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Algorithms That Learn to Extract Information BBN: Description of the Sift System as Used for MUC-7.

Author: Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.; Scott MillerMichael CrystalHeidi FoxLance RamshawAll authors
Publisher: [United States] : Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma, 1998.
Series: AD-a460 615.
Edition/Format:   Print book : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
For MUC-7, BBN has for the first time fielded a fully-trained system for NE, TE, and TR; results are all the output of statistical language models trained on annotated data, rather than programs executing handwritten rules. Such trained systems have some significant advantages: 1. They can be easily ported to new domains by simply annotating data with semantic answers. 2. The complex interactions that make  Read more...
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Material Type: Government publication, National government publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.; Scott Miller; Michael Crystal; Heidi Fox; Lance Ramshaw; Richard Schwartz; Rebecca Stone; Ralph Weischedel
OCLC Number: 1050625189
Notes: Conference paper.
Presented at the Message Understanding Conference (7th), MUC-7, held in Fairfax, VA on 29 Apr-1 May 1998 and published in proceedings of the same. The original document contains color images.
Description: 18 pages.
Series Title: AD-a460 615.

Abstract:

For MUC-7, BBN has for the first time fielded a fully-trained system for NE, TE, and TR; results are all the output of statistical language models trained on annotated data, rather than programs executing handwritten rules. Such trained systems have some significant advantages: 1. They can be easily ported to new domains by simply annotating data with semantic answers. 2. The complex interactions that make rule-based systems difficult to develop and maintain can here be learned automatically from the training data. We believe that the results in this evaluation are evidence that such trained systems, even at their current level of development, can perform roughly on a par with rules hand-tailored by experts. Since MUC-3, BBN has been steadily increasing the proportion of the information extraction process that is statistically trained. Already in MET-1, our name-finding results were the output of a fully statistical, HMM-based model, and that statistical Identifinder(trademark) model was also used for the NE task in MUC-7. For the MUC-7 TE and TR tasks, BBN developed SIFT, a new model that represents a significant further step along this path, replacing PLUM, a system requiring handwritten patterns, with SIFT, a single integrated trained model.

