Toomer, G. J.
Overview
Works:  58 works in 197 publications in 6 languages and 2,574 library holdings 

Genres:  History Sources Biography Periodicals 
Roles:  Author, Editor, Translator, ed 
Classifications:  QB41, 520 
Publication Timeline
.
Most widely held works about
G. J Toomer
 [Bookseller catalogs of William H. Allen] by William H. Allen (Firm)( Book )
Most widely held works by
G. J Toomer
Ptolemy's Almagest by
Ptolemy(
Book
)
30 editions published between 1984 and 1998 in English and Undetermined and held by 768 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
30 editions published between 1984 and 1998 in English and Undetermined and held by 768 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Campanus of Novara and medieval planetary theory. Theorica planetarum by
Campano(
Book
)
17 editions published in 1971 in 4 languages and held by 443 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
17 editions published in 1971 in 4 languages and held by 443 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Diocles on burning mirrors : the Arabic translation of the lost Greek original by
Diocles(
Book
)
22 editions published in 1976 in 4 languages and held by 389 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
22 editions published in 1976 in 4 languages and held by 389 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Conics, books V to VII : the Arabic translation of the lost Greek original in the version of the Banū Mūsā by
Apollonius(
Book
)
35 editions published in 1990 in 4 languages and held by 255 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
35 editions published in 1990 in 4 languages and held by 255 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Eastern wisedome and learning : the study of Arabic in seventeenthcentury England by
G. J Toomer(
Book
)
16 editions published between 1995 and 2007 in English and held by 185 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this masterly and original study, Professor Toomer gives the first detailed account of this process, set against the religious and political background in England and in Europe. He shows how trade with the Ottoman Empire and mistrust of Islam influenced the study of Arabic. Finally, he traces the course and causes of the drastic decline in Arabic studies towards the end of the century
16 editions published between 1995 and 2007 in English and held by 185 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
In this masterly and original study, Professor Toomer gives the first detailed account of this process, set against the religious and political background in England and in Europe. He shows how trade with the Ottoman Empire and mistrust of Islam influenced the study of Arabic. Finally, he traces the course and causes of the drastic decline in Arabic studies towards the end of the century
John Selden : a life in scholarship by
G. J Toomer(
Book
)
12 editions published between 2009 and 2011 in English and held by 181 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
12 editions published between 2009 and 2011 in English and held by 181 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Sources in the history of mathematics and physical sciences(
)
in English and Multiple languages and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
in English and Multiple languages and held by 47 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Conics : books V to VII ; the Arabic translation of the lost Greek original in the version of the Banū Mūsā ; in two volumes by
Apollonius(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
2 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
alBīrūni on transits : a study of an Arabic treatise entitled Tamhīd almustaqarr litaḥqīq maʻná almamarr [romanized
form] by
Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī(
Book
)
5 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
5 editions published in 1998 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Conics : books V to VII ; the arabic translation of the lost Greek original of the version of the Banū Mūsā ; in two volumes by
Apollonius(
Book
)
1 edition published in 1990 in Arabic and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1990 in Arabic and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Apollonius Conics books V to VII : the Arabic translation of the lost Greek original in the version of the Banu Musa by
G. J Toomer(
Book
)
3 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This is the first edition of the original text of the advanced part of the most important work on conic sections written in antiquity and one of the most influential works in mathematics. It is also the first literal English translation of it ever to be published. The purpose of the work is to make available, to those interested in the history of science and to mathematicians, a version of the work as close to the original as possible. This part of Apollonius' Conics is lost in the original Greek, and only an Arabic translation made in the 9th century survives. This text has never been published previously, and all "editions" of this part of Apollonius' work are based on the Latin translation from the Arabic published by Edmund Halley in 1710, which suffers from Halley's insufficient knowledge of Arabic and his use of a single manuscript. The present edition is based on all known manuscripts. Its other improvements over Halley's edition are: 1) the Arabic text with a full critical apparatus; 2) an accurate English translation (until now only a loose paraphrase, based on Halley's translation, has been available in English); 3) a commentary to elucidate both mathematical and historical difficulties. This book will replace Halley's edition and all its derivatives as the standard edition of this part of Apollonius' work
