WorldCat Identities

Salomaa, Veikko

Overview
Works: 30 works in 38 publications in 2 languages and 40 library holdings
Roles: Author, Other
Publication Timeline
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Most widely held works by Veikko Salomaa
Sydän- ja verisuonitautien ennaltaehkäisytoimen vaikutus vaaratekijäkehitykseen pitkän aikavälin seurannassa keski-ikäisillä miehillä by Veikko Salomaa( Book )

6 editions published in 1988 in Finnish and Undetermined and held by 8 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

English summary
Sepelvaltimotaudin esiintyvyys Suomessa 1991-1994 = The occurrence of coronary heart disease in Finland 1991-1994( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in Finnish and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Aivohalvausten esiintyvyys Suomessa 1991-1994 = The occurrence of stroke in Finland 1991-1994( Book )

2 editions published in 1996 in Finnish and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies by Angela M Wood( )

2 editions published in 2018 in English and held by 2 WorldCat member libraries worldwide

Background: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease. Methods: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) per 100 g per week of alcohol (12.5 units per week) across 83 prospective studies, adjusting at least for study or centre, age, sex, smoking, and diabetes. To be eligible for the analysis, participants had to have information recorded about their alcohol consumption amount and status (ie, non-drinker vs current drinker), plus age, sex, history of diabetes and smoking status, at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline, and no baseline history of cardiovascular disease. The main analyses focused on current drinkers, whose baseline alcohol consumption was categorised into eight predefined groups according to the amount in grams consumed per week. We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, and several cardiovascular disease subtypes. We corrected HRs for estimated long-term variability in alcohol consumption using 152 640 serial alcohol assessments obtained some years apart (median interval 5.6 years [5th-95th percentile 1.04-13.5]) from 71 011 participants from 37 studies. Findings: In the 599 912 current drinkers included in the analysis, we recorded 40 310 deaths and 39 018 incident cardiovascular disease events during 5.4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100 g per week higher consumption 1.14, 95% CI, 1.10-1.17), coronary disease excluding myocardial infarction (1.06, 1.00-1.11), heart failure (1.09, 1.03-1.15), fatal hypertensive disease (1.24, 1.15-1.33); and fatal aortic aneurysm (1.15, 1.03-1.28). By contrast, increased alcohol consumption was loglinearly associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (HR 0.94, 0.91-0.97). In comparison to those who reported drinking >0-<= 100 g per week, those who reported drinking >100-<= 200 g per week, >200-<= 350 g per week, or >350 g per week had lower life expectancy at age 40 years of approximately 6 months, 1-2 years, or 4-5 years, respectively. Interpretation: In current drinkers of alcohol in high-income countries, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality was about 100 g/week. For cardiovascular disease subtypes other than myocardial infarction, there were no clear risk thresholds below which lower alcohol consumption stopped being associated with lower disease risk. These data support limits for alcohol consumption that are lower than those recommended in most current guidelines
Genome-Wide Association Studies of Asthma in Population-Based Cohorts Confirm Known and Suggested Loci and Identify an Additional Association near HLA by Adaikalavan Ramasamy( )

