WorldCat Identities

Merton, Robert C.

Works: 191 works in 584 publications in 8 languages and 3,980 library holdings
Genres: Bibliography 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other, Publishing director
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Robert C Merton
Continuous-time finance by Robert C Merton( Book )

90 editions published between 1989 and 2009 in 4 languages and held by 938 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Se analiza la teoría de las finanzas en sus diferentes ámbitos, entre ellos, el del inversor particular, las sociedades financieras, los mercados financieros y las relaciones que se establecen entre finanzas públicas y privadas
Finance by Zvi Bodie( Book )

57 editions published between 1997 and 2011 in 4 languages and held by 843 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This introduction to finance has a broad scope, placing an emphasis on general principles within the field. It builds its presentation upon the three 'pillars' of finance: optimization over time, asset valuation and risk management
Financial economics by Zvi Bodie( Book )

14 editions published between 2009 and 2012 in English and held by 174 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Transparency, risk management and international financial fragility by Mario Draghi( Book )

9 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 152 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This report analyses specific situations in which significant unanticipated and unintended financial risks can accumulate. The focus is, in particular, on the implicit guarantees that governments extend to banks and other financial institutions, and which may result in the accumulation, often unrecognised from the viewpoint of the government, of unanticipated risks in the balance sheet of the public sector."--Jacket
Financial innovation and the management and regulation of financial institutions by Robert C Merton( Book )

12 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 104 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

New security designs, improvements in computer telecommunications technology and advances in the theory of finance have led to revolutionary changes in the structure of financial markets and institutions. This paper provides a functional perspective on the dynamics of institutional change and uses a series of examples to illustrate the breadth and depth of institutional change that is likely to occur. These examples emphasize the role of hedging versus equity capital in managing risk, the need for risk accounting and changes in methods for implementing both regulatory and stabilization public policy
Transparency, risk management and international financial fragility by Mario Draghi( Book )

12 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 94 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Discussions of financial risk often fail to distinguish between risks that are consciously borne and those that are not. To understand the breeding conditions for financial crises the prime focus of concern should not be simply on large risk-taking per se, but on the unintended, or unanticipated accumulation of large risks by individuals, institutions or governments, often through the lack of knowledge or understanding of the risks by stakeholders and overseers of those entities. This paper analyses specific situations in which significant unanticipated and unintended financial risks are accumulated. It focuses, in particular, on the implicit guarantees that governments extend to banks and other financial institutions, which may result in the accumulation, often unconscious from the viewpoint of the government, of unanticipated risks in the balance sheet of the public sector. The paper also discusses how risk exposures can be measured, hedged and transferred through the use of derivatives, swap contracts, and other contractual agreements with specific reference to emerging markets
Do a firm's equity returns reflect the risk of its pension plans? by Li Jin( )

15 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the empirical question of whether systematic equity risk of U.S. firms as measured by beta from the Capital Asset Pricing Model reflects the risk of their pension plans. There are a number of reasons to suspect that it might not. Chief among them is the opaque set of accounting rules used to report pension assets, liabilities, and expenses. Pension plan assets and liabilities are off-balance sheet, and are often viewed as segregated from the rest of the firm, with its own trustees. Pension accounting rules are complicated. Furthermore, the role of Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation further clouds the real relation between pension plan risk and firm equity risk. The empirical findings in this paper are consistent with the hypothesis that equity risk does reflect the risk of the firm's pension plan despite arcane accounting rules for pensions. This finding is consistent with informational efficiency of the capital markets. It also has implications for corporate finance practice in the determination of the cost of capital for capital budgeting. Standard procedure uses de-leveraged equity return betas to infer the cost of capital for operating assets. But the de-leveraged betas are not adjusted for the risk of the pension assets and liabilities. Failure to make this adjustment will typically bias upwards estimates of the discount rate for capital budgeting. The magnitude of the bias is shown here to be large for a number of well-known U.S. companies. This bias can result in positive net-present-value projects being rejected
The design of financial systems : towards a synthesis of function and structure by Robert C Merton( )

