WorldCat Identities

Haltiwanger, John C.

Overview
Works: 46 works in 74 publications in 1 language and 218 library holdings
Genres: Longitudinal studies  Case studies  History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HD5717.5.U6, 331.120973
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by John C Haltiwanger
Microeconomic evidence of creative destruction in industrial and developing countries( )

1 edition published in 2004 in English and held by 34 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper we provide an analysis of the process of creative destruction across 24 countries and 2-digit industries over the past decade. We rely on a newly assembled dataset that draws from different micro data sources (business registers, census, or representative enterprise surveys). The novelty of our approach is in the harmonisation of firm level data across countries, which enables international comparisons and the identification of country specific factors as opposed to sectoral and time effects. All countries display a massive reallocation of resources, with the entry and exit of many firms in all markets, the failure of many newcomers and the expansion of successful ones. This process of creative destruction affects productivity directly, by reallocating resources towards more productive uses, but also indirectly through the effects of increased market contestability. There are also large differences across groups of countries. While entry and exit rates are fairly similar across industrial countries, post entry performance differs markedly between Europe and the U.S., a potential indication of the importance of barriers to firm growth as opposed to barriers to entry. Transition economies show an even more impressive process of creative destruction and, amongst them, those that have progressed the most towards a market economy show better outcomes from this process. Finally, Mexico shows large firm dynamics with many new firms entering the battle but also many failing rapidly, while Argentina resembles more of Continental Europe with smaller flows and less impressive post-entry growth of successful firms
Cross country differences in productivity: the role of allocation and selection by Eric J Bartelsman( )

11 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper combines different strands of the productivity literature to investigate the effect of idiosyncratic (firm-level) policy distortions on aggregate outcomes. On the one hand, a growing body of empirical research has been relating cross-country differences in key economic outcomes, such as productivity or output per capita, to differences in policies and institutions that shape the business environment. On the other hand, a branch of empirical research has attempted to shed light on the determinants of productivity at the firm level and the evolution of the distribution of productivity across firms within each industry. In this paper, we exploit a rich source of data with harmonized statistics on firm level variation within industries for a number of countries. Our key empirical finding is that there is substantial variation in the within-industry covariance between size and productivity across countries, but this covariance varies significantly across countries and is affected by the presence of idiosyncratic distortions. We develop a model in which heterogeneous firms face adjustment frictions (overhead labor and quasi-fixed capital) and idiosyncratic distortions. We show that the model can be readily calibrated to match the observed cross-country patterns of the within-industry covariance between productivity and size and thus help to explain the observed differences in aggregate performance
Job creation and destruction by Steven J Davis( Book )

1 edition published in 1996 in English and held by 18 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Annotation
Aggregate Growth What Have We Learned from Microeconomic Evidence? by John C Haltiwanger( )

1 edition published in 2000 in English and held by 15 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper provides a synthesis of what is known about the determinants of output growth based on studying microeconomic data sets. It starts with a summary of the theoretical explanations which help reconcile heterogeneous performance observed across establishments in the same sector. The related theoretical literature on creative destruction models of growth is also discussed. This is followed by a review of the recent empirical literature on the relationship between microeconomic and macroeconomic productivity growth. The final section discusses the main empirical findings, the caveats of interpretation and the main issues of interpretation underlying the relationship between reallocation and growth
Worker flows, job flows and firm wage policies : an analysis of Slovenia by John C Haltiwanger( Book )

3 editions published in 2002 in English and held by 9 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Microeconomic evidence of creative destruction in industrial and developing countries by Eric J Bartelsman( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper we provide an analysis of the process of creative destruction across 24 countries and 2-digit industries over the past decade. We rely on a newly assembled dataset that draws from different micro data sources (business registers, census, or representative enterprise surveys). The novelty of our approach is in the harmonisation of firm level data across countries, which enables international comparisons and the identification of country-specific factors as opposed to sectoral and time effects. All countries display a massive reallocation of resources, with the entry and exit of many firms in all markets, the failure of many newcomers and the expansion of successful ones. This process of creative destruction affects productivity directly, by reallocating resources towards more productive uses, but also indirectly through the effects of increased market contestability. There are also large differences across groups of countries. While entry and exit rates are fairly similar across industrial countries, post entry performance differs markedly between Europe and the U.S., a potential indication of the importance of barriers to firm growth as opposed to barriers to entry. Transition economies show an even more impressive process of creative destruction and, amongst them, those that have progressed the most towards a market economy show better outcomes from this process. Finally, Mexico shows large firm dynamics with many new firms entering the battle but also many failing rapidly, while Argentina resembles more of Continental Europe with smaller flows and less impressive post-entry growth of successful firms
The link between aggregate amd micro productivity growth : evidence from retail trade by Lucia Foster( Book )

