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American English : dialects and variation

Author: Walt Wolfram; Natalie Schilling-Estes
Publisher: Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell, [2016]
Series: Language in Society.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Third editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
"The thoroughly revised new edition now includes a companion website with an extensive array of sound files, video clips, and other online materials to enhance and illustrate discussions in the text"--
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Wolfram, Walt, 1941-.
American English.
Hoboken : Wiley-Blackwell, [2016]
(DLC) 2015031799
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Walt Wolfram; Natalie Schilling-Estes
ISBN: 9781118391457 1118391454 9781118391433 1118391438
OCLC Number: 919202335
Notes: Machine generated contents note: Contents Preface ix Phonetic Symbols xiv List of Figures xvii 1 Dialects, Standards, and Vernaculars 1 1.1 Defining Dialect 2 1.2 Dialect: The Popular Viewpoint 3 1.3 Dialect Myths and Linguistic Reality 14 1.4 Standards and Vernaculars 17 1.5 Descriptivism and Prescriptivism 27 1.6 Vernacular Dialects 30 1.7 Labeling Vernacular Dialects 33 1.8 Why Study Dialects? 35 1.9 A Tradition of Study 42 1.10 Further Reading 48 2 Why Dialects? 50 2.1 Sociohistorical Explanation 51 2.1.1 Settlement 52 2.1.2 Migration 55 2.1.3 Geographical factors 56 2.1.4 Language contact 58 2.1.5 Economic ecology 61 2.1.6 Social stratification 63 2.1.7 Social interaction, social practices, and speech communities 65 2.1.8 Group and individual identity 73 2.2 Linguistic Explanation 77 2.2.1 Rule extension 82 2.2.2 Analogy 84 2.2.3 Transparency and grammaticalization 91 2.2.4 Pronunciation principles 97 2.2.5 Words and word meanings 107 2.3 The Final Product 111 2.4 Further Reading 112 3 Levels of Dialect 115 3.1 Lexical Differences 115 3.2 Slang 124 3.3 Phonological Differences 129 3.4 Grammatical Differences 144 3.5 Language Use and Pragmatics 155 3.6 Further Reading 166 4 Dialects in the United States: Past, Present, and Future 169 4.1 The First English(es) in America 170 4.1.1 Jamestown 170 4.1.2 Boston 173 4.1.3 Philadelphia 177 4.1.4 Charleston 179 4.1.5 New Orleans 181 4.2 Earlier American English: The Colonial Period 182 4.3 American English Extended 187 4.4 The Westward Expansion of English 191 4.5 The Present and Future State of American English 195 4.6 Further Reading 202 5 Regional Varieties of English 205 5.1 Eliciting Regional Dialect Forms 205 5.2 Mapping Regional Variants 208 5.3 The Distribution of Dialect Forms 211 5.4 Dialect Diffusion 221 5.5 Perceptual Dialectology 228 5.6 Region and Place 233 5.7 Further Reading 235 6 Social Varieties of American English ` 239 6.1 Social Status and Class 240 6.2 Beyond Social Class 244 6.3 Indexing Social Meanings through Language Variation 246 6.4 The Patterning of Social Differences in Language 248 6.5 Linguistic Constraints on Variability 254 6.6 The Social Evaluation of Linguistic Features 260 6.7 Social Class and Language Change 265 6.8 Further Reading 267 7 Ethnicity and American English 269 7.1 Ethnic Varieties and Ethnolinguistic Repertoire 270 7.2 Patterns of Ethnolinguistic Variation 272 7.3 Latino English 276 7.4 Cajun English 288 7.5 Lumbee English 292 7.6 Jewish American English 297 7.7 Asian American English 302 7.8 Further Reading 308 8 African American English 311 8.1 Defining the English of African Americans 311 8.2 The Relationship of European American and African American English 315 8.3 The Origin and Early Development 323 8.3.1 The Anglicist Hypothesis 323 8.3.2 The Creolist Hypothesis 324 8.3.3 A Note on Creole Exceptionalism 326 8.3.4 The Neo-Anglicist Hypothesis 327 8.3.5 The Substrate Hypothesis 329 8.4 The Contemporary Development of African American Speech 331 8.5 Conclusion 340 8.6 Further Reading 342 9 Gender and Language Variation 344 9.1 Gender-based