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Advisory work in crop pest and disease management

Author: J Palti; R Ausher; Z Arenstein
Publisher: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1986.
Series: Crop protection monographs.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Advisory work in crop pest and disease management.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, ©1986
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: J Palti; R Ausher; Z Arenstein
ISBN: 0387162429 9780387162423 3540162429 9783540162421
OCLC Number: 13064798
Description: xx, 284 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: 1 Advisory Work in Pest and Disease Management in the General Framework of Agricultural Production.- 1.1 The Place of Pest and Disease Management in the Agricultural Economy, and Its Legal Framework.- 1.1.1 Communal, Risk, and Emergency Aspects of Crop Pest and Disease Control.- Risk.- Emergency.- 1.1.2 The Legal Framework for Pest and Disease Control and for the Adviser's Work.- Importance of the Legal Framework.- Aspects to Be Covered by Law.- Legal Aspects and the Adviser's Work.- 1.2 Crop Protection Advice: Its Place in the General Scheme of Farming and of Farm Advice.- 1.2.1 Overall Phytosanitary Management - the Basic Aim of Crop Protection Advice.- 1.2.2 A Crop Worth Protecting Is the Prerequisite for Crop Protection.- 1.2.3 Aspects Particular to Advisory Work in Pest and Disease Control.- Multi-Crop and Multi-Annual Aspects.- Urgency of Advice.- 1.2.4 Integration of General Cropping and Pest Control Advice.- Risk of Crop Loss.- Availability and Proficiency of Advisory Personnel.- Farmers' Educational Level.- Availability of Auxiliary Services.- 1.2.5 The Target Groups for Advisory Work in Pest and Disease Control.- 1.2.6 Organizational Concepts for Integrating Cropping and Crop Protection Advice.- 1.2.7 A Brief Look at the Range and Limitations of Advice by Public Agencies and by Pesticide Distributors.- 1.3 Basic Knowledge and Current Information for the Crop Protection Adviser.- 1.3.1 Basic Knowledge.- The Crop in Health.- Innate Destructiveness of Pests and Pathogens.- 1.3.2 Current Information for the Adviser.- Potential Crop Value and Current Prices of Produce.- Pesticide Registration and Compatibility.- Health Risks and Antidotes.- Weather Data.- 1.4 Farmers' Perceptions of Pest and Disease Control.- 2 Advice for Pest and Disease Control: Tasks and Tools.- 2.1 The Range of Crop Protection Advice Is Extremely Wide.- 2.2 Detection and Diagnosis of Crop Disorders and of Pest and Disease Occurrence.- 2.2.1 Nonparasitic Disorders in Field and Orchard Crops.- Stress and Injury.- Patterns of Symptom Distribution.- Spatial Distribution.- Distribution over Plant Species.- Diagnosis of Air Pollution Symptoms.- Recognition of Some Common Symptoms of Nonparasitic Disorders in Field Crops.- Recognition of Some Nonparasitic Disorders in Fruit Crops.- Disorders Due to Weather Factors.- Nutrient and Water-Related Disorders.- Incompatibility of Rootstock and Scion.- 2.2.2 First Steps in the Detection and Diagnosis of Pest and Pathogen Trouble.- Symptoms Caused by Pests and Pathogens on the Host as a Whole or on Major Parts of the Host.- Common Symptoms of Pests and Pathogens Affecting Single Organs of the Shoot.- Spots on Leaves and Fruits.- Holes and Tunnels.- Dry and Soft Rots.- Crinkling or Curling of Leaves.- Pest and Pathogen Symptoms Common on Field and Vegetable Crops.- Pre- and Post-emergence Afflictions.- "Heart Trouble".- The Host as a Whole Is Affected.- Individual Organs Are Affected.- Pest and Pathogen Symptoms Common on Orchard Crops.- The Tree as a Whole Is Affected.- Individual Organs Are Affected.- Diagnosis of Combined Stress and Pest or Pathogen Afflictions.- A Look into the Future: Computer-Based Disease Diagnosis.- 2.2.3 The Disease Identification Service or Plant Clinic.- Function and Scope of the Disease Identification Service.- What Crop Afflictions Most Frequently Require Identification by the Plant Clinic?.- How Can the Adviser Derive Full Benefit from the Clinic?.- 2.3 Crop Value, Economic Damage Thresholds, and Treatment Thresholds.- 2.3.1 Factors Affecting the Level of Yield Reduction and the Economic Damage Threshold.