1 edition published in 2012 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Rationale: Asthma has substantial morbidity and mortality and a strong genetic component, but identification of genetic risk factors is limited by availability of suitable studies. Objectives: To test if population-based cohorts with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and genome-wide association (GWA) data could be used to validate known associations with asthma and identify novel associations. Methods: The APCAT (Analysis in Population-based Cohorts of Asthma Traits) consortium consists of 1,716 individuals with asthma and 16,888 healthy controls from six European-descent population-based cohorts. We examined associations in APCAT of thirteen variants previously reported as genome-wide significant (P <5x10( -8)) and three variants reported as suggestive (P <5 x 10( -7)). We also searched for novel associations in APCAT (Stage 1) and followed-up the most promising variants in 4,035 asthmatics and 11,251 healthy controls (Stage 2). Finally, we conducted the first genome-wide screen for interactions with smoking or hay fever. Main Results: We observed association in the same direction for all thirteen previously reported variants and nominally replicated ten of them. One variant that was previously suggestive, rs11071559 in RORA, now reaches genome-wide significance when combined with our data (P = 2.4x10( -9)). We also identified two genome-wide significant associations: rs13408661 near IL1RL1/IL18R1 (PStage1+Stage2 = 1.1x10( -9)), which is correlated with a variant recently shown to be associated with asthma (rs3771180), and rs9268516 in the HLA region (PStage1+Stage2 = 1.1x10( -8)), which appears to be independent of previously reported associations in this locus. Finally, we found no strong evidence for gene-environment interactions with smoking or hay fever status. Conclusions: Population-based cohorts with simple asthma phenotypes represent a valuable and largely untapped resource for genetic studies of asthma
New Blood Pressure–Associated Loci Identified in Meta-Analyses of 475 000 Individuals( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : Background—: Genome-wide association studies have recently identified >400 loci that harbor DNA sequence variants that influence blood pressure (BP). Our earlier studies identified and validated 56 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with BP from meta-analyses of exome chip genotype data. An additional 100 variants yielded suggestive evidence of association. Methods and Results—: Here, we augment the sample with 140 886 European individuals from the UK Biobank, in whom 77 of the 100 suggestive SNVs were available for association analysis with systolic BP or diastolic BP or pulse pressure. We performed 2 meta-analyses, one in individuals of European, South Asian, African, and Hispanic descent (pan-ancestry, ≈475 000), and the other in the subset of individuals of European descent (≈423 000). Twenty-one SNVs were genome-wide significant ( P <5×10 −8 ) for BP, of which 4 are new BP loci: rs9678851 (missense, SLC4A1AP ), rs7437940 ( AFAP1 ), rs13303 (missense, STAB1 ), and rs1055144 ( 7p15.2 ). In addition, we identified a potentially independent novel BP-associated SNV, rs3416322 (missense, SYNPO2L ) at a known locus, uncorrelated with the previously reported SNVs. Two SNVs are associated with expression levels of nearby genes, and SNVs at 3 loci are associated with other traits. One SNV with a minor allele frequency <0.01, (rs3025380 at DBH ) was genome-wide significant. Conclusions—: We report 4 novel loci associated with BP regulation, and 1 independent variant at an established BP locus. This analysis highlights several candidate genes with variation that alter protein function or gene expression for potential follow-up. Abstract : Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Metabolite Profiling and Cardiovascular Event Risk( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : Background--: High-throughput profiling of circulating metabolites may improve cardiovascular risk prediction over established risk factors. Methods and Results--: We applied quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics to identify the biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease during long-term follow-up. Biomarker discovery was conducted in the National Finnish FINRISK study (n=7256; 800 events). Replication and incremental risk prediction was assessed in the Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) study (n=2622; 573 events) and British Women's Health and Heart Study (n=3563; 368 events). In targeted analyses of 68 lipids and metabolites, 33 measures were associated with incident cardiovascular events at P <0.0007 after adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and medication. When further adjusting for routine lipids, 4 metabolites were associated with future cardiovascular events in meta-analyses: higher serum phenylalanine (hazard ratio per standard deviation, 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.24; P =4×10 -10) and monounsaturated fatty acid levels (1.17; 1.11-1.24; P =1×10 -8) were associated with increased cardiovascular risk, while higher omega-6 fatty acids (0.89; 0.84-0.94; P =6×10 -5) and docosahexaenoic acid levels (0.90; 0.86-0.95; P =5×10 -5) were associated with lower risk. A risk score incorporating these 4 biomarkers was derived in FINRISK. Risk prediction estimates were more accurate in the 2 validation cohorts (relative integrated discrimination improvement, 8.8% and 4.3%), albeit discrimination was not enhanced. Risk classification was particularly improved for persons in the 5% to 10% risk range (net reclassification, 27.1% and 15.5%). Biomarker associations were further corroborated with mass spectrometry in FINRISK (n=671) and the Framingham Offspring Study (n=2289). Conclusions--: Metabolite profiling in large prospective cohorts identified phenylalanine, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. This study substantiates the value of high-throughput metabolomics for biomarker discovery and improved risk assessment. Abstract : Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Sex-stratified Genome-wide Association Studies Including 270,000 Individuals Show Sexual Dimorphism in Genetic Loci for Anthropometric Traits by Joshua C Randall( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5x10( -8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits
Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture by Sonja I Berndt( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Approaches exploiting trait distribution extremes may be used to identify loci associated with common traits, but it is unknown whether these loci are generalizable to the broader population. In a genome-wide search for loci associated with the upper versus the lower 5th percentiles of body mass index, height and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as clinical classes of obesity, including up to 263,407 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 4 new loci (IGFBP4, H6PD, RSRC1 and PPP2R2A) influencing height detected in the distribution tails and 7 new loci (HNF4G, RPTOR, GNAT2, MRPS33P4, ADCY9, HS6ST3 and ZZZ3) for clinical classes of obesity. Further, we find a large overlap in genetic structure and the distribution of variants between traits based on extremes and the general population and little etiological heterogeneity between obesity subgroups
