WorldCat Identities

Milanović, Branko

Works: 132 works in 615 publications in 8 languages and 14,718 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author, Editor, Other, Contributor, wpr, Interviewee, Author of introduction, 460
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Branko Milanović
The haves and the have-nots : a brief and idiosyncratic history of global inequality by Branko Milanović( Book )

23 editions published between 2010 and 2015 in English and Spanish and held by 2,721 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

One of the world's leading experts on wealth, poverty, and the gap that separates them, explains how wealth is unevenly spread throughout our world, now and through time. Economist Branko Milanovic uses history, literature and stories straight out of today's newspapers, to discuss one of the major divisions in our social lives: between the haves and the have-nots. He reveals just how rich Elizabeth Bennet's suitor Mr. Darcy really was; how much Anna Karenina gained by falling in love; how wealthy ancient Romans compare to today's super-rich; where in Kenyan income distribution was Obama's grandfather; how we should think about Marxism in a modern world; and how location where one is born determines his wealth. He goes beyond mere entertainment to explain why inequality matters, how it damages our economic prospects, and how it can threaten the foundations of the social order that we take for granted.--From publisher description
Worlds apart : measuring international and global inequality by Branko Milanović( )

36 editions published between 2005 and 2011 in 3 languages and held by 2,670 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"We are used to thinking about inequality within countries - about rich Americans versus poor Americans, for instance. But what about inequality between all citizens of the world? Worlds Apart addresses just how to measure global inequality among individuals, and shows that inequality is shaped by complex forces often working in different directions. Branko Milanovic, a top World Bank economist, analyzes income distribution worldwide using, for the first time, household survey data from more than 100 countries. He evenhandedly explains the main approaches to the problem, offers a more accurate way of measuring inequality among individuals, and discusses the relevant policies of first-world countries and nongovernmental organizations." "Inequality has increased between nations over the last half century (richer countries have generally grown faster than poorer countries). And yet the two most populous nations, China and India, have also grown fast. But over the past two decades inequality within countries has increased. As complex as reconciling these three data trends may be, it is clear: the inequality between the world's individuals is staggering. At the turn of the twenty-first century, the richest 5 percent of people receive one-third of total global income, as much as the poorest 80 percent. While a few poor countries are catching up with the rich world, the differences between the richest and poorest individuals around the globe are huge and likely growing."--Jacket
Income and influence : social policy in emerging market economies by Ethan B Kapstein( )

11 editions published between 2003 and 2014 in English and held by 1,814 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Global inequality : a new approach for the age of globalization by Branko Milanović( Book )

39 editions published between 2016 and 2018 in 7 languages and held by 1,300 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"One of the world's leading economists of inequality, Branko Milanovic presents a bold new account of the dynamics that drive inequality on a global scale. Drawing on vast data sets and cutting-edge research, he explains the benign and malign forces that make inequality rise and fall within and among nations. He also reveals who has been helped the most by globalization, who has been held back, and what policies might tilt the balance toward economic justice. Global Inequality takes us back hundreds of years, and as far around the world as data allow, to show that inequality moves in cycles, fueled by war and disease, technological disruption, access to education, and redistribution. The recent surge of inequality in the West has been driven by the revolution in technology, just as the Industrial Revolution drove inequality 150 years ago. But even as inequality has soared within nations, it has fallen dramatically among nations, as middle-class incomes in China and India have drawn closer to the stagnating incomes of the middle classes in the developed world. A more open migration policy would reduce global inequality even further. Both American and Chinese inequality seem well entrenched and self-reproducing, though it is difficult to predict if current trends will be derailed by emerging plutocracy, populism, or war. For those who want to understand how we got where we are, where we may be heading, and what policies might help reverse that course, Milanovic's compelling explanation is the ideal place to start."--Provided by publisher
When markets fail : social policy and economic reform by Branko Milanović( )

9 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 974 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Poverty and social assistance in transition countries by Jeanine Braithwaite( Book )

24 editions published between 1957 and 2000 in English and held by 478 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This study examines poverty and social assistance in six countries - Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Estonia, Russia, and Kyrgyz Republic - comparing the poverty profiles and the correlates of poverty between the two regions. The study finds that the profile of poverty is more sharply defined in Eastern Europe than in the former Soviet Union, where poverty is more widespread. This holds the potential for better targeting of social assistance in Eastern Europe, and the study proposes a novel two-step approach to identify the poor."--Jacket
The Transition from socialism in Eastern Europe : domestic restructuring and foreign trade by Arye L Hillman( Book )

16 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 397 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Income, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market economy by Branko Milanović( Book )

14 editions published between 1997 and 1998 in English and held by 317 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Renta, desigualdad y pobreza en los nuevos estados socialistas desde 1987 a 1996
Liberalization and entrepreneurship : dynamics of reform in socialism and capitalism by Branko Milanović( Book )

9 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 285 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Does tariff liberalization increase wage inequality? some empirical evidence by Branko Milanović( )