- 2.3.2 Damage or Yield Reduction Amenable to Mitigation or Prevention.- 2.3.3 Prognosis of Preventable Yield Reduction.- 2.3.4 Crop Factors Affecting Determination of Treatment Thresholds.- 2.3.5 Economic Factors in the Determination of Treatment Thresholds.- Growing Expenses Already Incurred.- Sampling Expenses.- Harvesting and Marketing Expenses.- Direct and Indirect Cost of Treatment.- Market Price of Produce.- 2.3.6 Constraints Affecting Determination of Treatment Thresholds.- 2.3.7 Use of Computers to Define Treatment Thresholds.- 2.3.8 Procedures for Defining Treatment Thresholds.- 2.3.9 Treatment Thresholds for Peasant Farmers.- 2.3.10 Where Treatment Thresholds Are Not Considered - Prophylactic Application of Pesticides.- 2.4 Pest and Disease Monitoring and Management.- 2.4.1 Sampling for Crop Pest and Disease Monitoring and Control.- Sampling of Crops for the Determination of Pest Populations and Treatment Thresholds.- Pest and Pathogen Behaviour as Related to Sampling.- Spatial and Statistical Distribution Patterns.- Size of Reference Plots.- Allocation of Sampling Points in the Reference Plot.- The Number and Size of Samples.- Sequential Sampling.- Successive Sampling.- Weighting or Calibration.- Drawing Up a Plan for Threshold Sampling.- Selective Sampling for Monitoring Application Efficacy.- 2.4.2 Monitoring and Prognosis by Environmental and Empirical Criteria.- Pre-Season Weather and Infection Criteria for Prognosis and Monitoring.- Weather and Level of Infection or Infestation in Preceding Seasons.- Winter Monitoring of Pests on Branches of Deciduous Fruit Trees.- Empirical Threshold Dates of Pest and Disease Appearance.- In-Season Monitoring According to Temperature and Humidity Effects on Pest and Disease Appearance.- Temperature Sums or Degree Days.- Prediction by Combined Temperature and Humidity Factors.- The Growth Stage or Age of the Crop as Guide for Monitoring.- 2.4.3 Monitoring by Trapping Potentially Harmful Organisms to Guide Pesticide Applications.- Factors Affecting the Use of Insect Traps.- Trapping Methods for Major Groups of Flying or Air-Borne Pests.- Aphids and Whiteflies.- Scale Insects.- Flies and Midges.- Beetles and Weevils.- Mots and Butterflies.- Trapping Spores of Fungi.- Monitoring Viruses and Their Vectors.- 2.4.4 Monitoring by Counting or Appraising Pest Populations or Crop Tissue Affected.- Counting Pests or Affected Plants.- Monitoring Cotton Pests in Israel.- Apple Pests in Central Europe.- Visual Appraisal of Symptoms.- Assessment of Incidence.- Assessment of Severity.- Small, Simple Units.- Large, Composite Units.- Evaluation of Symptom Appraisal and Establishment of Thresholds.- 2.4.5 Remote Sensing by Aerial Infrared Colour Photography as an Aid in Monitoring Crops for Pests and Diseases.- Principles of Remote Sensing.- Factors Affecting Reflectance from Crops.- Pigments.- Leaf Structure.- Spatial Factors.- Criteria for Interpreting the Photographs.- Contribution of Aerial Remote Sensing to the Monitoring of Crops.- Examples of the Application of Aerial Remote Sensing in Crop Protection Work.- Sooty Mould on Citrus and Cotton Crops.- Disease, Mineral Deficiency and Stress Assessment in Plantations.- Sclerotinia Blight of Peanuts.- Late Blight of Potatoes.- Nematodes in Cotton.- 2.4.6 Optimization of Pest Management Advice by Computer-Based Decision Making.- Computerized Systems for Pest Management.- Adoption of the Computerized Advisory Approach.- The Development of Computerized Monitoring and Information Delivery for Pest Management.- Examples of Computerized Pest and Disease Management Schemes in Operation.- How Can Advisory Personnel Promote Development of Computerized Pest Management Schemes and Their Adoption by Growers?.- Outlook.- Development of a Model for Monitoring Heliothis armigera in Cotton in Israel.- The Conventional Procedure for Monitoring H. armigera.- Development of the Model for Consecutive, Interrelated Sampling.- Optimization of the Control of Wheat Leaf Diseases by Integration of Advisory and Research Work.- Thresholds for Initiation of Control.- Thresholds for Termination of Control.- The Role Played by Climatic Conditions and the Decision-Making Scheme.