WorldCat Identities

Berry, Steven (Steven T.)

Works: 59 works in 288 publications in 1 language and 1,692 library holdings
Genres: History 
Roles: Author
Classifications: HB1, 330
Publication Timeline
Most widely held works by Steven Berry
Public radio in the United States : does it correct market failure or cannibalize commercial stations? by Steven Berry( Book )

14 editions published in 1997 in English and held by 82 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Radio signals are pure public goods whose total value to society is the sum of their value to advertisers and listeners. Because broadcasters can capture only part of the value of their product as revenue, there is the potential for a classic problem of underprovision. Small markets have much less commercial program variety than larger markets, suggesting a possible underprovision problem. Public funding of radio broadcasting targets programming in three formats - news, classical music, and jazz - with at least some commercial competition. Whether public support corrects a market failure depends on whether the market would have provided similar services in the absence of public broadcasting. To examine this we ask whether public and commercial classical stations compete for listening share and revenue. We then directly examine whether public stations crowd out commercial stations. We find evidence consistent with the view that public broadcasting crowds out commercial programming in large markets, particularly in classical music and to a lesser extent in jazz. Although the majority of government subsidies to radio broadcasting are allocated to stations without commercial competition in their format (thereby possibly correcting inefficient market underprovision), roughly a quarter of subsidies support direct competition with existing commercial stations
Differentiated products demand systems from a combination of micro and macro data : the new car market by Steven Berry( Book )

18 editions published between 1998 and 2004 in English and held by 74 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: In this paper, we exploit new sources of cross-sectional data to estimate a detailed product-level demand system for new passenger vehicles. We use four data sources: on the characteristics of products, on the attributes of the U.S. population of households, on the match between the first and second vehicle choices of the household, and on the match between households attributes and first choice vehicles. We show that these data solve some, but not all, of the traditional problems in estimating differentiated products demand systems and indicate which data sources are important for which problem. The data is rich enough to reveal a rather complex substitution pattern, requiring a quite general modeling framework. Together the data and model make a detailed analysis of industry demand possible
Voluntary export restraints on automobiles : evaluating a strategic trade policy by Steven Berry( Book )

12 editions published in 1995 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In May, 1981, a voluntary export restraint (VER) was placed on exports of automobiles from Japan to the United States. As trade policies go, this one was important. At about the same time, though to much less fanfare, international trade theorists were obtaining (then) startling results from models of international trade in imperfectly competitive markets. These models suggested that in imperfectly competitive markets, an activist trade policy might enhance national welfare. In this paper, we provide some empirical evidence on whether these new theoretical possibilities might actually apply to the policy of VERs
Mergers, station entry, and programming variety in radio broadcasting by Steven Berry( Book )

13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 68 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Free entry into markets with decreasing average costs and differentiated products can result in an inefficient number of firms and suboptimal product variety. Because new firms and products draw their customers in part from existing products, concentration can affect incentives to enter as well as how to position products. This paper examines how product variety in the radio industry is affected by changes in ownership structure. While it is in general difficult to measure the effect of concentration on other factors such as the number of products and the extent of product variety, the 1996 Telecommunications Act substantially relaxed local radio ownership restrictions, giving rise to a major and exogenous consolidation wave. Between 1993 and 1997 the average Herfindahl index in major US media markets increased by almost 65 percent. Using a panel data set on 243 U.S. radio broadcast markets in 1993 and 1997, we find that concentration reduces entry and increases product variety. Our results are consistent with spatial preemption. Jointly owned stations broadcasting from the same market are more likely than unrelated stations - and more likely than jointly owned stations in different markets - to broadcast in similar formats
Airline hubs : costs, markups and the implications of customer heterogeneity by Steven Berry( Book )

15 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper estimates a model of airline competition that captures the two major features of the industry: product differentiation and economies of density. The results not only provide support to some of the traditional common wisdom in the industry, but are also useful for understanding major puzzles concerning the evolution of the industry. The estimates indicate that a hubbing airline's ability to raise prices is focused on tickets that appeal to price-inelastic business travelers, who favor the origin-hub airline, even while paying an average premium of 20%. These high prices do not, however, provide a monopoly umbrella' to other non-hub airlines. Finally, on the cost side there is evidence of economies of density (and therefore cost economies of hubbing) on longer routes. Consistent with the Southwest Airlines' effect, there is no evidence of economies of density on shorter routes
Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles by Steven Berry( Book )

