efficacy against the Ames strain was better than previously reported. Enzyme-linked immunosor bent assay of serum antibody titers to B. anthracis protective antigen showed no significant correlation between survival and antibody titer
Plasmids, Pasteur, and Anthrax( )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Use of dye-ligand affinity chromatography for separation of toxin components of Bacillus anthracis( )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The protective antigen and lethal factor components of anthrax toxin were isolated from Bacillus anthracis culture supernatants and separated using dye-ligand affinity chromatography. The two components were assayed for serological activity by immunodiffusion analysis, for molecular weight by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and for biological activity by injection into Fisher 344 rats. They were shown to be serologically distinct, to possess different electrophoretic mobilities, and to demonstrate lethal toxic activity only when combined
Recent Advances in the Development of an Improved, Human Anthrax Vaccine( )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Human anthrax vaccines currently licensed in the United States and Western Europe consist of alum-precipitated or aluminum hydroxide-absorbed supernatant material from fermentor cultures of toxigenic, nonencapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. These vaccines have several drawbacks, including the need for frequent boosters, the apparent inability ot protect adequately against certain strains of B. anthracis, and occasional local reactogenicity. Studies are being undertaken to develop an improved human anthrax vaccine which is safe and efficacious, and which provides long-lasting immunity. Aspects being studied include the identification of antigens and epitopes responsible for eliciting protective immunity, the mechanisms of resistance to anthrax infection, the role of specific antibody in resistance, the differences in immunity elicited by living and chemical vaccines, the potential of new adjuvants to augment immunity, and the feasibility of developing safe vaccine strains having mutationally altered toxin genes. Both living and non-living (chemical) prototype vaccines are being developed and tested
Immunization against Anthrax with Aromatic-Dependent (Aro- ) Mutants of Bacillus anthracis and with Recombinant Strains of Bacillus subtilis Producing Anthrax Protective Antigen( )

1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The safety and efficacy of five prototype, live anthrax vaccines were studied in Hartly guinea pigs and CBA/J and A/J mice. Two of the strains, Bacillus anthracis FD111 and FD112, are Aro-mutants derived by transposon mutagenesis UM23-1. B. subtilis strains PA1 and PA2 contain a recombinant plasmid, pPA101 or pPA102 respectively, that carriers the gene from B. anthracis encoding protective antigen (PA). B. subtilis DB-104 transformed with pPA101. All five strains were less virulent in guinea pigs and A/J and CBA/J mice than the toxinogenic nonencapsulated B. anthracis veterinary vaccine Sterne strain. A/J and CBA/J inbred mice represent mouse strains that are innately susceptible and resistant, respectively, to the Sterne strain. These differences in susceptibility are due to differences in ability to produce complement component 5. In guinea pigs immunization with PA1 or PA2 vegetative cells or PA7 spores protected 95% or greater from an intramuscular spore challenge of the virulent, 'vaccine-resistant' B. anthracis Ames strain. Strain PA2 vegetative cells and strain PA7 spores were as effective as the Sterne strain in Sterne-resistant CBA/J mice. Immunization with FD111 or FS112 vegetative cells fully protected guinea pigs from challenge. Immunization with FD111 cells protected up to 100% of CBA/J mice and up to 70% of A/J mice Keywords: DNA; Clones
Production of High Levels of Bacillus Anthracis Toxin Antigens in a New, Defined Culture Medium( )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Improved cultural conditions and a new, completely synthetic medium (R medium) were developed to facilitate the production of Bacillus anthracis holotoxin antigens. Levels of these antigens, up to five-fold greater than the highest previously reported values, have been produced using the described system. The R medium was shown to be superior to 1095 and casamino acids media for the elaboration of lethal factor and protective antigen. The Sterne, V770-NP1-R, and Vollum 1B strains of B. anthracis were cultured for 42 h in R medium. Growth, pH change, glucose utilization, and supernatant protein concentration, lethal toxin activity and protease activity were monitored during this period. Lethal toxin production in all three strains was first detectable in late log phase and reached its maximum level during the stationary phase. Proteolytic activity, presumably responsible for degradation of the toxin, was detected in the supernatants of all three strains
Studies on the composition and toxicity of the ethanol-precipitated fibrous slime fraction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in liquid culture by Bruce E Ivins( )