17 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 202 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The objective of the paper is to answer an often-asked question : if tariff rates are reduced, what will happen to wage inequality? We consider two types of wage inequality : between occupations (skills premium), and between industries. We use two large data bases of wage inequality that have become recently available and a large dataset of average tariff rates all covering the period between 1980 and 2000. We find that tariff reduction is associated with higher inter-occupational and inter-industry inequality in poorer countries (those below the world median income) and the reverse in richer countries. The results for inter-occupational inequality though must be treated with caution"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Measuring ancient inequality by Branko Milanović( )

14 editions published between 2007 and 2012 in English and Undetermined and held by 150 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known as social tables, stretching from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in 1000, to England in 1688, to Nueva Espa' a around 1790, to China in 1880 and to British India in 1947. It applies two new concepts in making those assessments -- what we call the inequality possibility frontier and the inequality extraction ratio. Rather than simply offering measures of actual inequality, we compare the latter with the maximum feasible inequality (or surplus) that could have been extracted by the elite. The results, especially when compared with modern poor countries, give new insights in to the connection between inequality and economic development in the very long run"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Does liberté=égalité? : a survey of the empirical links between democracy and inequality with some evidence on the transition economies by Mark Gradstein( )

16 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and Undetermined and held by 137 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The effect of the distribution of political rights on income inequality has been studied both theoretically and empirically. Gradstein and Milanovic review the existing literature and, in particular, the available empirical evidence. The literature suggests that formal exclusion from the political process through restrictions on the voting franchise appears to have caused a high degree of economic inequality. And democratization in the form of franchise expansion has typically led to an expansion in redistribution, at least in the small sample of episodes studied. In a less pronounced way, albeit more emphatically compared with the ambiguous results of earlier research, recent evidence indicates an inverse relationship between other measures of democracy, based on civil liberties and political rights, and inequality. The transition experience of Eastern European countries, however, seems to some extent go against these conclusions. This opens possible new vistas for research, namely the need to incorporate the length of democratic experience and the role played by ideology and social values. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to study the effects of inequality and poverty in the world. The study was funded by the Bank's Research Support Budget under the research project "Democracy and Redistribution" (RPO 683-01)
Global income inequality what it is and why it matters by Branko Milanović( )

11 editions published between 2006 and 2012 in English and held by 135 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The paper presents a nontechnical summary of the current state of debate on the measurement and implications of global inequality (inequality between citizens of the world). It discusses the relationship between globalization and global inequality. And it shows why global inequality matters and proposes a scheme for global redistribution. "--World Bank web site
Is inequality in Africa really different? by Branko Milanović( )

9 editions published in 2003 in English and Undetermined and held by 126 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

High inequality in Africa is something of a paradox: Africa should be a low-inequality continent according to the Kuznets hypothesis (because African countries are poor and agriculture-based), and also because land (the main asset) is widely shared. Milanovic's hypothesis is that African inequality is politically determined. Yet in the empirical analysis, despite the introduction of several political variables, there is still an inequality-increasing "Africa effect" linked to ethnic fractionalization. The politics, however, may work through ethnic fractionalization, which provides an easy and secure basis for the formation of political groups. Although this is a plausible explanation, it is not fully satisfactory, and the author criticizes it in the concluding section. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to study inequality in the world
Half a world regional inequality in five great federations by Branko Milanović( )

8 editions published between 2005 and 2012 in English and held by 124 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"The paper studies regional (spatial) inequality in the five most populous countries in the world: China, India, the United States, Indonesia, and Brazil in the period 1980-2000. They are all federations or quasi-federations composed of entities with substantial economic autonomy. Two types of regional inequalities are considered: Concept 1 inequality, which is inequality between mean incomes (GDP per capita) of states/provinces, and Concept 2 inequality, which is inequality between population-weighted regional mean incomes. The first inequality speaks to the issue of regional convergence, the second, to the issue of overall inequality as perceived by citizens within a nation. All three Asian countries show rising inequality in terms of both concepts in the 1990s. Divergence in income outcomes is particularly noticeable for the most populous states/provinces in China and India. The United States, where regional inequality is the least, shows further convergence. Brazil, with the highest level of regional inequality, displays no trend. A regression analysis fails to establish robust association between the usual macroeconomic variables and the two types of regional inequality. "--World Bank web site
Social Transfers and Social Assistance An Empirical Analysis Using Latvian Household Survey Data by Branko Milanović( )

12 editions published between 1999 and 2000 in English and Undetermined and held by 124 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Istance Report (February 2000). The author may be contacted at
Poverty, inequality, and social policy in transition economies by Branko Milanović( )

12 editions published between 1900 and 1999 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

November 1995 What happens to poverty and income inequality during the early period of transition to a market economy? Poverty is on the rise, and income inequality widens. Better targeting of social assistance and pension reform are the necessary policy reforms. In examining what happens to poverty and income inequality during the early period of transition to a market economy, Milanovic covers the period up to 1993. His analysis includes almost all transition economies that were not affected by wars, blockades, or embargoes. (In economies so affected, the intrinsic issues of transition are overshadowed by more basic issues of war or quasi-war economy and survival.) The two key issues of social policy in transition economies are pension reform and better targeting of social assistance. Pensions represent 70 to 80 percent of cash social expenditures. No reduction of current levels of social spending (which is unsustainable) can be envisaged without pension reform. Better targeting of social assistance is needed because many universally or enterprise-provided benefits have been terminated, poverty has increased, and social programs lack funding. If poverty is on the rise and money is scarce, better targeting is the only option. This paper -- a product of the Transition Economics Division, Policy Research Department -- is part of a larger effort in the department to study social effects of transition
Income convergence during the disintegration of the world economy, 1919-39 by Branko Milanović( )

