WorldCat Identities

Neumann, Dirk

Overview
Works: 16 works in 33 publications in 3 languages and 80 library holdings
Roles: Author, Contributor, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Dirk Neumann
Tax-Transfer Systems in Europe: Between Efficiency, Redistribution and Stabilization by Dirk Neumann( )

2 editions published in 2013 in English and held by 33 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Tax-benefit systems in Europe and the US between equity and efficiency by Olivier Bargain( )

9 editions published in 2011 in English and German and held by 14 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Whether observed differences in redistributive policies across countries are the result of differences in social preferences or efficiency constraints is an important question that paves the debate about the optimality of welfare regimes. To shed new light on this question, we estimate labor supply elasticities on microdata and adopt an inverted optimal tax approach to characterize the redistributive preferences embodied in the welfare systems of 17 EU countries and the US. Implicit social welfare functions are broadly compatible with the fiction of an optimizing Paretian social planner. Some exceptions due to generous demogrant transfers are consistent with the ignorance of behavioral responses by some European governments and are partly corrected by recent policy developments. Heterogeneity in leisure-consumption preferences somewhat affect the international comparison in degrees of revealed inequality aversion, but differences in social preferences are significant only between broad groups of countries. -- social preferences ; redistribution ; optimal income taxation ; labor supply
Fiscal union in Europe? redistributive and stabilising effects of an EU tax-benefit system( )

3 editions published in 2012 in English and German and held by 7 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The current debt crisis has given rise to a debate about deeper fiscal integration in Europe. The view is widespread that moving towards a 'fiscal union' would have a stabilising effect in the event of macroeconomic shocks. In this paper we study the economic effects of introducing two elements of a fiscal union: Firstly, an EU-wide tax and transfer system and secondly, an EU-wide system of fiscal equalisation. Using the European tax-benefit calculator EUROMOD, we exploit representative household microdata from 11 Eurozone countries to simulate these policy reforms and to study their effects on the distribution of income as well as their impact on automatic fiscal stabilisers. We find that replacing one third of the national tax and transfer systems by a European system would lead to significant redistributive effects both within and across countries. These effects depend on income levels and the structures of the existing national tax and transfer systems. The EU system would improve fiscal stabilisation especially in credit constrained countries. It would absorb between 10 and 15 per cent of a macroeconomic income shock. Introducing a fiscal equalisation system based on taxing capacity would redistribute revenues from high to low income countries. The stabilisation properties of this system, however, are ambiguous. This suggests that not all forms of fiscal integration will improve macroeconomic stability in the Eurozone. -- European income tax ; automatic stabilisation ; fiscal union
Welfare, labor supply and heterogeneous preferences: evidence for Europe and the US by Olivier Bargain( )

3 editions published between 2011 and 2012 in English and German and held by 6 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Following the report of the Stiglitz Commission, measuring and comparing well-being across countries has gained renewed interest. Yet, analyses that go beyond income and incorporate non-market dimensions of welfare most often rely on the assumption of identical preferences to avoid the difficulties related to interpersonal comparisons. In this paper, we suggest an international comparison based on individual welfare rankings that fully retain preference heterogeneity. Focusing on the consumption-leisure trade-off, we estimate discrete choice labor supply models using harmonized microdata for 11 European countries and the US. We retrieve preference heterogeneity within and across countries and analyze several welfare criteria which take into account that differences in income are partly due to differences in tastes. The resulting welfare rankings clearly depend on the normative treatment of preference heterogeneity with alternative metrics. We show that these differences can indeed be explained by estimated preference heterogeneity across countries - rather than demographic composition. -- welfare measures ; preference heterogeneity ; labor supply ; Beyond GDP
An unemployment insurance scheme for the euro area? a comparison of different alternatives using micro data by Mathias Dolls( )