1 edition published in 1971 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Transponson Tn916 Mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Mutagenesis of Bacillus anthracis by the streptococcal tetracycline resistance transponson, Tn916, is described. Tn916 was transferred from Streptococcus faecalis strain DS16C1 to B. anthracis VNR-1 by conjugation in a standard filter mating procedure. Tetracycline-resistant (Tcr) transconjugants were obtained at a frequency of 1.6 X 10 to the minus 8 per donar CFU. When donor and recipient cells were treated with nafcillin prior to conjugation, this frequency was increased nearly tenfold. Nafcillin pretreatment of donor and recipient strains was used in all subsequent conjugation experiments. S. faecalis strain CG110, containing multiple chromosomal insertions of Tn916, transferred the transponson to B. anthracis VNR-1 at a frequency of 9.3 X .000 001 A Tcr B. anthracis transconjugant, strain VNR-1-tet-1, transferred Tn916 to B. anthracis strain UM23-1 and Bacillus subtilis BST1 at frequencies of 2.1 X .00001 and 5.8 X .0000001 respectively. The transfer of Tn916 occurred only on membrane filters, since no Tcr transconjugants were obtained when strains VNR-1-tet-1 and UM23-1 were mixed and incubated in broth culture. Of 3000 B. anthracis UM23-1 Tcr transconjugants tested, 21 were phenylalanine auxotrophs, and two were auxotrophic for phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan
The Search for a New-Generation Human Anthrax Vaccine( )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Anthrax is a disease primarily of herbivores, but humans can become infected through contact with infected animals or animal products. The etiological agent, Bacillus anthracis, possesses two primary virulence factors: a poly-D-glumatic acid capsule and an exotoxic mixture of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF). None of the three proteins individually possesses demonstrable toxic activity; however, intravenous injection of PA + LF kills mice, rats, and guinea pigs, whereas intradermal injection of PA + EF produces edematous lesions in the skin of guinea pigs and rabbits. The combination of PA + LF is termed lethal toxin, whereas PA + EF is referred to as edema-producing toxin. The conventional designation for mixtures of all three components is anthrax toxin. The genes encoding PA, EF, and LF are located on a 174-kilobase (kb) plasmid, pXO1; the genes responsible for capsule synthesis are on a 91 kb plasmid, pXO2. In the United States, the currently licensed human vaccine against anthrax (designated here as MDPH-PA) consists of aluminum hydroxide-absorbed, supernatant material, primarily PA (11), from fermenter cultures of another toxinogenic, nonencapsulated strain, V770-Np1-R. Immunization with MDPH-PA requires a series of six doses within 18 mo, followed by yearly boosters. Immunization occasionally results in local pain and inflammation, and there is some evidence indicating that MDPH-PA may have diminished efficacy against certain virulent strains of B. The need for an improved human vaccine against anthrax is apparent
Influence of Body Weight on the Response of Fischer 344 Rats to Anthrax Lethal Toxin( Book )

1 edition published in 1989 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Groups of Fisher 344 rats were injected intravenously with Bacillus anthracis culture supernatants containing crude anthrax toxin. Times to death of rats given identical toxin preparations varied directly with the weight of the rats (P=0.0001). In contrast to previous reports, the data indicate that rat weight must be taking into account during in vivo assay of anthrax lethal toxin. Keywords: Anthrax; Toxin; Rats; Bacillus anthracis
Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalation anthrax by Arthur M Friedlander( )

1 edition published in 1993 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Each antibiotic regimen completely protected animals while on therapy and provided significant long-term protection upon discontinuance of the drug (penicillin, 7 of 10 survived, P<.02; ciprofloxacin, 8 of 9 survived, P<.002; doxycycline, 9 of 10 survived, P<.002; doxycycline plus vaccination, 9 of 9 survived, P<.0002). Protection against rechallenge was provided by combining postexposure antibiotic treatment with vaccination
Elaboration of Bacillus anthracis Antigens in a New, Defined Culture Medium( )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Evidence for Plasmid-Mediated Toxin Production in Bacillus anthracis( )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Anthrax Toxin( Book )

1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Anthrax toxin is a key virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. The three protein components of the toxin have been purified and shown to have similar molecular weights: protective antigen (PA), 85,000; lethal factor (LF), 83,000; edema factor (EF), 89,000. The edema factors acts by reusing the concentration of cAMP in animal cells, and subsequently EF was found to be a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase. The similarity of EF to Bordetella pertussis and eukaryotic cyclases suggests that the anth;rax EF gene may have originated in animals. The lethal factor causes death in rats in as little as 38 minutes. No cultured cells are known which are rapidly damaged by LF
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Alternative Names
Bruce Edwards Ivins ahli biologi asal Amerika Serikat

Bruce Edwards Ivins amerikai mikrobiológus, vakcinakutató

Bruce Edwards Ivins biologo e scienziato statunitense

Bruce Edwards Ivins US-amerikanischer Mikrobiologe, Immunologe und Forscher für B-Waffen

Bruce Ivins

Bruce Ivins Amerikaans bioloog (1946-2008)

Ivins, Bruce Edwards

بروس إيفنز

بروس إيفنز سياسي أمريكي


English (28)