WorldCat Identities

Knight, Douglas R. 1941-

Works: 22 works in 34 publications in 1 language and 407 library holdings
Genres: Academic theses 
Roles: Author, Editor
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Douglas R Knight
The medical hazards of flame-suppressant atmospheres by Douglas R Knight( )

4 editions published in 1991 in English and held by 309 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Flames are a potential hazard to the occupants of sealed chambers. This report describes four modifications of air that will suppress or extinguish flames. They are: (1) SUPPLEMENTATION - the addition of an appropriate foreign gas to air. (2) N2 PRESSURIZATION - the addition of compressed N2 to air. (3) DEPRESSURIZATION - the partial evacuation of air from the chamber. (4) N2 DILUTION - the exchange of N2 for O2. The primary medical hazards of flame- suppressant atmospheres are barotrauma, N2 narcosis, decompression sickness, hypoxia and inhalation toxicity. Experimental evidence supports the use of N2 DILUTION to suppress flames aboard patrolling submarines. One or more of the following adjuncts may enhance the use of N2 DILUTION without impairing human health: Physiological adaptation to hypoxia, addition of CO2 to the atmosphere and N2 PRESSURIZATION
The Kinetics of dark adaptation in hypoxic subjects by United States( Book )

4 editions published in 1989 in English and held by 70 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A double blind study was made to determine the effect of hypoxia on the rate of dark adaptation. The visual thresholds of 10 subjects were measured as they breathed either 21% O2 or 12% O2 for 10 minutes in daylight followed by 50 minutes in the dark. The subjects were exposed to the two gases in counterbalanced order on separate days. Reducing the oxygen level to 12% delayed the course of dark adaptation without changing the final scotopic threshold. Keywords: Dark adaptation; Hypoxia
Medical research programs, past and future, for designing submarine atmospheres to retard fires by Douglas R Knight( Book )

2 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Review of a Research Proposal to Study the Effects of 130 Torr Oxygen on Submarines held at Groton, Connecticut on September 4, 1986 by Douglas R Knight( Book )

2 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The extinguishments for fire aboard patroling submarines relies on crew action and speed of response. Therefore, anything that slows the growth of fires will assist crews in bringing fires under control. Submarines routinely operate with oxygen concentrations close to 19%. torr. Snorkeling rarely drops a ship's internal pressure below 700 torr, but accidental circumstances could create a partial vacuum of -5 inches mercury. The effects of reduced oxygen concentration and partial vacuums can be studied in an altitude chamber. The selection of physiological and psychological tests is appropriate, except for collecting blood samples which attempt to measure arterial oxygen content and detect damage to organs such as the liver. The exposure time of 8 days is appropriate in the absence of data showing that longer exposures at 5,000 ft altitude cause delayed onset of mountain sickness. Discussions uncovered the problem of using a within-subject versus beteen-subject design
SHAD-Nisat: A Composite Study of Shallow Saturation Diving Incorporating Long Duration Air Saturation with Excursions, Deep Nitrox Saturation, and Switch from Nitrogen to Helium by R. W Hamilton( Book )

2 editions published in 1982 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The four SHAD dives looked at air for breathing in saturation at 50 and 60 fsw. Excursions from these depths demonstrated possible work procedures, covering depths ranging between 5 and 250 fsw and for times as long as 8 hours. The exposures were well tolerated but disclosed problems with oxygen toxicity in daily 8-hour excursions to 100 fsw and an increased sensitivity to extra oxygen breathing in several of the divers. The long air exposures caused red blood cell losses; recovery began a few days after return to normal pressure. The divers were also deconditioned, presumably because of the confinement and several weeks of inactivity. Decompressions from descending excursions were free of bends but some ascending excursions caused itching and ultrasonically-detectable bubbles. Two of three divers became nauseated 3 hours after beginning a saturation exposure in an atmosphere containing 0.22 atm oxygen, balance nitrogen, at 7 atm abs; the sick divers felt better after P02 was raised to 0.3 atm
The body burden of organic vapors in artificial air : trial measurements aboard a moored submarine( Book )

1 edition published in 1984 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Scotopic sensitivity with 10% oxygen by United States( Book )