3 editions published in 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
This is the first edition of the original text of the advanced part of the most important work on conic sections written in antiquity and one of the most influential works in mathematics. It is also the first literal English translation of it ever to be published. The purpose of the work is to make available, to those interested in the history of science and to mathematicians, a version of the work as close to the original as possible. This part of Apollonius' Conics is lost in the original Greek, and only an Arabic translation made in the 9th century survives. This text has never been published previously, and all "editions" of this part of Apollonius' work are based on the Latin translation from the Arabic published by Edmund Halley in 1710, which suffers from Halley's insufficient knowledge of Arabic and his use of a single manuscript. The present edition is based on all known manuscripts. Its other improvements over Halley's edition are: 1) the Arabic text with a full critical apparatus; 2) an accurate English translation (until now only a loose paraphrase, based on Halley's translation, has been available in English); 3) a commentary to elucidate both mathematical and historical difficulties. This book will replace Halley's edition and all its derivatives as the standard edition of this part of Apollonius' work
Kepler's physical astronomy by
Bruce Stephenson(
Book
)
2 editions published in 1987 in Undetermined and English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Kepler's Physical Astronomy is an account of Kepler's reformulation of astronomy as a physical science, and of his successful use of (incorrect) physics as a guide in his astronomical discoveries. It presents the only reliable account of the internal logic of Kepler's socalled first and second laws, showing how and to what extent Kepler thought he had derived them from his physical principles. It explains for the first time Kepler's attempt to use an obscure discovery of Tycho Brahe to unify and confirm all of his own physical theories. It also describes the intricate (and neglected) theory which Kepler developed to account for the additional anomalies needed for the theory of the moon
2 editions published in 1987 in Undetermined and English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide
Kepler's Physical Astronomy is an account of Kepler's reformulation of astronomy as a physical science, and of his successful use of (incorrect) physics as a guide in his astronomical discoveries. It presents the only reliable account of the internal logic of Kepler's socalled first and second laws, showing how and to what extent Kepler thought he had derived them from his physical principles. It explains for the first time Kepler's attempt to use an obscure discovery of Tycho Brahe to unify and confirm all of his own physical theories. It also describes the intricate (and neglected) theory which Kepler developed to account for the additional anomalies needed for the theory of the moon
The prehistory of the theory of distributions by
Jesper Lützen(
)
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I first learned the theory of distributions from Professor Ebbe Thue Poulsen in an undergraduate course at Aarhus University. Both his lectures and the textbook, Topological Vector Spaces, Distributions and Kernels by F. Treves, used in the course, opened my eyes to the beauty and abstract simplicity of the theory. However my incomplete study of many branches of classical analysis left me with the question: Why is the theory of distributions important? In my continued studies this question was gradually answered, but my growing interest in the history of mathematics caused me to alter my question to other questions such as: For what purpose, if any, was the theory of distributions originally created? Who invented distributions and when? I quickly found answers to the last two questions: distributions were invented by S. Sobolev and L. Schwartz around 1936 and 1950, respectively. Knowing this answer, however, only created a new question: Did Sobolev and Schwartz construct distributions from scratch or were there earlier trends and, if so, what were they? It is this question, concerning the pre history of the theory of distributions, which I attempt to answer in this book. Most of my research took place at the History of Science Department of Aarhus University. I wish to thank this department for its financial and intellectual support. I am especially grateful to Lektors Kirsti Andersen from the History of Science Department and Lars Mejlbo from the Mathematics Department, for their kindness, constructive criticism, and encouragement
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
I first learned the theory of distributions from Professor Ebbe Thue Poulsen in an undergraduate course at Aarhus University. Both his lectures and the textbook, Topological Vector Spaces, Distributions and Kernels by F. Treves, used in the course, opened my eyes to the beauty and abstract simplicity of the theory. However my incomplete study of many branches of classical analysis left me with the question: Why is the theory of distributions important? In my continued studies this question was gradually answered, but my growing interest in the history of mathematics caused me to alter my question to other questions such as: For what purpose, if any, was the theory of distributions originally created? Who invented distributions and when? I quickly found answers to the last two questions: distributions were invented by S. Sobolev and L. Schwartz around 1936 and 1950, respectively. Knowing this answer, however, only created a new question: Did Sobolev and Schwartz construct distributions from scratch or were there earlier trends and, if so, what were they? It is this question, concerning the pre history of the theory of distributions, which I attempt to answer in this book. Most of my research took place at the History of Science Department of Aarhus University. I wish to thank this department for its financial and intellectual support. I am especially grateful to Lektors Kirsti Andersen from the History of Science Department and Lars Mejlbo from the Mathematics Department, for their kindness, constructive criticism, and encouragement