Soluble HLA-DR serum levels are associated with smoking but not with acute coronary syndrome( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Background & aims: Elevated soluble HLA-DR (sHLA-DR) serum levels have been reported in HLA class II-associated inflammatory disorders. We have previously shown that the HLA class II allele HLA-DRB1*01 may predispose to acute coronary syndromes (ACS). To our knowledge, sHLA-DR serum levels have not been studied in ACS. Methods: sHLA-DR serum levels were measured in 477 ACS patients as cases and 475 area- and sex-matched controls by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Binary logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses adjusted for clinical parameters were conducted to evaluate the associations of sHLA-DR levels. Results: ACS patients had lower sHLA-DR serum levels compared to controls (OR = 0.837; 95% CI = 0.704–0.994; p = 0.043). After adjustment for smoking status, this association was no longer significant. This was explained by the notion that current smoking was inversely associated with sHLA-DR levels both in cases (OR = 0.592; 95% CI = 0.553–0.908; p = 0.016) and in controls (OR = 0.356; 95% CI = 0.226–0.563; p = 0.000010). A similar effect was not seen with other cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: The results indicate, for the first time, that lower sHLA-DR levels are associated with smoking, but not with ACS. This is an important finding because previous studies of sHLA-DR have not accounted for the possible associations between smoking and sHLA-DR levels. Further studies are required to confirm these novel results and explore the mechanisms behind the observed associations. Highlights: Sandwich ELISA method was set up and applied to measure soluble HLA-DR (sHLA-DR) levels in serum. No independent association was found between acute coronary syndrome and sHLA-DR levels. Cigarette smoking was associated with lower sHLA-DR levels. Cigarette smoking should be considered when analysing sHLA-DR levels
Prognostic implications of intraventricular conduction delays in a general population: The Health 2000 Survey( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract: Aims. We examined the prognostic impact of eight different intraventricular conduction delays (IVCD) in the standard electrocardiogram (ECG) in a community cohort. Methods and results. Data were collected from 6299 Finnish individuals. During a mean 8.2 years (interquartile range 8.1 to 8.3) of follow-up 640 subjects died (10.2%); 277 (4.4%) were cardiovascular deaths. For both sexes, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was higher in subjects with IVCD than in those without. In Cox regression analysis after adjustment for age and gender, the hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality for non-specific IVCD was 4.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95-9.26, P <0.0001) and for left bundle branch block (LBBB) 2.11 (95% CI 1.31-3.41, P = 0.002). Right bundle branch block (RBBB) was not related to additional mortality, while incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) presented a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% CI 1.064-4.77, P = 0.036). Conclusions. In the general population, non-specific IVCD, LBBB, and IRBBB were associated with increased relative risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. RBBB did not have an impact on cardiovascular mortality either in subjects with or without previous heart disease
Sex Differences and Similarities in Atrial Fibrillation Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Mortality in Community Cohorts( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac disease in aging populations with high comorbidity and mortality. Sex differences in AF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. Methods: In N=79 793 individuals without AF diagnosis at baseline (median age, 49.6 years; age range, 24.1-97.6 years; 51.7% women) from 4 community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE consortium (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe), we examined AF incidence, its association with mortality, common risk factors, biomarkers, and prevalent cardiovascular disease, and their attributable risk by sex. Median follow-up time was 12.6 (to a maximum of 28.2) years. Results: Fewer AF cases were observed in women (N=1796; 4.4%), than in men (N=2465; 6.4%). Cardiovascular risk factor distribution and lipid profile at baseline were less beneficial in men than in women, and cardiovascular disease was more prevalent in men. Cumulative incidence increased markedly after the age of 50 years in men and after 60 years in women. The lifetime risk was similar (>30%) for both sexes. Subjects with incident AF had a 3.5-fold risk of death in comparison with those without AF. Multivariable-adjusted models showed sex differences for the association of body mass index and AF (hazard ratio per standard deviation increase, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.23 in women versus 1.31; 95% CI 1.25-1.38 in men; interaction P value of 0.001). Total cholesterol was inversely associated with incident AF with a greater risk reduction in women (hazard ratio per SD, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90 versus 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97 in men; interaction P value of 0.023). No sex differences were seen for C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide. The population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 41.9% in women and 46.0% in men. About 20% of the risk was observed for body mass index. Conclusions: Lifetime risk of AF was high, and AF was strongly associated with increased mortality both in women and men. Body mass index explained the largest proportion of AF risk. Observed sex differences in the association of body mass index and total cholesterol with AF need to be evaluated for underlying pathophysiology and relevance to sex-specific prevention strategies. Abstract : Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016 a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults by Leandra Abarca-Goméz( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults. Methods: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity). Findings: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m 2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m 2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m 2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m 2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m 2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese. Interpretation: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Funding: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme
Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk a mendelian randomisation study by Karani S Vimaleswaran( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

