WorldCat Identities

Redfield, Alfred C. (Alfred Clarence) 1890-1983

Overview
Works: 71 works in 130 publications in 2 languages and 1,726 library holdings
Genres: Periodicals  Biography 
Roles: Editor, Author, Honoree
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works about Alfred C Redfield
 
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Most widely held works by Alfred C Redfield
The biological bulletin by Mass.) Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole( )

in English and held by 974 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vols. 17, 21-105 contain Annual reports of the Marine Biological Laboratory for 1907/08-1952
Introduction to tides : the tides of the waters of New England and New York by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

8 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 185 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Interaction of sea and atmosphere: a group of contributions by American Meteorological Society( Book )

11 editions published between 1957 and 1975 in English and Italian and held by 180 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The objects of the American Meteorological Society are "the development and dissemination of knowledge of meteorology in all its phases and applications, and the advancement of its professional ideals." The organization of the Society took place in affiliation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Saint Louis, Missouri, December 29, 1919, and its incorporation, at Washington, D. C., January 21, 1920. The work of the Society is carried on by the Bulletin, the Journal, and Meteorological Monographs, by papers and discussions at meetings of the Society, through the offices of the Secretary and the Executive Secretary, and by correspondence. All of the Americas are represented in the membership of the Society as well as many foreign countries
A study of the disposal of chemical waste at sea; report of the Committee for Investigation of Waste Disposal by National Research Council (U.S.)( Book )

4 editions published in 1951 in English and held by 124 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The recollections of an ecologist on the origins of the Natural Resources Council of America. An interview with Alfred C. Redfield by Elwood R Maunder( Book )

2 editions published in 1974 in English and held by 50 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Physiology and biochemistry in modern medicine by John James Rickard Macleod( Book )

15 editions published between 1920 and 1930 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The analysis of tidal phenomena in narrow embayments by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

3 editions published in 1950 in English and held by 23 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the summer and fall of 1944, psychometric measurements were made in the lowest 1000 ft of the atmosphere over Massachusetts Bay. They were designed to show vertical distributions of temperature and humidity in more detail than had any previous observations over a comparable height range. The measuring program was carried out under the general direction of Mr. Donald E. Kerr by members of the Radiation Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in connection with studies concerning the propagation near the sea surface of radio waves of the order of centimeters or a few meters in length. The meteorological measurements were desired because they yielded information about vertical distributions of refractive index of air for radio frequencies. The vertical distribution of refractive index is of great importance in the propagation problem (Sheppard, 1946), that in the lowest 100 ft being of primary significance for the study at the Radiation Laboratory. Previous to the Radiation Laboratory measurements, vertical distributions of temperature and humidity over the ocean had been obtained from two types of observations. First, some investigators had made measurements from several fixed levels on moving ships; observations made in this manner are discussed by Sverdrup (1946). Vertical distributions determined by this method are sufficiently detailed for application to the propagation problem, but are necessarily confined to a layer which is too shallow. Secondly, a few kite soundings made over the ocean have been published. In 1913 Taylor (1914; 1915; 1917) made 14 such soundings from the whaling ship "Scotia" over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. They reached heights of about 3000 ft. In 1915, 27 kite soundings were made aboard the U. S. Coast Guard Cutter "Seneca," including some over the Labrador current, some over the Grand Banks, and some over the Gulf Stream (Wood, 1915). These reached an average height of about 3000 ft. Observations of the type made by the "Scotia" and "Seneca," while covering a sufficient height range, do not show vertical distributions of temperature and humidity in enough detail to be of material assistance in the propagation problem. For the Massachusetts Bay program a psychrograph was developed which could be carried aloft by aircraft or a balloon, or pulled up a pole or the mast of a ship. Only by use of aircraft could the desired height of 1000 ft be reached, but soundings obtained by the other methods furnished supplementary information. Nearly 500 airplane soundings were made, most of them in air which had traveled less than So miles over water since leaving land. They were used in a comparison of vertical distributions of refractive index with observed characteristics of radio transmission, as described elsewhere (Kerr, 1947). Furthermore, all the soundings were studied individually in relation to weather data from near-by land stations in order to determine what meteorological processes had led to the observed vertical distributions. The main purpose of this paper is to present some of the meteorological information which the airplane soundings and their analyses have made available. To this end, 51 selected soundings are included; showing observations made under a variety of meteorological conditions. Each sounding is accompanied by a short discussion, which contains the results of the meteorological analysis and which attempts to point out the significant features of the sounding. Secondarily, the paper is designed to illustrate the type of measurements that can be made by use of the new techniques, to bring to general attention the application to meteorology of some of the work done in connection with the propagation problem, and to publish the vertical distributions of refractive index for the chosen sounding's as examples of the observed distributions. Before the individual soundings and analyses are presented in Part II, it is desirable to discuss certain matters which form a background to their consideration. A discussion of the propagation problem and related meteorological problems which is much more exhaustive than the one given here is being published elsewhere (Kerr, 1947). As for application of the Massachusetts Bay observations to specific meteorological problems, two papers have already been completed concerning observed temperature and humidity distributions in sea breezes (Craig et al, 1945) and in the convective layer above the sea (Craig, 1946). It is hoped that other applications will follow
The oceanography of the New York Bight: physical, chemical, biological by Bostwick H Ketchum( Book )

1 edition published in 1951 in English and held by 16 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Alfred C. Redfield, 75th anniversary volume by American Society of Limnology and Oceanography( Book )