1 edition published in 2002 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Understanding the nature and magnitude of resource reallocation, particularly as it relates to productivity growth, is important both because it affects how we model and interpret aggregate productivity dynamics, and also because market structure and institutions may affect the reallocation's magnitude and efficiency. Most evidence to date on the connection between reallocation and productivity dynamics for the U.S. and other countries comes from a single industry: manufacturing. Building upon a unique establishment-level data set of U.S. retail trade businesses, we provide some of the first evidence on the connection between reallocation and productivity dynamics in a non-manufacturing sector. Retail trade is a particularly appropriate subject for such a study since this large industry lies at the heart of many recent technological advances, such as E-commerce and advanced inventory controls. Our results show that virtually all of the productivity growth in the U.S. retail trade sector over the 1990s is accounted for by more productive entering establishments displacing much less productive exiting establishments. Interestingly, much of the between-establishment reallocation is a within, rather than between-firm phenomenon
Wage and productivity dispersion in U.S. manufacturing : the role of computer investment by Timothy Dunne( Book )

3 editions published between 2000 and 2002 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

By exploiting establishment-level data, this paper sheds new light on the sources of the changes in the structure of production, wages, and employment that have occurred over the last several decades. We investigate the following two related hypotheses. First, that most of the recent increase in the dispersion of wages and productivity has occurred across establishments and these changes are linked. Second, that the increased dispersion in wages and productivity across establishments is linked to differential rates of technological adoption across establishments. Our findings are largely supportive of these hypotheses. Specifically, we find that (1) the between-plant component of wage dispersion is an important and growing part of total wage dispersion; (2) much of the between plant increase in wage dispersion is within industries; (3) the between-plant measures of wage and productivity dispersion have increased substantially over the last few decades; and (4) a significant fraction of the rising dispersion in wages and (to a lesser extent) productivity is accounted for by changes in the distribution of computer investment across plants as well as changes in the wage and productivity differentials associated with the computer investment
Aggregate productivity growth : lessons from microeconomic evidence by Lucia Foster( Book )

1 edition published in 1998 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we exploit establishment-level data to examine the relationship between microeconomic productivity dynamics and aggregate productivity growth. After synthesizing the evidence from recent studies, we conduct our own analysis using establishment-level data for U.S. manufacturing establishments as well for selected service industries. The use of longitudinal micro data on service sector establishments is one of the novel features of our analysis. Our main findings are summarized as follows: (i) the contribution of reallocation of outputs and inputs from less productive to more productive establishments plays a significant role in accounting for aggregate productivity growth; (ii) for the selected service industries considered, the contribution of net entry (more productive entering establishments displacing less productive exiting establishments) is dominant; (iii) the contribution of net entry to aggregate productivity growth is disproportionate and is increasing in the horizon over which the changes are measured since longer horizon yields greater differentials from selection and learning effects; (iv) the contribution of reallocation to aggregate productivity growth varies over time (e.g. is cyclically sensitive) and industries and is somewhat sensitive to subtle differences in measurement and decomposition methodologies
The effect of structural reforms on productivity and profitability : enhancing reallocation evidence from Colombia by Marcela Eslava( Book )

3 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In the U.S., some sectoral evidence suggests that growth is driven mainly by productivity enhancing reallocation. In countries with greater barriers to entry and imperfect competition, the reallocation process may be inefficient. Therefore, for developing countries, an open question is whether reallocation is productivity enhancing. Using a unique plant-level longitudinal dataset for Colombia for the period 1982-1998 we examine the interaction between market allocation, productivity and profitability. Given the important trade, labor and financial market oriented reforms in Colombia in 1990, we explore whether and how the contribution of reallocation changed. Our data include plant-level quantities and prices. Using plant prices, we propose a sequential methodology to estimate productivity and demand shocks. First, with plant-level physical output data, we estimate total factor productivity (TFP) using downstream demand to instrument for inputs. Then, with plant-level price data, we estimate demand shocks and mark-ups in the inverse-demand equation, using TFP to instrument for output. We characterize the evolution of TFP and demand shock distributions. Market reforms are associated with rising overall productivity that is driven by reallocation away from low- and towards high-productivity businesses; and, the allocation of activity across businesses is less driven by demand factors
Productivity, investment in ICT and market experimentation : micro evidence from Germany and the U.S. by John C Haltiwanger( Book )