11 editions published between 2002 and 2004 in English and held by 90 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper proposes a functional approach to designing and managing the financial systems of countries, regions, firms, households, and other entities. It is a synthesis of the neoclassical, neo-institutional, and behavioral perspectives. Neoclassical theory is an ideal driver to link science and global practice in finance because its prescriptions are robust across time and geopolitical borders. By itself, however, neoclassical theory provides little prescription or prediction of the institutional structure of financial systems that is, the specific kinds of financial intermediaries, markets, and regulatory bodies that will or should evolve in response to underlying changes in technology, politics, demographics, and cultural norms. The neoclassical model therefore offers important, but incomplete, guidance to decision makers seeking to understand and manage the process of institutional change. In accomplishing this task, the neo-institutional and behavioral perspectives can be very useful. In this proposed synthesis of the three approaches, functional and structural finance (FSF), institutional structure is endogenous. When particular transaction costs or behavioral patterns produce large departures from the predictions of the ideal frictionless' neoclassical equilibrium for a given institutional structure, new institutions tend to develop that partially offset the resulting inefficiencies. In the longer run, after institutional structures have had time to fully develop, the predictions of the neoclassical model will be approximately valid for asset prices and resource allocations. Through a series of examples, the paper sets out the reasoning behind the FSF synthesis and illustrates its application
A new framework for analyzing and managing macrofinancial risks of an economy by Dale Gray( )

9 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 71 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The high cost of international economic and financial crises highlights the need for a comprehensive framework to assess the robustness of national economic and financial systems. This paper proposes a new comprehensive approach to measure, analyze, and manage macroeconomic risk based on the theory and practice of modern contingent claims analysis (CCA). We illustrate how to use the CCA approach to model and measure sectoral and national risk exposures, and analyze policies to offset their potentially harmful effects. This new framework provides economic balance sheets for inter-linked sectors and a risk accounting framework for an economy. CCA provides a natural framework for analysis of mismatches between an entity's assets and liabilities, such as currency and maturity mismatches on balance sheets. Policies or actions that reduce these mismatches will help reduce risk and vulnerability. It also provides a new framework for sovereign capital structure analysis. It is useful for assessing vulnerability, policy analysis, risk management, investment analysis, and design of risk control strategies. Both public and private sector participants can benefit from pursuing ways to facilitate more efficient macro risk accounting, improve price and volatility discovery, and expand international risk intermediation activities
Optimal investment strategies for university endowment funds by Robert C Merton( )

11 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A common approach to the management of endowment is to treat it as if it were the only asset of the university. This approach leads to prescriptions for optimal investment and expenditure policies that are essentially the same across universities. Indeed, the resulting optimal portfolio strategies are focused almost exclusively on providing an efficient tradeoff between risk and expected return, a generic objective that is just as applicable to individuals and non-academic institutions as it is to universities. In contrast, the model developed here provides intertemporally optimal investment and expenditure rules for endowment that take account of the university's overall objectives and total resources. The explicit inclusion of other university assets in addition to endowment leads to optimal endowment portfolios that are not efficient in the sense of the risk-return tradeoff. Moreover, two universities with similar objectives and endowments can have very different optimal portfolios and expenditure patterns if their non-endowment sources of cash flow are different. The model also takes account of the uncertainty surrounding the costs of the various activities such as education, research, and knowledge storage that define the purpose of the university. As a result, the analysis reveals a perhaps somewhat latent role for endowment: namely, hedging against unanticipated changes in those costs
New framework for measuring and managing macrofinancial risk and financial stability by Dale Gray( )