10 editions published between 2002 and 2003 in English and held by 121 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Some economists have argued that the process of disintegration of the world economy between the two world wars led to income divergence between the countries. This is in keeping with the view that economic integration leads to income convergence. The paper shows that the view that the period 1919-39 was associated with divergence of incomes among the rich countries is wrong. On the contrary, income convergence continued and even accelerated. Since the mid-19th century, incomes of rich countries tended to converge in peacetime regardless of whether their economies were more or less integrated. This, in turn, implies that it may not be trade and capital and labor flows that matter for income convergence but some other, less easily observable, forces like diffusion of information and technology. This paper--a product of the Poverty Team, Development Research Group--is part of a larger effort in the group to study global inequality
Explaining the increase in inequality during the transition by Branko Milanović( )

10 editions published between 1998 and 1999 in English and held by 118 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Since the beginning of transition to market economy, inequality has increased in all transition countries. The factors driving inequality up: increasing wage inequality (as workers move from a relatively egalitarian state sector to a less equal private sector), and the rising share of income from self-employment and property (both very unequally distributed). Social transfers have failed to dampen the increase in inequality because they have remained, as under socialism, unfocused. The transition from planned to market economy has witnessed one of the biggest and fastest increases in inequality ever recorded. On average, inequality in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union increased from a Gini coefficient of 25?28 (below the OECD average) to 35?38 (above OECD average) in less than 10 years. In some countries, such as Bulgaria, Russia, and Ukraine, the increase in inequality has been even more dramatic, outpacing the yearly speed of Gini increase in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s by three to four times. What are the factors pushing inequality up? Milanovic constructs a simple model of transition defined as the removal of restriction on private sector development. As the private sector becomes free, it attracts workers who leave the shrinking state sector. Wage inequality in the private sector is greater than in the old, relatively egalitarian state sector. This is one of the forces pushing inequality up. The second is the growth of income from self-employment and property, both of which are fairly unequal sources of income both before the transition and now. In addition, some of the released state sector workers remain unemployed. Their incomes decline. Increased inequality is thus accompanied by the hollowing out of the middle class (where the middle class is defined as the former state sector workers). One part of state sector workers moves to higher incomes as workers in the private sector or entrepreneurs; another remains jobless. The model is contrasted with the actual developments in six transition economies: Bulgaria (over 1989-95), Hungary (1987-93), Latvia (1989-96), Poland (1987-95), Russia (1989-94), and Slovenia (1987-95). In all countries, wage inequality has increased (in some, like Russia, dramatically); income from self-employment has remained as unequal as before but its share in total income has risen, and the importance of social transfers in total income has increased, but its focus on the poor has not improved. This paper-a product of the Development Economics Research Group-is part of a larger effort in the group to study social issues in transition economies. The author may be contacted at
True World Income Distribution, 1988 and 1993 First Calculations, Based on Household Surveys Alone by Branko Milanović( )

14 editions published in 1999 in English and Undetermined and held by 118 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Inequality in world income is very high, according to household surveys, more because of differences between mean country incomes than because of inequality within countries. World inequality increased between 1988 and 1993, driven by slower growth in rural per capita incomes in populous Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, and India) than in large, rich OECD countries, and by increasing income differences between urban China on the one hand and rural China and rural India on the other. - Milanovic derives the distribution of individuals' income or expenditures for two years, 1988 and 1993. His is the first paper to calculate world distribution for individuals based entirely on data from household surveys. The data, from 91 countries, are adjusted for differences in purchasing power parity between the countries. Measured by the Gini index, inequality increased from an already high 63 in 1988 to 66 in 1993. This increase was driven more by rising differences in mean incomes between countries than by rising inequalities within countries. Contributing most to the inequality were rising urban-rural differences in China and the slower growth of rural purchasing-power-adjusted incomes in South Asia than in several large developed market economies. This paper - a product of Poverty and Human Resources, Development Research Group - is part of a larger effort in the group to study inequality and poverty in the world. Also published in The Economic Journal, January 2002 pp. 51-92 The author may be contacted at
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Worlds apart : measuring international and global inequality
Worlds apart : measuring international and global inequalityIncome and influence : social policy in emerging market economiesWhen markets fail : social policy and economic reformPoverty and social assistance in transition countriesIncome, inequality, and poverty during the transition from planned to market economy
Alternative Names
Branko Milanović

Branko Milanović Economista serbioamericano

Branko Milanović Serbian-American economist

Milanovic, B. 1953-

Milanovic [!] B. экономист 1953-

Milanovic, Branco

Milanovíc Branko

Milanović, Branko 1953-...

Бранка Мілановіч

Бранко Милановић

Миланович Б. экономист 1953-

밀라노비치, 브랑코

브랑코 밀라노비치