Pappus of Alexandria Book 7 of the Collection : Part 1. Introduction, Text, and Translation by
G. J Toomer(
)
1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The seventh book of Pappus's Collection, his commentary on the Domain (or Treasury) of Analysis, figures prominently in the history of both ancient and modern mathematics: as our chief source of information concerning several lost works of the Greek geometers Euclid and Apollonius, and as a book that inspired later mathematicians, among them Viete, Newton, and Chasles, to original discoveries in their pursuit of the lost science of antiquity. This presentation of it is concerned solely with recovering what can be learned from Pappus about Greek mathematics. The main part of it comprises a new edition of Book 7; a literal translation; and a commentary on textual, historical, and mathematical aspects of the book. It proved to be convenient to divide the commentary into two parts, the notes to the text and translation, and essays about the lost works that Pappus discusses. The first function of an edition of this kind is, not to expose new discoveries, but to present a reliable text and organize the accumulated knowledge about it for the reader's convenience. Nevertheless there are novelties here. The text is based on a fresh transcription of Vat. gr. 218, the archetype of all extant manuscripts, and in it I have adopted numerous readings, on manuscript authority or by emendation, that differ from those of the old edition of Hultsch. Moreover, many difficult parts of the work have received little or no commentary hitherto
1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The seventh book of Pappus's Collection, his commentary on the Domain (or Treasury) of Analysis, figures prominently in the history of both ancient and modern mathematics: as our chief source of information concerning several lost works of the Greek geometers Euclid and Apollonius, and as a book that inspired later mathematicians, among them Viete, Newton, and Chasles, to original discoveries in their pursuit of the lost science of antiquity. This presentation of it is concerned solely with recovering what can be learned from Pappus about Greek mathematics. The main part of it comprises a new edition of Book 7; a literal translation; and a commentary on textual, historical, and mathematical aspects of the book. It proved to be convenient to divide the commentary into two parts, the notes to the text and translation, and essays about the lost works that Pappus discusses. The first function of an edition of this kind is, not to expose new discoveries, but to present a reliable text and organize the accumulated knowledge about it for the reader's convenience. Nevertheless there are novelties here. The text is based on a fresh transcription of Vat. gr. 218, the archetype of all extant manuscripts, and in it I have adopted numerous readings, on manuscript authority or by emendation, that differ from those of the old edition of Hultsch. Moreover, many difficult parts of the work have received little or no commentary hitherto
DIOCLES On Burning Mirrors : the Arabic Translation of the Lost Greek Original by
G. J Toomer(
)
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This publication would not have been what it is without the help of many institutions and people, which I acknowledge most gratefully. I thank the Central Library and Documentation Center, Iran, and its director, Mr. Iraji Afshar, for permission to publish photo graphs of that part of ms. 392 of the Shrine Library, Meshhed, containing Diocles' treatise. I also thank the authorities of the Shrine Library, and especially Mr. Ahmad GolchTnMa'anT, for their cooperation in providing photographs of the manuscript. Mr. GolchTn Ma'anT also sent me, most generously, a copy of his catalogue of the astronomical and mathematical manuscripts of the Shrine Library. I am grateful to the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, and the UniversiteitsBibliotheek, Leid'en, for providing me with microfilms of manuscripts I wished to consult, and to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, for granting me access to its manuscripts. The text pages in Arabic script and the Index of Technical Terms were set by a computerassisted phototypesetting system, using computer programs developed at the University of Washington and a highspeed imagegeneration phototypesetting device. A continuous stream of text on punched cards was fed through the Katib formatting program, which broke up the text into lines and pages and arranged the section numbers and apparatus on each page. Output from Katib was fed through the compositor program Hattat to create a magnetic tape for use on the VideoComp phototypesetter
1 edition published in 1976 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