ECG left ventricular hypertrophy is a stronger risk factor for incident cardiovascular events in women than in men in the general population( )

1 edition published in 2015 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : Objective: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular events. ECG is the most widely used method for LVH detection. Despite the abundance of ECG LVH criteria, their prognostic values have been compared in only a few studies, and little has been known about how sex modifies the prognostic value of LVH. We assessed the relationship between ECG LVH and incident cardiovascular events in the general population. Methods: Several ECG LVH criteria were measured in 3059 women and 2456 men participating in the Health 2000 Study - a national general population survey. Association between ECG LVH and cardiovascular events were analyzed with Cox proportional-hazards models. Results: ECG LVH was more prevalent in women than in men when measured with Cornell-based criteria, but less prevalent or nondifferent when measured with other criteria. The association between ECG LVH and events showed higher hazard ratios for women than in men. Sex × LVH interaction terms were statistically significant in part of the LVH criteria. In adjusted Cox models, Sokolow-Lyon voltage performed the best. The composite of Sokolow-Lyon voltage and Cornell voltage was statistically significantly associated with events in both sexes. Conclusion: Sex affects both the prevalence rates and prognostic values of ECG LVH criteria in the general population, while showing higher prognostic value of ECG LVH in women than in men. For clinical use, the composite of the Sokolow-Lyon voltage and the Cornell voltage seems to be a good option. Abstract : Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits a Mendelian Randomization Analysis by Tove Fall( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings: We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age-and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39) and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1-1.4; all p<0.05). For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all p<0.05). The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational estimate (p = 0.001). Conclusions: We provide novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and heart failure as well as between adiposity and increased liver enzymes
Causal Relationship between Obesity and Vitamin D Status Bi-Directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis of Multiple Cohorts by Karani S Vimaleswaran( )