2 editions published in 1987 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The night vision (scotopic) sensitivity of 6 subjects was measured while they were breathing either air (21% oxygen, PO2 160 torr) or 10% oxygen, balance nitrogen (PO2) 76 torr. Continuous monitoring showed that the mean oxygen content in the arterial blood (SaO2) dropped from 97% to 77% during the first seven minutes of breathing 10% oxygen, and there was a significant degradation of scotopic sensitivity. The reduced sensitivity was attributed solely to hypoxia with no contribution from hypocapnia. Keywords: Scotopic sensitivity; Hypoxia; Hypocapnia
The Body Burden of Organic Vapors in Artificial Air Trial Measurements Aboard a Moored Submarine by Douglas R Knight( Book )

2 editions published in 1984 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The success of the submarine atmosphere control program has depended solely upon periodic identification of contaminants in the ship's atmosphere. Substances found to exceed safeguard concentrations are controlled by restricting their use aboard ship or scrubbing them from the atmosphere. But, this approach tends to ignore the human host. Advancements in technology now enable biomedical scientists to identify organic gases absorbed by the human body during exposures to industrial environments. We evaluated the potential application of computer-assisted gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS/COMP) to measuring of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) absorbed by submarine crewmembers. Expired breath samples were collected from watchstanders stationed in the forward space, torpedo room, forward engine space, and engineering space of a fast-attack submarine. Thirteen of the 17 highest concentrations of VOC's were acyclic, C7-C11 alkanes. Assuming that most of the expired VOC's were derived from the submarine, the hydrocarbon composition of the atmosphere was more concentrated and complex than in residential dwellings. This indicates that crewmembers absorb atmospheric VOC's during patrol and desorb the contaminants at home
The feasibility of lowering oxygen concentrations aboard submarines in order to improve fire safety : position paper by Douglas R Knight( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Regulation of the plasma volume during head-out immersion in cold water by Douglas R Knight( Book )

2 editions published in 1983 in Undetermined and English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

CO₂ retention and EGG changes in exercise during prolonged hyperbaric N₂-O₂ breathing( Book )

1 edition published in 1982 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Respiratory function (VE, VO2, VCO2, r and PACO2) was measured in tne subjects at rest and exercise during prolonged hyperbaric chamber exposure to 2.52, 2.82, 4.03, and 7.00 atmospheres absolute (ATA). At 4.03 ATA, the ventilatory response to exercise was found depressed at 150 watts. Increased PACO2 indicated CO2 retention. At 7.00 ATA there was a slight but significant elevation of PACO2 at rest and a depression of the ventilatory response to exercise at both 50 and 125 watts associated with a marked CO2 retention. Arrhythmias were found at 4.03 and 7.00 ATA with workloads of 150 and 125 watts, respectively. At 4.03 ATA, premature atrial contractions (PAC) were noted at 150 watts in two subjects during four separate testing sessions. At 7.00 ATA, PAC's were observed at 125 watts in two subjects. One subject developed premature ventricular contractions (PVC's) during three different tests at 125 watts. Arrhythmias occurred only in those exercise tests which produced a marked CO2 retention at increased pressure. (Author)
Distortion of calculated whole-body hematocrit during lower-body immersion in water by United States( Book )

1 edition published in 1986 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Cognitive performance, mood states, and altitude symptomatology in 13-21% oxygen environments( )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

To reduce the risk of and damage from fires, naval engineers have suggested reducing the oxygen concentration in submarines below the normal ambient level of 21% (PO2 = 159 torr). However, reductions to 13% oxygen (PO2 = 99 torr) may produce decrements in mental and physical performance, changes in mood states, or symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). To investigate these possibilities, thirteen male sailors were confined and tested in a hypobaric chamber for fifteen days, where they experienced oxygen concentrations of 21, 17, 21, 13, and 21% for three days at each concentrations with 0.9% carbon dioxide and the balance nitrogen. The subjects took one 30-minute battery of cognitive tasks most mornings and a different 30-minute battery of cognitive tasks every afternoon. They also completed the Clyde Mood Scale and the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) every afternoon following cognitive testing. It appears that normobaric oxygen concentrations as low as 17% are not likely to produce adverse effects on cognition, mood states, or AMS symptomatology. Oxygen concentrations as low as 13% are likely to adversely affect some performance tasks and moods, however, as well as induce AMS in about one-third of the exposed individuals. These effects are quite similar to those observed in mountain climbers at the same PO2, whose responses well may be predictive of the effects of oxygen concentrations in between 13 and 17% oxygen
Volatile organic components of air samples collected from vertical launch missile capsules by Donald V Tappan( Book )

1 edition published in 1988 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles. (aw)
Position Paper: The Feasibility of Lowering Oxygen Concentrations Aboard Submarines in Order to Improve Fire Safety( Book )