4 editions published in 1965 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The processes determining the concentration of oxygen, phosphate and other organic derivatives within the depths of the Atlantic Ocean by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

2 editions published in 1942 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Introduction: The great oceans of the world all contain at intermediate depths less oxygen and more nitrate and phosphate than is found at either lesser or greater depths. This is one of the most marked physical features of the sea which must be attributed to the action of biological agencies. Those who have discussed this condition recently are agreed that it originates through the oxidation of organic matter derived primarily from the surface layers of the ocean, where alone the original synthesis of organic matter can occur. The condition obtaining at any depth is considered to depend upon the balance between the rate at which oxygen is removed from the water by respiratory and other metabolic processes and the renewal of oxygen in the layers in question by movements of the water. One group of investigators has emphasized the latter factor as the dominant one in determining the observed distribution of oxygen (Jacobsen, 1916; Dietrich, 1937; Wiist, 1935; Wattenberg, 1929, 1938). Oxygen content is reduced to the greatest extent at those depths in which the water is in minimal motion and hence the renewal of oxygen is least. Seiwell (1937) and Sverdrup (1938) have pointed out that this condition is not a necessity and is indeed in certain situations contrary to the apparent facts. They have shown that the observed distribution of oxygen may be accounted for by assuming various suitable relations between the rates at which oxidation occurs as a function of the depth and the rates of renewal by the circulation of water. These discussions appear to consider the state of the water to depend upon factors operative more or less locally and in situ. Specifically, oxidation is assumed to follow the sinking of organic matter from the surface to the depth in question in the discussions of Wattenberg (1937) and Seiwell (1937). The renewal of oxygen is assumed to depend on the horizontal circulation. Several considerations appear to have been given insufficient weight in discussions of this subject. It is not at all clear why the depth of the oxygen minimum layer varies so greatly from place to place or what its relation is to the particular nutritive conditions in the sea's surface. Observations made in the relatively shallow water of the Gulf of Maine indicate that organic decomposition and oxidation take place for the most part not far from the sea surface. It seems not unreasonable to assume that the properties of the water which depend upon organic decomposition may have been determined primarily at a time when the water was relatively near the sea surface and that the water has subsequently moved into its observed position. The recent evidence, reviewed by Montgomery (1940), that mixing processes along surfaces of constant potential density may occur with great ease, even in the absence of directional flow, provides a convenient mechanism for establishing a distribution of oxygen and the products of organic activity at great depths which is dependent in large part on processes taking place much nearer the sea surface in remote regions. These considerations have suggested that the well marked evidence of decomposition which is observed at great depths in the central Atlantic Ocean may be due to the flow of water along surfaces of equal potential density from regions near the sea surface in high northern and southern latitudes rather than to the decay of organic matter derived directly from the overlying surface waters. This view requires that the characteristics of the water show a marked continuity in their distribution along layers of constant potential density, and that these layers emerge at or near to the sea surface i-n places suitable to produce the peculiar character of the layers in question ... The data have been converted into suitable common units. Phosphate has been expressed as milligram-atoms phosphorus per cubic meter (y-atoms P per liter) uncorrected for salt error. The function of the oxygen content which is of importance is the quantity which has disappeared from the water owing to metabolic processes. This has been approximated by assuming the water to have been saturated with air at the time it acquired its temperature and salinity at the sea surface and subtracting the recorded oxygen content from the value calculated on this assumption. The "apparent oxygen utilization" so obtained has been expressed as cubic centimeters per liter. In plotting the data for the sections, a rectangular grid on which latitude is represented horizontally and sigma-t is represented vertically has been chosen. Montgomery (1938) has shown that surfaces of equal sigma-t are approximately of constant potential density. Consequently, on such a diagram the path of free movement by lateral mixing or flow is along horizontal lines. Any correlation of the distribution of a component of the sea water with potential density becomes at once apparent, if present. The surface of the sea and surfaces of any particular depth are represented by curved lines on the diagram. A grid of this type has been used by Spilhaus (1941) to distinguish different water types in the complex situation which exists at the margin of the Gulf Stream
Memorandum on water levels accompanying Atlantic coast hurricanes by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

3 editions published in 1955 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Lake Superior study, [summer of] 1956 : summary of report( Book )

1 edition published in 1957 in English and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Thomas Gordon Thompson : November 28, 1888-August 10, 1961 by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

1 edition published in 1973 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Henry Bryant Bigelow : October 3, 1879-December 11, 1967 by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The reactions of the melanophores of the horned toad ; and, the coordination of the melanophore reactions of the horned toad by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

1 edition published in 1917 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The oceanography of the New York Bight by Bostwick H Ketchum( Book )

2 editions published in 1951 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Report to Creole Petroleum Corporation on the hydrography of Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

1 edition published in 1955 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Biological bulletin by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

2 editions published in 2016 in Undetermined and English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Vols. 17, 21-105 contain Annual reports of the Marine Biological Laboratory for 1907/08-1952
The coordination of chromatophores by harmones [sic] by Alfred C Redfield( Book )

1 edition published in 1916 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

 
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Alternative Names
Alfred C. Redfield Amerikaans oceanograaf (1890-1983)

Alfred Clarence Redfield US-amerikanischer Ozeanograph

Redfield, A. C. 1890-1983

Redfield, A. C. (Alfred Clarence), 1890-1983

Redfield, Alfred C. 1890-

Redfield, Alfred C. (Alfred Clarence), 1890-

Redfield, Alfred Clarence

Redfield, Alfred Clarence 1890-

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