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Acidification in Finland

Author: Pekka Kauppi; Pia Anttila; Kaarle Kenttämies
Publisher: Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1990.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This is the most complete presentation available this far on the acidic deposition issue in Finland representing the main research report of the Finnish Acidification Research Programme (HAPRO), a programme designed to support research in this field between 1985 and 1989 with a total budget of about 50 million FIM (about 11 million USD). Researchers and government agencies all over the Northern hemisphere will find  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Pekka Kauppi; Pia Anttila; Kaarle Kenttämies
ISBN: 9783642754500 3642754503 9783540522133 3540522131
OCLC Number: 851760009
Description: 1 online resource (xviii, 1237 pages 440 illustrations)
Contents: 1 Air --
1.1 Emissions --
Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide Emission Scenarios For Finland --
NOx Emissions at the Beginning of the 1980s in Finland --
Ammonia Emissions in the 1980s --
1.2 Atmospheric Processes --
On the Effects of Meteorological Factors on Air Pollution Concentrations and Deposition in Finland --
Simulating the Formation of Acid Aerosols --
Characteristics of Alkaline Emissions, Atmospheric Aerosols and Deposition --
Characteristics of Sulphur Dioxide Monitors: Intercomparison --
1.3 Deposition --
Bulk Deposition Chemistry in Finland --
Model Calculations of Sulphur and Nitrogen Deposition in Finland --
Deposition on Forest Soils — Effect of Tree Canopy on Throughfall --
2 Terrestrial Systems --
2.1 Soil Chemistry --
Chemical Characteristics of Finnish Agricultural Soils in 1974 and in 1987 --
A Survey of Forest Soil Properties Related to Soil Acidification in Southern Finland --
Regional Acidification Model for Forest Soils --
Buffering Capacity of Finnish Soils and its Dependence on Geological Factors in Relation to the Acidification Sensitivity of Lakes --
Effects of Acid Deposition on Exchangeable Cations, Acidity and Aluminium Solubility in Forest Soils and Soil Solution --
Buffering of Peat and Peaty Soils: Evaluation Based on the Artificial Acidification of Peat Lysimeters --
Effects of Nitrogen Inputs on Forest Ecosystems. Estimation Based on Long-Term Fertilization Experiments --
2.2 Soil Microbiology --
Microbiological and Chemical Properties of the Forest Humus Layer at Four Sites in Southern Finland --
Soil Biological Parameters as Indicators of Changes in Scots Pine Forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) Caused by Air Pollution --
2.3 Vegetation and Insects --
Epiphytic Lichens on Conifers in the 1960’s to 1980’s in Finland --
A Survey of Element Concentrations in the Epiphytic Lichen Hypogymnia physodes in Finland in 1985–1986 --
Air Pollution Levels and Abundance of Forest Insects --
Effects of Simulated Acid Rain on the Susceptibility to Scleroderis canker (Ascocalyx abietina (Lagerb.) Scläpher-Bernhard) and on Assimilation and Transpiration of Scots Pine Seedlings --
Ecological Effects of Simulated Acid Rain in a Subarctic Area with Low Ambient Sulphur Deposition --
Influence of Acidification on Metal Uptake in Plants --
2.4 Trees --
Detecting Forest Growth Responses to Environmental Changes — a Review of Finnish Studies --
The Vitality of Conifers in Finland 1986–1988 --
The Occurrence of Abiotic and Biotic Damage and its Relation to Defoliation (Needle Loss) of Conifers in Finland (1985–1988) --
An Approach to Analyse the Dynamics of Environmental Change and its Effects on Forest Growth --
Wintering Response of Conifers to Acid Rain Treatment Under Northern Conditions --
Effects of High Nitrogen Deposition on Forests: Case Studies Close to Fur Animal Farms --
Causes of Conifer Injuries in Some Industrial Environments --
Needle Retention, Age, Shedding and Budget, and Growth of Scots Pine Between 1865 and 1988 --
The Foliar Chemical Composition of Young Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) with or without Decline --
The Effects of Soluble Inorganic Aluminium and Nutrient Imbalances on Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies Seedlings --
2.5 Materials --
Effects of SO2 on Construction Materials: Preliminary Results --
3 Water --
3.1 Aquatic Chemistry --
Statistical Lake Survey in Finland: Regional Estimates of Lake Acidification --
Modelling Long-Term Development of Surface Water Acidification in Finland --
Ion Budgets of Small Forested Basins --
Hydrological Characteristics Affecting the Runoff Water Acidity --
Organic Acidity in Finnish Lakes --
Effects of Air Pollutants on Chemical Characteristics of Soil Water and Groundwater --
Trace Metals in Finnish Headwater Lakes — Effects of Acidification and Airborne Load --
3.2 Biota in Lakes and Streams --
Acid-Induced Changes in Fish Populations of Small Finnish Lakes --
Respiratory Effects of Environmental Acidification in Perch (Perca fluviatilis) and Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) --
Long-Term Exposure of Adult Whitefish (Coregonus wartmanni) to Low pH/Aluminium: Effects on Reproduction, Growth, Blood Composition and Gills --
Macrophytes in Finnish Forest Lakes and Possible Effects of Airborne Acidification --
Phytoplankton and Acidification in Small Forest Lakes in Finland --
Periphytic Diatoms in the Acidification Project Lakes --
Surface Sediment Diatom Assemblages and Lake Acidity --
Crustacean Zooplankton of Finnish Forest Lakes in Relation to Acidity and Other Environmental Factors --
Benthic Invertebrates in Relation to Acidity in Finnish Forest Lakes --
Estimation of Acidity in Streams by Means of Benthic Invertebrates: Evaluation of Two Methods --
Palaeoecological Evaluation of the Recent Acidification of Susceptible Lakes in Finland --
4 Liming --
Alleviation of Forest Soil Acidification Through Liming --
Neutralization of Acidified Watercourses --
Liming of the Acidic Lake Valkealampi in Eastern Finland: Effects on Water Chemistry and Phytoplankton --
Effects of Liming on the Chemistry and Biology of a Small Acid Humic Lake --
5 Secondary Effects and Assessment --
Development of an Integrated Model for the Assessment of Acidification in Finland --
Evaluation of Finnish Sulphur Reduction Strategies for the Year 1995 --
Amount, Quality and Utilization of Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) Wastes in Finland --
Economic Impacts of Western European Air Pollution on the Finnish Forest Sector.
Responsibility: edited by Pekka Kauppi, Pia Anttila, Kaarle Kenttämies.

Abstract:

This is the most complete presentation available this far on the acidic deposition issue in Finland representing the main research report of the Finnish Acidification Research Programme (HAPRO), a programme designed to support research in this field between 1985 and 1989 with a total budget of about 50 million FIM (about 11 million USD). Researchers and government agencies all over the Northern hemisphere will find this thorough study invaluable for planning, assessing and comparing research within their own territories. This overview focuses on a wide selection of acidic deposition topics from an analytical perspective, detailing the background, materials, methods and results of different individual studies. Reports include emission inventories, deposition studies, forest vegetation studies, forest soil investigations, lake chemistry surveys, etc. The acidic deposition issue resembles a large-size jig saw puzzle. The pieces presented document early warning observations of acidic deposition damage in Finland and a potential for increasing the damage or decreasing it depending on pollution control measures. Systems of analytical models are also presented which are used to synthesize the different acidic precipitation aspects.

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