12 editions published between 2007 and 2009 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper proposes a new approach to improve the way central banks can analyze and manage the financial risks of a national economy. It is based on the modern theory and practice of contingent claims analysis (CCA), which is successfully used today at the level of individual banks by managers, investors, and regulators. The basic analytical tool is the risk-adjusted balance sheet, which shows the sensitivity of the enterprise's assets and liabilities to external "shocks." At the national level, the sectors of an economy are viewed as interconnected portfolios of assets, liabilities, and guarantees -- some explicit and others implicit. Traditional approaches have difficulty analyzing how risks can accumulate gradually and then suddenly erupt in a full-blown crisis. The CCA approach is well-suited to capturing such "non-linearities" and to quantifying the effects of asset-liability mismatches within and across institutions. Risk-adjusted CCA balance sheets facilitate simulations and stress testing to evaluate the potential impact of policies to manage systemic risk
Labor supply flexibility and portfolio choice in a life-cycle model by Zvi Bodie( Book )

11 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper examines the effect of the labor-leisure choice on portfolio and consumption decisions over an individual's life cycle. The model incorporates the fact that individuals may have considerable flexibility in varying their work effort (including their choice of when to retire). Given this flexibility, the individual simultaneously determines optimal levels of current consumption, labor effort, and an optimal financial investment strategy at each point in his life cycle. We show that labor and investment choices are intimately related. The ability to vary labor supply ex post induces the individual to assume greater risks in his investment portfolio ex ante. The model explains why the young (enjoying greater labor flexibility over their working lives) may take greater investment risks than the old. It also offers an explanation as to why consumption spending is relatively "smooth" despite volatility in asset prices. Finally, the paper provides a compact method for valuing the risky cash flows associated with future wage income
Finanzas by Zvi Bodie( Book )

6 editions published between 1999 and 2003 in Spanish and held by 67 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

¿Qué son las finanzas? - El sistema financiero - Interpretación y pronóstico de los estados financieros - El valor del dinero en el tiempo y el análisis del flujo de efectivo descontado - Planeación financiera del ciclo de vida - Análisis de los proyectos de inversión - Principios de valuación de activos - Valuación de acciones ordinarias - Visión general de la administración del riesgo - Cobertura, aseguramiento y diversificación - Selección de una cartera de inversión - El modelo de valuación de activos de capital - Precios forward y de futuros - Opciones y derechos contingentes - Estructura de capital - Finanzas y estrategia corporativa
Systemic risk and the refinancing ratchet effect by Amir E Khandani( )

10 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The confluence of three trends in the U.S. residential housing market---rising home prices, declining interest rates, and near-frictionless refinancing opportunities---led to vastly increased systemic risk in the financial system. Individually, each of these trends is benign, but when they occur simultaneously, as they did over the past decade, they impose an unintentional synchronization of homeowner leverage. This synchronization, coupled with the indivisibility of residential real estate that prevents homeowners from deleveraging when property values decline and homeowner equity deteriorates, conspire to create a "ratchet" effect in which homeowner leverage is maintained or increased during good times without the ability to decrease leverage during bad times. If refinancing-facilitated homeowner-equity extraction is sufficiently widespread---as it was during the years leading up to the peak of the U.S. residential real-estate market---the inadvertent coordination of leverage during a market rise implies higher correlation of defaults during a market drop. To measure the systemic impact of this ratchet effect, we simulate the U.S. housing market with and without equity extractions, and estimate the losses absorbed by mortgage lenders by valuing the embedded put-option in non-recourse mortgages. Our simulations generate loss estimates of $1.5 trillion from June 2006 to December 2008 under historical market conditions, compared to simulated losses of $280 billion in the absence of equity extractions
Pension plan integration as insurance against social security risk by Robert C Merton( )