- The Interplay of Economic and Biological Factors.- Computerized Advisory Schemes in Aid of Decision-Making.- 2.4.7 Regional and Communal Considerations in Pest and Disease Control Advice.- Regional Warning Systems and Detection of Trouble Spots.- Sanitation and Detection of Parasite Sources.- Agricultural Waste and Water.- Parasite Transmission by Weeds.- Transmission from Minor to Major Crops.- Transmission from Early to Late Crops.- Bees Have to Be Protected from Pesticide Damage.- Regional Pest and Disease Control.- Integrated Control.- Detection and Avoidance of Parasite Resistance to Pesticides.- Communal Pest Control Operations.- 2.5 Pesticide Application: Technique and Efficiency.- 2.5.1 The Application Target: Crop and Pest.- The Host Surface Area, Its Shape and Physicochemical Properties.- Deposition.- Retention of Pesticide.- Spread After Deposition.- The Position and Orientation of the Host Organ to Be Protected.- The Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Leaf Area Volume Index (LAVI).- 2.5.2 Pesticides and Application.- Stomach Poisons.- Contact Poisons.- Volatile, Penetrating and Systemic Pesticides.- 2.5.3 The Movement of Pesticide Particles, as Influenced by the Environment, and the Danger of Drift.- 2.5.4 Pesticide Distribution Techniques.- Spray Application Techniques.- Spray Clouds.- Placement Spraying.- Controlled Droplet Application (CDA).- Electrostatic Spraying.- Air Assisted Spraying.- Application of Dusts and Granules.- Fumigation for the Control of Soil-Borne Pests and Diseases.- Dipping, Drench-Sprays and Spray Disinfection.- 2.5.5 Rates of Application and Uniformity of Coverage.- Rate of Application.- Uniformity of Coverage.- 2.5.6 Dosage and Calibration.- 2.5.7 How to Measure Efficiency of Application.- 2.5.8 Development of Application Techniques Promises to Raise Efficacy and Minimize Quantity of Pesticides Applied.- 2.6 The Crop Protection Adviser.- 2.6.1 The Crop Protection Adviser in Public Employ: Tasks, Limitations, Contacts.- Aims and Tasks of the Adviser.- Non-Advisory Tasks Sometimes Imposed on the Crop Protection Adviser.- Advice vs. Policing and Policy.- Advice vs. Implementation.- Allocation of Manpower in Crop Protection Advisory Work.- All-Round Crop Protection Advice or Specialization by Disciplines?.- A Plea for Better Economic Training for Crop Protection Advisers.- Integration of Work of the Crop Protection Adviser and the Research Work.- Integration of Advisory and Research Work.- What the Adviser Requires from Research.- What the Research Staff Requires from Advisers.- Mutual Dependence of Advisory and Research Services.- 2.6.2 Pest and Disease Control Advice Given by Representatives of Pesticide Manufacturers.- Background.- Advisory Work in Countries With or Without Operative Pesticide Registration Schemes.- Technical Information.- Field Tests and Demonstrations.- Current Advice and Timing of Pesticide Use.- Commercial Advice.- Outlook.- 3 How Crop Protection Advice Is Given in Various Countries: a Diversity of Objectives and Approaches.- 3.1 Crop Protection: The Role of the Agricultural Development and Advisory Service in England and Wales.- 3.1.1 The Agricultural Industry in England and Wales.- 3.1.2 The Agricultural Advisory Service.- The National Advisory Service.- The Present Structure of the Agricultural Development and Advisory Service.- 3.1.3 The Communication and Dissemination Pathways.- From Farmer to Adviser: the Communication Pathway.- From Adviser to Farmer: the Dissemination Pathway.- Communication: the Spoken Word.- Communication: the Written Word.- 3.1.4 Plant Clinics.- 3.1.5 Solving Problems.- 3.1.6 Specialized Branches and Services.- 3.1.7 Crop Protection by Legislation.- 3.1.8 Management of Crop Protection in ADAS.- 3.1.9 Grade Structure and Promotion Within ADAS.- 3.1.10 Crop Protection in ADAS, Its Strengths and Weaknesses.- 3.2 Advisory Work in Crop Protection in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG).- 3.2.1 Organization of Official Crop Protection Advisory Work in the FRG.- Structure.- Budgeting.- Facilities and Equipment.- Dissemination of Advice.- 3.2.2 Commercial Advice.- Structure and Budgeting.- Facilities and Equipment.- Dissemination of Advice.- 3.2.3 The Adviser.