13 editions published between 1995 and 1996 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate cost functions characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices
Free entry and social inefficiency in radio broadcasting by Steven Berry( Book )

14 editions published in 1996 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

In theory, free entry can lead to social inefficiency. When new products are substitutes for existing products, the business stolen from incumbents places a wedge between private and social benefits of entry. The business stealing effect can be offset if entry reduces prices or increases available product variety. Our study of the radio industry provides one of the first empirical attempts to quantify the inefficiency associated with free entry. Using data on advertising prices, number of stations and radio listening in 135 U.S. metropolitan markets, we estimate how listening and revenue vary with the number of stations. Using a free-entry assumption, we infer the distribution of station costs, which are fixed with respect to listening. We then use our estimates of revenue and fixed costs to calculate the welfare of market participants (excluding listeners) and the number of stations under free entry and social optimality. Relative to the social optimum, the welfare loss of free entry is 40 percent of industry revenue. However, we calculate that the free entry equilibrium would be optimal if the marginal value of programming to listeners were over three times the value of marginal listeners to advertisers, who pay 4.5 cents per hour
Impacts of the Indonesian economic crisis : price changes and the poor by James Levinsohn( Book )

13 editions published in 1999 in English and held by 66 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: The recent financial crisis in Indonesia has resulted in dramatic price increases. Using very recent data, we investigate whether these price increases have impacted the cost-of-living of poor households in a disproportionately harsh way. We find that the poor have indeed been hit hardest. Just how hard the poor have been hit, though, depends crucially on where the household lives, whether the household is in a rural or urban area, and just how the cost-of-living index is computed. What is clear is that the notion that the very poor are so poor as to be insulated from international shocks is simply wrong. Rather, in the Indonesian case, the very poor appear the most vulnerable
Automobile prices in market equilibrium by Steven Berry( Book )

16 editions published between 1993 and 1996 in English and held by 53 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper develops new techniques for empirically analyzing demand and supply in differentiated products markets and then applies these techniques to analyze equilibrium in the U.S. automobile industry. Our primary goal is to present a framework which enables one to obtain estimates of demand and cost parameters for a broad class of oligopolistic differentiated products markets. These estimates can be obtained using only widely available product-level and aggregate consumer-level data, and they are consistent with a structural model of equilibrium in an oligopolistic industry. When we apply the techniques developed here to the U.S. automobile market. we obtain cost and demand parameters for (essentially) all models marketed over a twenty year period
The automobile industry and the Mexico-US free trade agreement by Steven Berry( Book )

13 editions published in 1992 in English and held by 51 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper considers the likely effect on the automobile industry of a free trade agreement between the U.S. and Mexico. As there are currently large restrictions on imports into Mexico, one important outcome of a free trade agreement would be the opening of the Mexican market to U.S. producers. This is consistent with the history of the international auto industry and the fact that the U.S.-Canada Auto Pact opened a new, large market to U.S. manufacturers. The current state of the Mexican auto industry is considered in great detail, suggesting that the Mexican industry will continue to prosper, increasing output but also relying heavily on production from U.S. owned plants and on inputs imported from the U.S. and Canada. However, much of the existing domestically oriented industry is likely to be replaced by other North American producers. Finally, an econometric demand analysis implies that economic growth together with declines in prices to world levels could rapidly expand the size of the Mexican auto market. The free trade agreement represents an opportunity for product diversification and rationalization in the auto industry
Product quality and market size by Steven Berry( Book )

12 editions published between 2003 and 2004 in English and held by 46 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Abstract: Recent literature notes that when quality is produced with fixed costs, a high quality firm can undercut its rival's prices and may find it profitable to invest more in quality as market size grows large. As a result, a market can remain concentrated even as it grows large. When quality is produced with variable costs, by contrast, a wide range of product qualities can coexist in the market because they are offered at different prices. Larger markets will fragment and offer products with a wider range of qualities. Using US urban areas as markets, we examine the relationships between market size and product quality - and between market size and product concentration - for two industries that differ in their quality production process. We document that in the restaurants industry, where quality is produced largely with variable costs, the range of qualities on offer increases in market size, with each product maintaining a small market share. In daily newspapers, where quality is produced with fixed costs, the average quality of products increases with market size, and the market does not fragment as it grows large
Simple estimators for the parameters of discrete dynamic games (with entry/exit examples) by Ariel Pakes( Book )