5 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The manifest purposes of integrating an employer-provided pension plan with social security are:(1) to ensure retirement income adequacy for all covered employees; and (2) to ensure retirement income equity, defined as equal total replacement rates for all employees regardless of salary level. The focus of this paper, however, is on an equally important (and perhaps latent) consequence of integration: the alteration of the risk-bearing relationships between employees, employers and the government vis-a-vis social security benefits. The main alteration is that the employer in effect insures his covered employees against adverse changes in their social security retirement benefit. Using the option-pricing methodology of modern contingent claims analysis, we develop a formal model to explore the quantitative aspects of this change. While the focus of the analysis is on full integration, we do explicitly deal with various degrees of partial integration as is currently practiced. We also analyze the effects of a switch from a non-integrated to an equivalent-cost integrated plan when private benefits are fixed in nominal terms and when they are indexed. In this connection we examine how integrated plans are affected when the sponsor makes ad hoc post-retirement benefit increases. We also consider the incentive effects on worker mobility of the adoption of integrated plans. The analysis is also used to highlight what we believe to be important unintended consequences of integrating pension plans with social security
The derivatives sourcebook by Terence Lim( Book )

6 editions published in 2006 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Derivatives Sourcebook is a citation study and classification system that organizes the many strands of the derivatives literature and assigns each citation to a category. Over 1800 research articles are collected and organized into a simple web-based searchable database. We have also included the 1997 Nobel lectures of Robert Merton and Myron Scholes as a backdrop to this literature
Defined benefit versus defined contribution pension plans : what are the real tradeoffs? by Zvi Bodie( )

6 editions published in 1985 in English and held by 49 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution plans have significantly different characteristics with respect to the risks faced by employers and employees, the sensitivity of benefits to inflation, the flexibility of funding, and the importance of governmental supervision. In this paper, we examine some of the main tradeoffs involved in the choice between DB and DC plans. Our most general conclusion is that neither plan type can be said to wholly dominate the other from the perspective of employee welfare. The major advantage of DB plans is the potential they offer to provide a stable replacement rate of final income to workers. If the replacement rate is the relevant variable for worker retirement utility, then DB plans offer some degree of insurance against real wage risk. Of course, protection offered to workers is risk borne by the firm. As real wages change, funding rates must correspondingly adjust. However, to the extent that real wage risk is largely diversifiable to employers, and nondiversifiable to employees, the replacement rate stability should be viewed as an advantage of DB plans. The advantages of DC plans are most apparent during periods of inflation uncertainty. These are: the predictability of the value of pension wealth, the ability to invest in inflation-hedged portfolios rather than nominal DB annuities, and the fully-funded nature of the DC plan. Finally, the DC plan has the advantage that workers can more easily determine the true present value of the pension benefit they earn in any year, although they may have more incertainty about future pension-benefit flows at retirement. Measuring the present value of accruing defined benefits is difficult at best and imposes severe informational requirements on workers. Such difficulties could lead workers to misvalue their total compensation, and result in misinformed behavior
On estimating the expected return on the market : an exploratory investigation by Robert C Merton( )

5 editions published between 1980 and 1981 in English and held by 45 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The expected market return is a number frequently required for the solution of many investment and corporate finance problems, but by comparison with other financial variables, there has been little research on estimating this expected return. Current practice for estimating the expected market return adds the historical average realized excess market returns to the Current observed interest rate. While this model explicitly reflects the dependence of the market return on the interest rate, it fails to account for the effect of changes in the level of market risk. Three models of equilibrium expected market returns which reflect this dependence are analyzed in this paper. Estimation procedures which incorporate the prior restriction that equilibrium expected excess returns on the market must be positive arc derived and applied to return data for the period 1926- 1978. The principal conclusions from this exploratory investigation are: (1) in estimating models of the expected market return. the non-negativity restriction of the expected excess return should be explicitly included as part of the specification; (2) estimators which use realized returns should be adjusted for heteroscedasticity
Customers and investors : a framework for understanding financial institutions by Robert C Merton( )