- The Number and Training of Advisers.- Specialization of Advisory Personnel.- The Range of Activities of Crop Protection Personnel.- Furthering the Adviser's Professional Proficiency.- 3.2.4 Targets and Range of Current Advisory Work.- Targets, Target Groups and Modes of Operation.- The Range of Crop Protection Advice.- 3.2.5 Evaluation.- Are the Farmers Satisfied?.- What Can Be Improved?.- 3.3 Advice on Pest and Disease Control in Israel.- 3.3.1 Background.- 3.3.2 Availability of Auxiliary Services.- Plant Clinics.- Meteorological Service.- Monitoring of Field Scouting.- 3.3.3 The Crop Protection Adviser in the Extension Service's Division of Crop Protection.- Organization.- The Senior Advisers.- Coordination of Group Activities and Publications.- The Regional Advisers.- 3.3.4 Planning the Work of the Regional Adviser.- 3.3.5 Evaluation and Prospective Improvements.- Some Recent Development in Crop Protection.- Specialization and Advancement of Regional Advisers.- Subjects to Be Integrated in the Activities of the Division of Crop Protection of the Advisory Service.- 3.4 Plant Protection Advisory Work in the University of California Cooperative Extension Office.- 3.4.1 Cooperative Extension Work in California.- 3.4.2 The Pest Management Program.- 3.4.3 Planning and Conducting Pest Management Programs.- The Process of Program Planning.- Educational Programs.- Monitoring and Evaluating Pest Problems.- Methods of Management.- Environmental and Economic Impact of Pest Management.- Special Projects.- 3.4.4 Availability of Auxiliary Services.- 3.4.5 Administrative Structure.- 3.4.6 Personnel and Resources.- 3.4.7 Summary.- 3.5 Dissemination of Pest Management Information in the Midwest, U.S.A..- 3.5.1 Sources of Information.- 3.5.2 Dissemination of Information by Public Agencies.- 3.5.3 Advice Disseminated by Suppliers and Consultants.- 3.6 Implementing a Statewide Pest Management Program for Texas, U.S.A..- 3.6.1 Introduction.- 3.6.2 A Statewide Pest Management Program for Texas.- 3.6.3 Farmers, Organizations, and IPM Program Involvement.- 3.6.4 Elements of the IPM Strategy in Texas.- Variety Selection and Host Plant Resistance.- Cultural Practices.- Field Sampling and Economic Thresholds.- Pest Models and Environmental Monitoring.- Biological Control.- Regulatory.- 3.6.5 Methods of IPM Program Information Delivery.- 3.6.6 Evaluating IPM Programs.- 3.6.7 The Role of the Private Consultant.- 3.6.8 Bridging Research and Extension Programs Within and Between Disciplines.- 3.7 Development of Crop Protection Advisory Work in Thailand Within the Framework of the "Training and Visit" Approach to Extension.- 3.7.1 Essential Features of the T & V Extension Approach.- Training.- Visits.- 3.7.2 Crop Protection in Thailand.- 3.7.3 Crop Protection Advice in the Framework of T & V.- Cotton Pest Scouting.- Plant Clinics.- Monitoring and Control of Pests in Fruit Crops.- 3.7.4 Interrelations Between Extension and Research: Past, Present and Future.- Pest Control Recommendations.- Coordinated Field Trials.- 3.7.5 A Final Word.- 3.8 Advice on Pest and Disease Management: a Diversity of Objectives and Approaches.- 3.8.1 Advanced Farm Economies.- Intensity of Advice as Related to Number and Specialization of Growers.- Growers' Participation and the Target Groups of Advice.- University-Linked Compared with State-Run Services: Generation and Validation of Know-How.- 3.8.2 Farm Economies in Developing Countries.- Subsistence Farmers.- Individual Farmers Growing and Marketing Their Croups.- Farmers Growing Crops for Cooperative or Government Marketing.- Scope and Structure of Crop Protection Advice in Developing Farm Economies.- 3.8.3 Farm Economies at All Levels of Development: Subjects That Require Special Attention.- Determination of Treatment Thresholds.- Pesticide Application Techniques.- Biological Control of Pests and Pathogens.- Cultural Practices.- 3.8.4 The Crop Protection Adviser of the Future and His Aspirations.- Training.- Opportunity and Motivation.- Index of Pests, Pathogens and Beneficial Organisms.
Series Title: Crop protection monographs.
Responsibility: edited by J. Palti and R. Ausher ; with contributions by Z. Arenstein [and others].


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