14 editions published in 2004 in English and held by 43 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

This paper considers the problem of estimating the distribution of payoffs in a discrete dynamic game, focusing on models where the goal is to learn about the distribution of firms' entry and exit costs. The idea is to begin with non parametric first stage estimates of entry and continuation values obtained by computing sample averages of the realized continuation values of entrants who do enter and incumbents who do continue. Under certain assumptions these values are linear functions of the parameters of the problem, and hence are not computationally burdensome to use. Attention is given to the small sample problem of estimation error in the non parametric estimates and this leads to a preference for use of particularly simple estimates of continuation values and moments
Tracing the woes : an empirical analysis of the airline industry by Steven Berry( Book )

9 editions published in 2008 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The U.S. airline industry went through tremendous turmoil in the early 2000's. There were four major bankruptcies and two major mergers, with all legacy carriers reporting a large profit reduction. This paper presents a structural model of the airline industry, and estimates the impact of demand and supply changes on profitability. We find that, compared with the late 1990s, in 2006, a) air-travel demand was 8% more price sensitive; b) passengers displayed a strong preference for direct flights, and the connection semi-elasticity was 17% higher; c) the changes of marginal cost significantly favored direct flights. These findings are present in all the specifications we estimated. Together with the expansion of low cost carriers, they explained more than 80% of the decrease in legacy carriers' variable profits
Nonparametric identification of multinomial choice demand models with heterogeneous consumers by Steven Berry( Book )

10 editions published between 2009 and 2010 in English and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We consider identification of nonparametric random utility models of multinomial choice using "micro data," i.e., observation of the characteristics and choices of individual consumers. Our model of preferences nests random coefficients discrete choice models widely used in practice with parametric functional form and distributional assumptions. However, the model is nonparametric and distribution free. It allows choice-specific unobservables, endogenous choice characteristics, unknown heteroskedasticity, and high-dimensional correlated taste shocks. Under standard "large support" and instrumental variables assumptions, we show identifiability of the random utility model. We demonstrate robustness of these results to relaxation of the large support condition and show that when it is replaced with a weaker "common choice probability" condition, the demand structure is still identified. We show that key maintained hypotheses are testable
Identification in differentiated products markets using market level data by Steven Berry( Book )

9 editions published in 2010 in English and held by 13 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We consider nonparametric identification in models of differentiated products markets, using only market level observables. On the demand side we consider a non-parametric random utility model nesting random coefficients discrete choice models widely used in applied work. We allow for product/market-specific unobservables, endogenous product characteristics e.g., prices), and high-dimensional taste shocks with arbitrary correlation and heteroskedasticity. On the supply side we specify marginal costs nonparametrically, allow for unobserved firm heterogeneity, and nest a variety of equilibrium oligopoly models. We pursue two approaches to identification. One relies on instrumental variables conditions used previously to demonstrate identification in a nonparametric regression framework. With this approach we can show identification of the demand side without reference to a particular supply model. Adding the supply side allows identification of firms' marginal costs as well. Our second approach, more closely linked to classical identification arguments for supply and demand models, employs a change of variables approach. This leads to constructive identification results relying on exclusion and support conditions. Our results lead to a testable restriction that provides the first general formalization of Bresnahan's (1982) intuition for empirically discriminating between alternative models of oligopoly competition -- National Bureau of Economic Research web site
Corn production shocks in 2012 and beyond : implications for food price volatility by Steven Berry( Book )