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\n\n

Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1050625189<\/a>> # Algorithms That Learn to Extract Information BBN: Description of the Sift System as Used for MUC-7.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Book<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"1050625189<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/xxu<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Place\/united_states<\/a>> ; # United States<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/statistical_language_models<\/a>> ; # statistical language models<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/syntax<\/a>> ; # syntax<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/conditioning_learning<\/a>> ; # conditioning(learning)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/augmented_parse_trees<\/a>> ; # augmented parse trees<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/computational_linguistics<\/a>> ; # computational linguistics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/statistical_processes<\/a>> ; # statistical processes<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/dynamic_programming<\/a>> ; # dynamic programming<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/information_retrieval<\/a>> ; # information retrieval<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/natural_language<\/a>> ; # natural language<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/sift_statistics_for_information_from_text<\/a>> ; # sift(statistics for information from text)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/maximum_likelihood_estimation<\/a>> ; # maximum likelihood estimation<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/algorithms<\/a>> ; # algorithms<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> bgn:PrintBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/fox_heidi<\/a>> ; # Heidi Fox<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Agent\/bbn_systems_and_technologies_corp_cambridge_ma<\/a>> ; # Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/schwartz_richard<\/a>> ; # Richard Schwartz<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/crystal_michael<\/a>> ; # Michael Crystal<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/stone_rebecca<\/a>> ; # Rebecca Stone<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/weischedel_ralph<\/a>> ; # Ralph Weischedel<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/ramshaw_lance<\/a>> ; # Lance Ramshaw<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/miller_scott<\/a>> ; # Scott Miller<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"1998<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"For MUC-7, BBN has for the first time fielded a fully-trained system for NE, TE, and TR; results are all the output of statistical language models trained on annotated data, rather than programs executing handwritten rules. Such trained systems have some significant advantages: 1. They can be easily ported to new domains by simply annotating data with semantic answers. 2. The complex interactions that make rule-based systems difficult to develop and maintain can here be learned automatically from the training data. We believe that the results in this evaluation are evidence that such trained systems, even at their current level of development, can perform roughly on a par with rules hand-tailored by experts. Since MUC-3, BBN has been steadily increasing the proportion of the information extraction process that is statistically trained. Already in MET-1, our name-finding results were the output of a fully statistical, HMM-based model, and that statistical Identifinder(trademark) model was also used for the NE task in MUC-7. For the MUC-7 TE and TR tasks, BBN developed SIFT, a new model that represents a significant further step along this path, replacing PLUM, a system requiring handwritten patterns, with SIFT, a single integrated trained model.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/137556569<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Government publication<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"National government publication<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Series\/ad_a460_615<\/a>> ; # AD-a460 615.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Algorithms That Learn to Extract Information BBN: Description of the Sift System as Used for MUC-7.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1050625189<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publication<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1050625189#PublicationEvent\/united_states_bbn_systems_and_technologies_corp_cambridge_ma_1998<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publisher<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Agent\/bbn_systems_and_technologies_corp_cambridge_ma<\/a>> ; # Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1050625189<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Agent\/bbn_systems_and_technologies_corp_cambridge_ma<\/a>> # Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Agent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/crystal_michael<\/a>> # Michael Crystal<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Crystal<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Michael<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Michael Crystal<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/fox_heidi<\/a>> # Heidi Fox<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Fox<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Heidi<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Heidi Fox<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/miller_scott<\/a>> # Scott Miller<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Miller<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Scott<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Scott Miller<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/ramshaw_lance<\/a>> # Lance Ramshaw<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Ramshaw<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Lance<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Lance Ramshaw<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/schwartz_richard<\/a>> # Richard Schwartz<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Schwartz<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Richard<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Richard Schwartz<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/stone_rebecca<\/a>> # Rebecca Stone<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Stone<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Rebecca<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Rebecca Stone<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Person\/weischedel_ralph<\/a>> # Ralph Weischedel<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Weischedel<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Ralph<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Ralph Weischedel<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Place\/united_states<\/a>> # United States<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"United States<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Series\/ad_a460_615<\/a>> # AD-a460 615.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:PublicationSeries<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:hasPart<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1050625189<\/a>> ; # Algorithms That Learn to Extract Information BBN: Description of the Sift System as Used for MUC-7.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"AD-a460 615.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"AD-a460 615<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/algorithms<\/a>> # algorithms<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"algorithms<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/augmented_parse_trees<\/a>> # augmented parse trees<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"augmented parse trees<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/computational_linguistics<\/a>> # computational linguistics<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"computational linguistics<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/conditioning_learning<\/a>> # conditioning(learning)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"conditioning(learning)<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/dynamic_programming<\/a>> # dynamic programming<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"dynamic programming<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/information_retrieval<\/a>> # information retrieval<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"information retrieval<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/maximum_likelihood_estimation<\/a>> # maximum likelihood estimation<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"maximum likelihood estimation<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/natural_language<\/a>> # natural language<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"natural language<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/sift_statistics_for_information_from_text<\/a>> # sift(statistics for information from text)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"sift(statistics for information from text)<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/statistical_language_models<\/a>> # statistical language models<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"statistical language models<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/statistical_processes<\/a>> # statistical processes<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"statistical processes<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Thing\/syntax<\/a>> # syntax<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"syntax<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/xxu<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"xxu<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1050625189<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \ngenont:InformationResource<\/a>, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1050625189<\/a>> ; # Algorithms That Learn to Extract Information BBN: Description of the Sift System as Used for MUC-7.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:dateModified<\/a> \"2018-12-30<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nvoid:inDataset<\/a> <http:\/\/purl.oclc.org\/dataset\/WorldCat<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1050625189#PublicationEvent\/united_states_bbn_systems_and_technologies_corp_cambridge_ma_1998<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:PublicationEvent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:location<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Place\/united_states<\/a>> ; # United States<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:organizer<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/137556569#Agent\/bbn_systems_and_technologies_corp_cambridge_ma<\/a>> ; # Bbn systems and technologies corp cambridge ma.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:startDate<\/a> \"1998<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Content-negotiable representations<\/p>\n