3 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in English and held by 5 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We analyze different options for the design of a common unemployment insurance system for the euro area (EA). We assess their effectiveness to act as an insurance device in the presence of asymmetric macroeconomic shocks. Running counterfactual simulations based on micro data for the period 2000-13, we quantify the trade-off between automatic stabilization effects and the degree of cross-country transfers. In the baseline, we focus on a non-contingent scheme covering short-term unemployment and find that it would have absorbed a significant fraction of the unemployment shock in the recent crisis. However, four member states of the EA18 would have been either a permanent net contributor or net recipient. Our results suggest that contingent benefits could limit the degree of cross-country redistribution, but might reduce desired insur-ance effects. We also study heterogeneous effects within countries and discuss moral hazard issues at the level of individuals, the administration and economic policy
Echelles d'équivalence du temps de travail évaluation de l'impôt sur le revenu en Belgique à la lumière de l'éthique de la responsabilité by François Maniquet( )

2 editions published between 2014 and 2015 in French and held by 3 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

To what extent do income taxation systems decrease poverty? We raise this question under the assumption that well-being is defined in line with the ethics of responsibility. It requires considering that not all inequalities are unjust. Here, we do consider that inequalities stemming from labor time differences are not unjust. To compare households of different sizes, we introduce a labor time equivalence scale. We apply the resulting method to the Belgian tax system
An unemployment insurance scheme for the Euro area conference paper( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

The Great Recession and the resulting European debt crisis revived a debate about deeper fiscal integration in the Eurozone. We discuss different alternatives how an unemployment insurance system for the euro area could be designed and run counterfactual simulations based on micro data to analyze the effectiveness of a basic scheme and a benefit extension program to act as an insurance device in the presence of asymmetric macroeconomic shocks. We find that a basic insurance scheme could be implemented with a relatively small annual budget of roughly 61 billion euros over the period 2008-2013. Net benefits would have stabilized incomes in particular in Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Portugal and Spain whereas Austria, Germany and the Netherlands would have been the largest net contributors
Does the choice of well-being measure matter empirically? an illustration with German data by Koen Decancq( )

2 editions published in 2014 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

We discuss and compare five measures of individual well-being, namely income, an objective composite well-being index, a measure of subjective well-being, equivalent income, and a well-being measure based on the von Neumann-Morgenstern utilities of the individuals. After examining the information requirements of these measures, we illustrate their implementation using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for 2010. We find sizeable differences in the characteristics of the individuals identified as worst off according to the different well-being measures. Less than 1% of the individuals belong to the bottom decile according to all five measures. Moreover, the measures lead to considerably different well-being rankings of the individuals. These findings highlight the importance of the choice of well-being measure for policy making
Fiscal union in Europe? redistributive and stabilising effects of a European tax-benefit system and fiscal equalisation mechanism( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Welfare, labor supply and heterogeneous preferences : evidence for Europe and the US( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Following the report of the Stiglitz Commission, measuring and comparing well-being across countries has gained renewed interest. Yet, analyses that go beyond income and incorporate non-market dimensions of welfare most often rely on the assumption of identical preferences to avoid the difficulties related to interpersonal comparisons. In this paper, we suggest an international comparison based on individual welfare rankings that fully retain preference heterogeneity. Focusing on the consumption-leisure trade-off, we estimate discrete choice labor supply models using harmonized microdata for 11 European countries and the US. We retrieve preference heterogeneity within and across countries and analyze several welfare criteria which take into account that differences in income are partly due to differences in tastes. The resulting welfare rankings clearly depend on the normative treatment of preference heterogeneity with alternative metrics. We show that these differences can indeed be explained by estimated preference heterogeneity across countries' rather than demographic composition. -- welfare measures ; preference heterogeneity ; labor supply ; Beyond GDP
Partisan tax policy and income inequality in the US, 1979 - 2007( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

We assess the effects of U.S. tax policy reforms on inequality by applying a new decomposition method that allows us to disentangle the direct policy effect from the effect of changing market incomes. Over the whole period 1979-2007 the cumulative tax policy effect aggravated income inequality by increasing the income share of the top 20% in contrast to the middle class' share. The tax policy effect accounts for up to 29% of the total change in inequality; its contribution increases up to 41% if we take into account behavioral responses. Using our unique policy effect measure and variation in tax policies across U.S. states and time, we also identify the redistributive intention of policymakers. The estimated effect of partisan politics on the U.S. income distribution is statistically significant and economically important. Republican policymakers increased inequality especially at the top whereas Democrats increased the income share of the bottom 80% of the distribution. -- tax policy ; inequality ; redistribution ; partisan politics ; political economy
Comparing inequality aversion across countries when labor supply responses differ( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