6 editions published in 2012 in English and held by 11 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Corn prices increased sharply in the summer of 2012 due to expected production shortfalls in the United States, which produces roughly 40% of the world's corn. A heat wave in July adversely affected corn production. We extend earlier statistical models of county-level corn yields in the Eastern United States by allowing the effect of various weather measures to vary in a flexible manner over the growing season: Extreme heat is especially harmful around a third into the growing season. This is the time when the 2012 heat wave hit the Corn Belt. Our model predicts 2012 corn yields will be 23% below trend. While extreme heat was significantly above normal, climate change scenarios suggest that the 2012 outcomes will soon be the new normal
Connected substitutes and invertibility of demand by Steven Berry( Book )

7 editions published in 2011 in English and held by 10 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We consider the invertibility of a nonparametric nonseparable demand system. Invertibility of demand is important in several contexts, including identification of demand, estimation of demand, testing of revealed preference, and economic theory requiring uniqueness of market clearing prices. We introduce the notion of "connected substitutes" and show that this structure is sufficient for invertibility. The connected substitutes conditions require weak substitution between all goods and sufficient strict substitution to necessitate treating them in a single demand system. These conditions are satisfied in many standard models, have transparent economic interpretation, and allow us to show invertibility without functional form restrictions, smoothness assumptions, or strong domain restrictions
Identification in Differentiated Products Markets by Steven Berry( Book )

7 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Empirical models of demand for-and, often, supply of-differentiated products are widely used in practice, typically employing parametric functional forms and distributions of consumer heterogeneity. We review some recent work studying identification in a broad class of such models. This work shows that parametric functional forms and distributional assumptions are not essential for identification. Rather, identification relies primarily on the standard requirement that instruments be available for the endogenous variables-here, typically, prices and quantities. We discuss the kinds of instruments needed for identification and how the reliance on instruments can be reduced by nonparametric functional form restrictions or better data. We also discuss results on discrimination between alternative models of oligopoly competition
Fixed Costs and the Product Market Treatment of Preference Minorities by Steven Berry( Book )

5 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

It is well documented that, in the presence of substantial fixed costs, markets offer preference majorities more variety than preference minorities. This fact alone, however, does not demonstrate the market outcome is in any way biased against preference minorities. In this paper, we clarify the sense in which the market outcome may in fact be biased against preference minorities, and we provide some conditions for such bias to occur. We then estimate the degree of bias in a particular industry using an empirical model of entry into radio broadcasting with two types of listeners, a preference majority and a minority, and the two types of stations targeting those respective listeners. Listening model estimates are used to infer fixed costs, which can then be used to find optimal station configurations as well as the welfare weights on different groups that rationalize the current configuration. The ensuing estimates reveal welfare weights that are 2-3 times higher for whites than blacks, and 1.5-2 times higher for non-Hispanic than Hispanic, listeners. The difference between the black and Hispanic results arises from the different patterns of importing and exporting: Hispanics listen to non-Hispanic-targeted stations more than blacks listen to white-targeted stations; and whites listen to black-targeted stations more than non-Hispanics listen to Spanish-language stations. Researchers and policy makers might add product markets to labor markets and other contexts that warrant attention for disparate treatment of minorities
Optimal Product Variety in Radio Markets by Steven Berry( Book )

5 editions published in 2015 in English and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

A vast theoretical literature shows that inefficient market structures may arise in free entry equilibria. The inefficiency may manifest itself in the number, variety, or quality of products. Previous empirical work demonstrated that excessive entry may obtain in local radio markets. Our paper extends that literature by relaxing the assumption that stations are symmetric, allowing instead for endogenous station differentiation along both horizontal and vertical dimensions. Importantly, we allow station quality to be an unobserved station characteristic. We compute the optimal market structures in local radio markets and find that, in most broadcasting formats, a social planner who takes into account the welfare of market participants (stations and advertisers) would eliminate 50%-60% of the stations observed in equilibrium. In 80%-95% of markets that have high quality stations in the observed equilibrium, welfare could be unambiguously improved by converting one such station into low quality broadcasting. In contrast, it is never unambiguously welfare-enhancing to convert an observed low quality station into a high quality one. This suggests local over-provision of quality in the observed equilibrium, in addition to the finding of excessive entry
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Alternative Names
Berry, Steve

Berry, Steve (Steven T.)

Berry, Steven

Berry, Steven T.

Berry, Steven Titus

Steven Berry économiste américain

Steven T. Berry American economist

Steven T. Berry economista estadounidense

English (225)