This publication would not have been what it is without the help of many institutions and people, which I acknowledge most gratefully. I thank the Central Library and Documentation Center, Iran, and its director, Mr. Iraji Afshar, for permission to publish photo graphs of that part of ms. 392 of the Shrine Library, Meshhed, containing Diocles' treatise. I also thank the authorities of the Shrine Library, and especially Mr. Ahmad GolchTnMa'anT, for their cooperation in providing photographs of the manuscript. Mr. GolchTn Ma'anT also sent me, most generously, a copy of his catalogue of the astronomical and mathematical manuscripts of the Shrine Library. I am grateful to the Chester Beatty Library, Dublin, and the UniversiteitsBibliotheek, Leid'en, for providing me with microfilms of manuscripts I wished to consult, and to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, for granting me access to its manuscripts. The text pages in Arabic script and the Index of Technical Terms were set by a computerassisted phototypesetting system, using computer programs developed at the University of Washington and a highspeed imagegeneration phototypesetting device. A continuous stream of text on punched cards was fed through the Katib formatting program, which broke up the text into lines and pages and arranged the section numbers and apparatus on each page. Output from Katib was fed through the compositor program Hattat to create a magnetic tape for use on the VideoComp phototypesetter
Mathematical astronomy in Copernicus's De revolutionibus by
N. M Swerdlow(
)
1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
Jan de Witt's : Text, Translation, Introduction, and Commentary by Albert W. Grootendorst by
A. W Grootendorst(
)
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The astronomy of Levi ben Gerson (12881344) : a critical edition of chapters 120 with translation and commentary by
Levi ben Gershom(
)
1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It would seem that S. Munk was the first modern scholar to draw attention to the significance of Levi ben Gerson's Astronomy, surely the most original work on astronomy written in Hebrew in the Middle Ages. Munk (1859, p. 500) called for a specialist to undertake a serious study of this work, but there was little response to his plea in the succeeding century. Indeed, this is the first edition of the Hebrew text of any part of Levi's Astronomy but for the table of contents (Renan, 1893, pp. 62432), and the poems celebrating the invention of the Jacob Staff that appear in chapter 9 (Carlebach, 191Oa, pp. 15253). The text of Levi's Astronomy is written in a ponderous Hebrew style but the content sparkles with originality. The Ptolemaic tradition is subjected to a profound critique based on the idea that the planetary models must conform both to Levi's own observations as well as those of the ancients, and the claim that astronomical theory must be philosophically sound. The enduring vigor of the Ptolemaic tradition has been characterized by O. Neugebauer as fol lows: "There is no better way to convince oneself of the inner coherence of ancient and medieval astronomy than to place side by side the Almagest, al BaWini's Opus astronomicum and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus. Chapter by chapter, theorem by theorem, table by table, these works run parallel" (1957, pp. 2056)
1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
It would seem that S. Munk was the first modern scholar to draw attention to the significance of Levi ben Gerson's Astronomy, surely the most original work on astronomy written in Hebrew in the Middle Ages. Munk (1859, p. 500) called for a specialist to undertake a serious study of this work, but there was little response to his plea in the succeeding century. Indeed, this is the first edition of the Hebrew text of any part of Levi's Astronomy but for the table of contents (Renan, 1893, pp. 62432), and the poems celebrating the invention of the Jacob Staff that appear in chapter 9 (Carlebach, 191Oa, pp. 15253). The text of Levi's Astronomy is written in a ponderous Hebrew style but the content sparkles with originality. The Ptolemaic tradition is subjected to a profound critique based on the idea that the planetary models must conform both to Levi's own observations as well as those of the ancients, and the claim that astronomical theory must be philosophically sound. The enduring vigor of the Ptolemaic tradition has been characterized by O. Neugebauer as fol lows: "There is no better way to convince oneself of the inner coherence of ancient and medieval astronomy than to place side by side the Almagest, al BaWini's Opus astronomicum and Copernicus's De Revolutionibus. Chapter by chapter, theorem by theorem, table by table, these works run parallel" (1957, pp. 2056)
Philosophical essay on probabilities by
Pierre Simon Laplace(
)
1 edition published in 1995 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
PierreSimon Laplace (17491827) is remembered among probabilitists today particularly for his "Theorie analytique des probabilites", published in 1812. The "Essai philosophique dur les probabilites" is his introduction for the second edition of this work. Here Laplace provided a popular exposition on his "Theorie". The "Essai", based on a lecture on probability given by Laplace in 1794, underwent sweeping changes, almost doubling in size, in the various editions published during Laplace's lifetime. Translations of various editions in different languages have apeared over the years. The only English translation of 1902 reads awkwardly today. This is a thorough and modern translation based on the recent reissue, with its voluminous notes, of the fifth edition of 1826, with preface by Rene Thom and postscript by Bernard Bru. In the second part of the book, the reader is provided with an extensive commentary by the translator including valuable histographical and mathematical remarks and various proofs
1 edition published in 1995 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