3 editions published in 2003 in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Factor adjustments after deregulation : panel evidence from Colombian plants( )

3 editions published between 2005 and 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we analyze employment and capital adjustments using a panel of plants from Colombia. We allow for nonlinear adjustment of employment to reflect not only adjustment costs of labor but also adjustment costs of capital, and vice-versa. Using data from the Annual Manufacturing Survey, which include plant-level prices, we generate measures of plant-level productivity, demand shocks, and cost shocks, and use them to measure desired factor levels. We then estimate adjustment functions for capital and labor as a function of the gap between desired and actual factor levels. As in other countries, we find non-linear adjustments in employment and capital in response to market fundamentals. In addition, we find that employment and capital adjustments reinforce each other, in that capital shortages reduce hiring and labor shortages reduce investment. Moreover, we find that the market oriented reforms introduced in Colombia after 1990 increased employment adjustments, especially on the job destruction margin, while reducing capital adjustments. Finally, we find that while completely eliminating frictions from factor adjustments would yield a dramatic increase in aggregate productivity through improved allocative efficiency, the reforms introduced in Colombia generated only modest improvements. -- joint factor adjustment ; irreversibilities ; adjustment costs ; input reallocation ; deregulation
Implicit contract theory : a reexamination and reformulation by John C Haltiwanger( )

4 editions published between 1981 and 1982 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Assessing job flows across countries the role of industry, firm size and regulations by John C Haltiwanger( Book )

1 edition published in 2006 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

"This paper analyzes job flows in a sample of 16 industrial and emerging economies over the past decade, exploiting a harmonized firm-level dataset. It shows that industry and firm size effects (and especially firm size) account for a large fraction in the overall variability in job flows. However, large residual differences remain in the job flow patterns across countries. To account for the latter, the paper explores the role of differences in employment protection legislation across countries. Using a difference-in-difference approach that minimizes possible endogeneity and omitted variable problems, our findings show that hiring and firing costs tend to curb job flows, particularly in those industries and firm size classes that require more frequent labor adjustment"--National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Employer-to-employer flows in the United States : estimates using linked employer-employee data by Melissa Bjelland( Book )

2 editions published between 2007 and 2008 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We use administrative data linking workers and firms to study employer-to-employer flows. After discussing how to identify such flows in quarterly data, we investigate their basic empirical patterns. We find that the pace of employer-to-employer flows is high, representing about 4 percent of employment and 30 percent of separations each quarter. The pace of employer-to-employer flows is highly procyclical, and varies systematically across worker, job and employer characteristics. Our findings regarding job tenure and earnings dynamics suggest that for those workers moving directly to new jobs, the new jobs are generally better jobs; however, this pattern is highly procyclical. There are rich patterns in terms of origin and destination of industries. We find somewhat surprisingly that more than half of the workers making employer-to-employer transitions switch even broadly-defined industries (NAICS super-sectors)
Euler-equation estimation for discrete choice models : a capital accumulation application by Russell Cooper( )

2 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper studies capital adjustment at the establishment level. Our goal is to characterize capital adjustment costs, which are important for understanding both the dynamics of aggregate investment and the impact of various policies on capital accu- mulation. Our estimation strategy searches for parameters that minimize ex post errors in an Euler equation. This strategy is quite common in models for which adjustment occurs in each period. Here, we extend that logic to the estimation of parameters of dynamic optimization problems in which non-convexities lead to extended periods of investment inactivity. In doing so, we create a method to take into account censored observations stemming from intermittent investment. This methodology allows us to take the structural model directly to the data, avoiding time-consuming simulation- based methods. To study the effectiveness of this methodology, we first undertake several Monte Carlo exercises using data generated by the structural model. We then estimate capital adjustment costs for U.S. manufacturing establishments in two sectors
Cyclical reallocation of workers across employers by firm size and firm wage by John C Haltiwanger( Book )