1 edition published in 2013 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Background: Obesity is associated with vitamin D deficiency, and both are areas of active public health concern. We explored the causality and direction of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] using genetic markers as instrumental variables (IVs) in bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. Methods and Findings: We used information from 21 adult cohorts (up to 42,024 participants) with 12 BMI-related SNPs (combined in an allelic score) to produce an instrument for BMI and four SNPs associated with 25(OH) D (combined in two allelic scores, separately for genes encoding its synthesis or metabolism) as an instrument for vitamin D. Regression estimates for the IVs (allele scores) were generated within-study and pooled by meta-analysis to generate summary effects. Associations between vitamin D scores and BMI were confirmed in the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium (n = 123,864). Each 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI was associated with 1.15% lower 25(OH) D (p = 6.52x10( -27)). The BMI allele score was associated both with BMI (p = 6.30x10( -62)) and 25(OH) D (20.06% [95% CI -0.10 to -0.02], p = 0.004) in the cohorts that underwent meta-analysis. The two vitamin D allele scores were strongly associated with 25(OH) D (p <= 8.07x10( -57) for both scores) but not with BMI (synthesis score, p = 0.88; metabolism score, p = 0.08) in the meta-analysis. A 10% higher genetically instrumented BMI was associated with 4.2% lower 25(OH) D concentrations (IV ratio: -4.2 [95% CI -7.1 to -1.3], p = 0.005). No association was seen for genetically instrumented 25(OH) D with BMI, a finding that was confirmed using data from the GIANT consortium (p>= 0.57 for both vitamin D scores). Conclusions: On the basis of a bi-directional genetic approach that limits confounding, our study suggests that a higher BMI leads to lower 25(OH) D, while any effects of lower 25(OH) D increasing BMI are likely to be small. Population level interventions to reduce BMI are expected to decrease the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency
Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls by Jason Flannick( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (> 80% of low-frequency coding variants in similar to 82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and similar to 90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in similar to 44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D
Impact of Age and Gender on the Prevalence and Prognostic Importance of the Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project by Julie K. K Vishram( )

1 edition published in 2014 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Objective: To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Methods: Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982-1997, 69094 men and women aged 19-78 years, without known CVD, were included. During 12.2 years of follow-up, 3.7%/2.1% of men/women died due to CVD. The corresponding percentages for fatal and nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were 8.3/3.8 and 3.1/2.5. Results: The prevalence of MetS, according to modified definitions of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P<0.0001); with a 5-fold increase in women from ages 19-39 years to 60-78 years (7.4%/7.6% to 35.4%/37.6% for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) and a 2-fold increase in men (5.3%/10.5% to 11.5%/21.8%). Using multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, the associations between MetS and all three CVD events were significant (P<0.0001). For IDF/NCEP-ATPIII in men and women, hazard ratio (HR) for CHD was 1.60/1.62 and 1.93/2.03, for CVD mortality 1.73/1.65 and 1.77/2.06, and for stroke 1.51/1.53 and 1.58/1.77. Whereas in men the HRs for CVD events were independent of age (MetS*age, P>0.05), in women the HRs for CHD declined with age (HRs 3.23/3.98 to 1.55/1.56; MetS*age, P = 0.01/P = 0.001 for IDF/NCEP-ATPIII) while the HRs for stroke tended to increase (HRs 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). Conclusion: In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate for a redefinition of MetS taking into account age especially in women
Genetic Variants Contributing to Circulating Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 Levels and Their Association With Cardiovascular Diseases( )

1 edition published in 2017 in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide

Abstract : Background—: Matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP-8) is a proinflammatory enzyme expressed mainly by neutrophils. Elevated serum and plasma concentrations of MMP-8 are associated with the risk for and outcome of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The origin of circulating MMP-8 is not completely clear. Methods and Results—: We performed a genome-wide association study of serum MMP-8 levels in 2 populations comprising altogether 6049 individuals. Moreover, we studied whether MMP-8–associated variants are linked to increased risk of CVDs and overall mortality in >20 000 subjects. The strongest association with serum MMP-8 was found in locus 1q31.3, containing the gene for complement factor H (lead single nucleotide polymorphism: rs800292; P =2.4×10 –35 ). In functional experiments, activation of the alternative pathway of complement in the carriers of rs800292 minor allele (Ile62 in factor H) led to decreased release of MMP-8 from neutrophils compared with the major allele (Val62 in factor H). Another association was detected in 1q21.3, containing genes S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 (strongest association: rs1560833; P =5.3×10 –15 ). The minor allele of rs1560833 was inversely associated with CVD (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.90 [0.82–0.99]; P =0.032) and the time to incident CVD event (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.91 [0.84–0.99]; P =0.032) in men but not in women. Conclusions—: According to our results, the activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system strongly contributes to serum MMP-8 concentration. Genetic polymorphism in S100A9–S100A12–S100A8 locus affects serum and plasma MMP-8 and shows a suggestive association with the risk of CVDs. Our results show that genetic variation determines a significant portion of circulating MMP-8 concentrations. Abstract : Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text
 
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Veikko Salomaa Finnish researcher, MD, PhD, research professor (National Institute for Health and Welfare: Helsinki, Finland)

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