PierreSimon Laplace (17491827) is remembered among probabilitists today particularly for his "Theorie analytique des probabilites", published in 1812. The "Essai philosophique dur les probabilites" is his introduction for the second edition of this work. Here Laplace provided a popular exposition on his "Theorie". The "Essai", based on a lecture on probability given by Laplace in 1794, underwent sweeping changes, almost doubling in size, in the various editions published during Laplace's lifetime. Translations of various editions in different languages have apeared over the years. The only English translation of 1902 reads awkwardly today. This is a thorough and modern translation based on the recent reissue, with its voluminous notes, of the fifth edition of 1826, with preface by Rene Thom and postscript by Bernard Bru. In the second part of the book, the reader is provided with an extensive commentary by the translator including valuable histographical and mathematical remarks and various proofs
Descartes on polyhedra : a study of the De solidorum elementis by
P. J Federico(
)
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The present essay stems from a history of polyhedra from 1750 to 1866 written several years ago (as part of a more general work, not published). So many contradictory statements regarding a Descartes manuscript and Euler, by various mathematicians and historians of mathematics, were encountered that it was decided to write a separate study of the relevant part of the Descartes manuscript on polyhedra. The contemplated short paper grew in size, as only a detailed treatment could be of any value. After it was completed it became evident that the entire manuscript should be treated and the work grew some more. The result presented here is, I hope, a complete, accurate, and fair treatment of the entire manuscript. While some views and conclusions are expressed, this is only done with the facts before the reader, who may draw his or her own conclusions. I would like to express my appreciation to Professors H.S.M. Coxeter, Branko Griinbaum, Morris Kline, and Dr. HeinzJiirgen Hess for reading the manuscript and for their encouragement and suggestions. I am especially indebted to Dr. Hess, of the LeibnizArchiv, for his assistance in connection with the manuscript. I have been greatly helped in preparing the translation ofthe manuscript by the collaboration of a Latin scholar, Mr. Alfredo DeBarbieri. The aid of librarians is indispensable, and I am indebted to a number of them, in this country and abroad, for locating material and supplying copies
1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 0 WorldCat member libraries worldwide
The present essay stems from a history of polyhedra from 1750 to 1866 written several years ago (as part of a more general work, not published). So many contradictory statements regarding a Descartes manuscript and Euler, by various mathematicians and historians of mathematics, were encountered that it was decided to write a separate study of the relevant part of the Descartes manuscript on polyhedra. The contemplated short paper grew in size, as only a detailed treatment could be of any value. After it was completed it became evident that the entire manuscript should be treated and the work grew some more. The result presented here is, I hope, a complete, accurate, and fair treatment of the entire manuscript. While some views and conclusions are expressed, this is only done with the facts before the reader, who may draw his or her own conclusions. I would like to express my appreciation to Professors H.S.M. Coxeter, Branko Griinbaum, Morris Kline, and Dr. HeinzJiirgen Hess for reading the manuscript and for their encouragement and suggestions. I am especially indebted to Dr. Hess, of the LeibnizArchiv, for his assistance in connection with the manuscript. I have been greatly helped in preparing the translation ofthe manuscript by the collaboration of a Latin scholar, Mr. Alfredo DeBarbieri. The aid of librarians is indispensable, and I am indebted to a number of them, in this country and abroad, for locating material and supplying copies
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Related Identities
 Ptolemy active 2nd century Author
 Benjamin, Francis S. (Francis Seymour) 1915 Translator Editor
 Campano da Novara 1296 Author
 Apollonius of Perga Author
 Diocles (Mathematician) Author
 Selden, John 15841654
 Ptolemaeus, Claudius Author
 Diocles Author
 Diocles Mathematician Author
 Medicus, Diocles Carystius
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Arabic languageStudy and teaching (Higher) Arabists Astronomy AstronomyMathematics Astrophysics Booksellers and bookselling Campano,da Novara, Canon (Literature) Conics (Apollonius, of Perga) Conic sections De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (Copernicus, Nicolaus) Distribution (Probability theory) Geometry Great Britain History Intellectual life Intellectuals Jewish astronomy Kepler, Johannes, Levi ben Gershom, Libraries Literature Literature, Ancient Luce, T. James(Torrey James), Mathematics Mathematics, Greek MathematicsHistoriography Pennsylvania Philosophy Physical sciences Planetary theory Polyhedra Probabilities Progymnasmata de solidorum elementis (Descartes, René) Scholars Science, Medieval Selden, John, Theory of distributions (Functional analysis) Transits
Alternative Names
Gerald J. Toomer britischer Wissenschaftshistoriker
Gerald J. Toomer Brits wiskundige
Gerald J. Toomer storico e storico della scienza inglese
Toomer, G.
Toomer, G. J.
Toomer, G. J. 1934
Toomer Gerald
Toomer, Gerald 1934
Toomer, Gerald J. 1931
Toomer, Gerald James.
Toomer, Gerald James 1934
Toomer, Gerald John
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