5 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 44 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Financial institutions have both investors and customers. Investors, such as those who invest in stocks and bonds or private/public-sector guarantors of institutions, expect an appropriate risk-adjusted return in exchange for the financing and risk-bearing that they provide. Customers of a financial intermediary, in contrast, provide financing in exchange for a specific set of services, and do not want the fulfillment of these services to be contingent on the credit risk of the intermediary, even when they are not small, uninformed agents lacking in sophistication. This paper develops a framework that defines the roles of customers and investors in intermediaries, and uses the framework to provide an economic foundation for the aversion to intermediary credit risk on the part of its customers. It further explores the implications of this customer-investor nexus for a host of issues related to how contracts between financial intermediaries and their customers are structured and how risks are shared between them, as well as the consequences of (unexpected) deviations from the ex ante optimal contractual arrangement. We show that the optimality of insulating the customer from the credit risk of the intermediary explains various contractual arrangements, institutions, and regulatory practices observed in practice. Moreover, customers and investors are often intertwined in practice, and so this intertwining provides insights into the adoption of "too-big-to-fail" policies and bailouts by regulators in general. Finally, the approach taken here shows that financial crises may be a consequence of observed but unexpected deviations from the ex ante optimal risk-sharing arrangement between financial intermediaries and their customers
Macroeconomics and finance : the role of the stock market by Stanley Fischer( )

6 editions published between 1984 and 1985 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The treatment of the stock market in finance and macroeconomics exemplifies many of the important differences in perspective between the two fields. In finance, the stock market is the single most important market with respect to corporate investment decisions. In contrast, macroeconomic modelling and policy discussion assign a relatively minor role to the stockmarket in investment decisions. This paper explores four possible explanations for this neglect and concludes that macro analysis should give more attention to the stock market. Despite the frequent jibe that "the stockmarket has forecast ten of the last six recessions, " the stock market is in fact a good predictor of the business cycle and the components of GNP. We examine the relative importance of the required return on equity compared with the interest rate in the determination of the cost of capital, and hence, investment. In this connection, we review the empirical success of the Q theory of investment which relates investment to stock market evaluations of firms. One of the explanations for the neglect of the stock market in macroeconomics may be the view that because the stock market fluctuates excessively, rational managers will pay little attention to the market informulating investment plans. This view is shown to be unfounded by demonstrating that rational managers will react to stock price changes even if the stock market fluctuates excessively. Finally, we review the extremely important issue of whether the market does fluctuate excessively, and conclude that while not ruled out on a priori theoretical grounds, the empirical evidence for such excess fluctuations has not been decisive
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Continuous-time finance
FinanceFinancial economicsTransparency, risk management and international financial fragilityTransparency, risk management and international financial fragilityFinanzasThe derivatives sourcebook
Alternative Names
Carhart Merton, Robert 1944-

Merton, Bob 1944-

Merton Robert

Merton, Robert 1944-

Merton, Robert C.

Merton, Robert Carhart 1944-

Robert C. Merton American economist

Robert C. Merton Amerikaans econoom

Robert C. Merton amerikansk ekonom

Robert C. Merton amerikansk økonom

Robert C. Merton amerykański ekonomista

Robert C. Merton economista estadounidense

Robert Carhart Merton

Robert Carhart Merton US-amerikanischer Finanzwissenschaftler und Nobelpreisträger

Robert Merton

Robert Merton economist american

Robert Merton economista estatunidenc

Robert Merton economista statunitense

Robert Merton économiste américain

Мертон Роберт

Мертон Роберт К.

Мертон, Роберт Кархарт

Роберт Кархарт Мертан

Роберт Мертон

Роберт Мертон Кархарт

Робърт Мъртън

Ռոբերտ Մերտոն

רוברט קרהרט מרטון

רוברט קרהרט מרטון כלכלן אמריקאי

رابرٹ سی . مرٹن

رابرٹ مرٹن

روبرت مرتون اقتصاددان آمریکایی

روبرت ميرتون

روبرت ميرتون عالم اقتصاد أمريكي

রবার্ট মার্টন

রবার্ট মার্টন মার্কিন অর্থনীতিবিদ

로버트 C. 머튼

머튼, 로버트 C. 1944-

메톤, 로버트 C. 1944-

모둔, 뤄보터 C 1944-

マートン, ロバート・C