We analyze to which extent social inequality aversion differs across nations when control- ling for actual country differences in labor supply responses. Towards this aim, we estimate labor supply elasticities at both extensive and intensive margins for 17 EU countries and the US. Using the same data, inequality aversion is measured as the degree of redistribution implicit in current tax-benefit systems, when these systems are deemed optimal. We find relatively small differences in labor supply elasticities across countries. However, this changes the cross-country ranking in inequality aversion compared to scenarios following the standard approach of using uniform elasticities. Differences in redistributive views are significant between three groups of nations. Labor supply responses are systematically larger at the extensive margin and often larger for the lowest earnings groups, exacerbating the implicit Rawlsian views for countries with traditional social assistance programs. Given the possibility that labor supply responsiveness was underestimated at the time these programs were implemented, we show that such wrong perceptions would lead to less pronounced and much more similar levels of inequality aversion. -- social preferences ; redistribution ; optimal income taxation ; labor supply
Tax policy and income inequality in the US, 1978 - 2009 : a decomposition approach( )

1 edition published in 2011 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

We assess the effects of U.S. tax policy reforms on inequality by applying a new decomposition method that allows us to disentangle mechanical effects due to changes in pre-tax incomes from direct effects of policy reforms. While tax reforms implemented under Democrat administrations, in particular the EITC reforms in the 1990s and the ARRA in 2009, had an equalizing effect at the lower half of the distribution, the disequalizing effects of Republican reforms are due to tax cuts for high-income families. As a consequence of partisan politics, overall policy effects almost cancel out over the whole time period. -- tax policy ; inequality ; redistribution ; political economy ; Great Recession
Equality of opportunity and redistribution in Europe( )

1 edition published in 2010 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

The concept of equality of opportunity (EOp) goes back to Roemer (1993, 1998) who argues that a society shall guarantee its members equal access to advantage regardless of their circumstances, while holding them responsible for turning that access into actual advantage by the application of effort. Such arguments have been on the political agenda across the European Union, where the recent enlargements have brought together countries with rather different economic, social, and political backgrounds. This paper investigates how family background influences income acquisition in 15 European countries. It also scrutinizes how governments affect EOp through the design of their tax and transfer schemes. Our overall results suggest that the link between family background and economic success is usually tighter in relatively poor countries than in rich countries. Moreover, we find a clear country clustering for the Scandinavian, the Continental European, and the Anglo-Saxon countries. For Eastern Europe, our results are less definite. Looking at the impact of the tax and benefit schemes in the EU, it can be concluded that both taxes and transfers reduce inequality of opportunities, with social benefits typically playing the key role. Furthermore, the equalizing impacts of the tax benefit system on inequality of opportunity differ substantially from the ones observed when referring to the traditional notion of inequality of outcomes. -- equality of opportunity ; inequality ; redistribution
Happy taxpayers? income taxation and well-being( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

This paper offers a first empirical investigation of how labor taxation (income and payroll taxes) affects individuals' well-being. For identification, we exploit exogenous variation in tax rules over time and across demographic groups using 26 years of German panel data. We find that the tax effect on subjective well-being is significant and positive when controlling for income net of taxes. This interesting result is robust to numerous specification checks. It is consistent with several possible channels through which taxes affect welfare including public goods, insurance, redistributive taste and tax morale. -- subjective well-being ; taxation ; public goods
Well-being, poverty and labor income taxation theory and application to Europe and the U.S by François Maniquet( )

1 edition published in 2016 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

In a model in which agents differ in wages and preferences over labor time-consumption bundles, we study labor income tax schemes that alleviate poverty. To avoid conflict with individual well-being, we require redistribution to take place between agents on both sides of the poverty line provided they have the same labor time. This requirement is combined with efficiency and robustness properties. Maximizing the resulting social preferences under incentive compatibility constraints yields the following evaluation criterion: tax schemes should minimize the labor time required to reach the poverty line. We apply this criterion to European countries and the US
 
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English (28)

German (3)

French (2)