1 edition published in 1985 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Nitrogen serves as a retard nt of fires by diluting the concentration of atmospheric oxygen. Submarine crews could gain long-term protection from fire damage by diluting their oxygen supply if that would not reduce the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen (P sub O2) to the point of causing hypoxia. Since residents of Denver perform complex tasks at a P sub O2 of 130 torr, submarine crews should be able to dilute their oxygen concentration until P sub O2 falls to 130 torr. Consequently, oxygen concentrations of 13-19% could be used to retard fires if the ship's barometric pressure were maintained at appropriate values within the range of 700-1000 torr. The risks of nitrogen narcosis and decompression sickness should not exist when barometric pressure <or = 1000 torr. It is not known whether crew performance would be degraded by hypoxia since few experiments, if any, have evaluated the effects of long-term exposures to 130 torr oxygen, 1% carbon dioxide, and 10 ppm carbon monoxide. Nor is it known if the factors of an 18-hour work day, lack of sunlight, and the stressful life-style of submarine duty would interact with the oxygen-deficient atmosphere to degrade watchstanding. Crew health and performance in diminished concentrations of oxygen should be evaluated in the laboratory and at sea before the current standards of atmosphere control are redesigned to lower the risk of fire damage aboard submarines
Proceedings of the Tripartite Conference on Submarine Medicine (3rd)-- France, United Kingdom, and United States, 9-10 May 1983( Book )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The proceedings of the third triparite conference on submarine medicine are reported. Five sessions were included in the 2-day conference, namely; (1) (STANAG 1206) Maximum Concentrations of Toxic Substances during Operational Conditions; (2)(STANAG 1184) Emergency Conditions at 1 ATA--Maximum Concentrations in Conventional Submarines;(3)The Toxicology of Atmosphere Contaminants in Submarines;(4)Escape or Rescue Distressed Submarines; and (5) Effects of Lifestyles aboard Submarines on Human Performance and Function. Participants included scientists from the three nations--France, the United Kingdom and the United States
Medical Research Programs, Past and Future, for Designing Atmospheres to Retard Fires( Book )

1 edition published in 1987 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

One method of improving submarine fire safety is to retard the flammability of combustible materials with atmospheres containing <or = 19% oxygen. This should only be done if it is known that crews can effectively perform their occupation in the oxygen-lean environment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the history of research in this special topic of submarine medicine. The report is concluded with an outline of work needed to provide nuclear submarine commanders the option of using fire-retardant atmospheres aboard patroling submarines
An isotopic study of the Lincoln Sill southwest coastal Maine by Douglas R Knight( )

1 edition published in 1991 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Submarine Atmospheres( Book )

1 edition published in 1990 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Nuclear submariners live and work in an atmosphere composed of approximately 80% naturally occurring nitrogen, 19% oxygen (manufactured aboard ship), and a complex mixture of inorganic and organic contaminants. The concentrations of contaminants exist as a balance between the rates of production from human and operational activities and the rate of removal by engineering systems. The biological effects of inorganic gases, particularly carbon dioxide, have been extensively studied. Investigators are now attempting to define the composition and concentration of volatile organic compounds that accumulate during 9O-day submergences. Medical studies have not conclusively shown that crewmembers incur adverse health effects from continuous exposures to the sealed atmospheres of nuclear submarines
A Preliminary Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Retired Submariners( Book )

1 edition published in 1983 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Two sets of studies seem to agree that both retired and active duty submariners have increased levels of a personality component strongly related to cardiovascular risks and have lowered levels at least two factors associated with reduced risk. One of the explanations for negative association of risk with personality traits is that these factors may be related to 'environmental insulating mechanisms' protective against cardiovascular diseases or disease risks. The authors summarize the findings as they relate to the design of remedial programs for both retired and active duty submariners to promote a state of health for submariners that equals or surpasses the health of the general population at retirement age. The first major problem faced by retired submariners appears to be a result of a severe lack of exercise during their careers aboard submarines. A second general health risk of retired submariners may result from the habit of alcohol consumption which was acquired during their naval careers. A third group of results from the work with retired personnel may reflect some unique personality characteristics of sailors who choose submarine careers
moreShow More Titles
fewerShow Fewer Titles
Audience Level
Audience Level
  General Special  
Audience level: 0.53 (from 0.32 for Medical re ... to 0.99 for Regulation ...)

Alternative Names
Knight, D. R 1941-

Knight, Douglas Reid 1941-

English (31)