2 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Do the job-to-job moves of workers contribute to the cyclicality of employment growth at different types of firms? In this paper, we use linked employer-employee data to provide direct evidence on the role of job-to-job flows in job reallocation in the U.S. economy. To guide our analysis, we look to the theoretical literature on on-the-job search, which predicts that job-to-job flows should reallocate workers from small to large firms. While this prediction is not supported by the data, we do find that job-to-job moves generally reallocate workers from lower paying to higher paying firms, and this reallocation of workers is highly procyclical. During the Great Recession, this firm wage job ladder collapsed, with net worker reallocation to higher wage firms falling to zero. We also find that differential responses of net hires from non-employment play an important role in the patterns of the cyclicality of employment dynamics across firms classified by size and wage. For example, we find that small and low wage firms experience greater reductions in net hires from non-employment during periods of economic contractions
Electricity pricing to U.S. manufacturing plants, 1963-2000 by Steven J Davis( Book )

1 edition published in 2008 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We develop a large customer-level database to study electricity pricing to U.S. manufacturing plants from 1963 to 2000. We document tremendous dispersion in price per kWh, trace that dispersion to quantity discounts and spatial differentials, estimate the role of cost factors in quantity discounts, and test whether marginal price schedules conform to marginal cost and Ramsey pricing conditions. Our cost analysis and pricing tests rely on a novel empirical approach that exploits utility-level differences in the customer size distribution to estimate how supply costs vary with purchase quantity. The results reveal that annual supply costs per kWh fall by more than half in moving from smaller to bigger purchasers, providing a clear cost-based rationale for quantity discounts. Before the mid 1970s, marginal price and marginal cost schedules are nearly identical, in line with efficient pricing. In later years, marginal supply costs exceed marginal prices for smaller manufacturing customers by 10% or more. In contrast to a clear role for cost factors, our evidence provides no support for a standard Ramsey-pricing interpretation of quantity discounts. Spatial dispersion in retail electricity prices among states, counties and utility service territories is large and rises over time for smaller purchasers
Cross country differences in job reallocation : the role of industry, firm size and regulations by John Haltiwanger( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Somewhat surprisingly, cross-country empirical evidence (at least in the cross section) does not seem to support the predictions of standard models that economies with stricter regulations on hiring and firing should have a lower pace of job reallocation. One problem in exploring these issues empirically has been the difficulty of comparing countries on the basis of harmonised measures of job reallocation. A related problem is that there may be unobserved measurement or other factors accounting for differences in job reallocation across countries. This paper overcomes these challenges by using harmonised measures of job creation and destruction in a sample of 16 developed and emerging economies (including four transition economies), exploiting the country, industry and firm size dimensions. The analysis of variance in the paper shows that firm size effects are a dominant factor in accounting for the variation in the pace of job reallocation across country, industry and size cells. However, even after controlling for industry and size effects there remain significant differences in job flows across countries that could reflect differences in labour market regulations. We use the harmonised data to explore this hypothesis with a difference-in-difference approach. We find strong and robust evidence that stringent hiring and firing regulations tend to reduce the pace of job reallocation. -- gross job flows ; firm dynamics ; firm size ; product and labour market regulations
Factor adjustments after deregulation : panel evidence from Colombian plants by Marcela Eslava( Book )

1 edition published in 2005 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In this paper, we analyze employment and capital adjustments using a panel of plants from Colombia. We allow for nonlinear adjustment of employment to reflect not only adjustment costs of labor but also adjustment costs of capital, and vice-versa. Using data from the Annual Manufacturing Survey, which include plant-level prices, we generate measures of plant-level productivity, demand shocks, and cost shocks, and use them to measure desired factor levels. We then estimate adjustment functions for capital and labor as a function of the gap between desired and actual factor levels. As in other countries, we find non-linear adjustments in employment and capital in response to market fundamentals. In addition, we find that employment and capital adjustments reinforce each other, in that capital shortages reduce hiring and labor shortages reduce investment. Moreover, we find that the market oriented reforms introduced in Colombia after 1990 increased employment adjustments, especially on the job destruction margin, while reducing capital adjustments. Finally, we find that while completely eliminating frictions from factor adjustments would yield a dramatic increase in aggregate productivity through improved allocative efficiency, the reforms introduced in Colombia generated only modest improvements
 
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Job creation and destruction
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