Patterns of Variation 347 9.2 Explaining General Patterns 352 9.3 Localized Expressions of Gender Relations 355 9.4 Communities of Practice: Linking the Local and the Global 358 9.5 Gender and Language Use 362 9.5.1 The "Female Deficit" Approach 363 9.5.2 The "Cultural Difference" Approach 370 9.5.3 The "Dominance" Approach 373 9.6 Investigating Gender Diversity 376 9.7 Talking about Men and Women 377 9.7.1 Generic he and man 378 9.7.2 Family names and addresses 379 9.7.3 Relationships of association 381 9.7.4 Labeling 382 9.8 The Question of Language Reform 383 9.9 Further Reading 387 10 Dialects and Style 390 10.1 Types of Style Shifting 391 10.2 Attention to Speech 397 10.2.1 The patterning of stylistic variation across social groups 399 10.2.2 Limitations of the attention to speech approach 402 10.3 Audience Design 405 10.3.1 The effects of audience on speech style 408 10.3.2 Questions concerning audience design 412 10.4 Speaker Design Approaches 416 10.4.1 Three approaches to style, 'three waves' of quantitative sociolinguistic study 417 10.4.2 Studying stylistic variation from a speaker-design perspective 419 10.5 Further Consideration 423 10.6 Further Reading 426 11 The Application of Dialect Study 429 11.1 Dialects and Assessment Testing 432 11.1.1 "Correctness" in Assessing Language Achievement and Development 433 11.1.2 Testing Linguistic Knowledge 439 11.1.3 Using language to test other knowledge 442 11.1.4 The testing situation 440 11.2 Teaching Mainstream American English 444 11.2.1 What standard? 446 11.2.2 Approaches to MAE 450 11.2.3 Can MAE be taught? 454 11.3 Further Reading 462 12 Dialect Awareness: Extending Application 464 12.1 Dialects and Reading 464 12.2 Dialect Influence in Written Language 468 12.3 Literary Dialect 471 12.4 Proactive Dialect Awareness 477 12.5 Venues of Engagement 480 12.6 A Curriculum on Dialects 483 12.7 Scrutinizing Sociolinguistic Engagement 493 12.8 Further Reading 500 Appendix 502 Glossary 534 References 573 Index 613.
Description: 1 online resource.
Contents: ""Title Page""; ""Table of Contents""; ""Companion Website""; ""List of Figures""; ""Preface""; ""References""; ""Phonetic Symbols""; ""Consonants""; ""Vowels""; ""1 Dialects, Standards, and Vernaculars""; ""1.1 Defining Dialect""; ""1.2 Dialect: The Popular Viewpoint""; ""1.3 Dialect Myths and Linguistic Reality""; ""1.4 Standards and Vernaculars""; ""1.5 Language Descriptivism and Prescriptivism""; ""1.6 Vernacular Dialects""; ""1.7 Labeling Vernacular Dialects""; ""1.8 Why Study Dialects?""; ""1.9 A Tradition of Study""; ""1.10 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""2 Why Dialects?"" ""2.1 Sociohistorical Explanation""""2.2 Linguistic Explanation""; ""2.3 The Final Product""; ""2.4 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""3 Levels of Dialect""; ""3.1 Lexical Differences""; ""3.2 Slang""; ""3.3 Phonological Differences""; ""3.4 Grammatical Differences""; ""3.5 Language Use and Pragmatics""; ""3.6 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""4 Dialects in the United States: Past, Present, and Future""; ""4.1 The First English(es) in America""; ""4.2 Earlier American English: The Colonial Period""; ""4.3 American English Extended""; ""4.4 The Westward Expansion of English"" ""4.5 The Present and Future State of American English""""4.6 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""5 Regional Varieties of English""; ""5.1 Eliciting Regional Dialect Forms""; ""5.2 Mapping Regional Variants""; ""5.3 The Distribution of Dialect Forms""; ""5.4 Dialect Diffusion""; ""5.5 Perceptual Dialectology""; ""5.6 Region and Place""; ""5.7 Further Reading""; ""Websites""; ""References""; ""6 Social Varieties of American English""; ""6.1 Social Status and Class""; ""6.2 Beyond Social Class""; ""6.3 Indexing Social Meanings through Language Variation"" ""6.4 The Patterning of Social Differences in Language""""6.5 Linguistic Constraints on Variability""; ""6.6 The Social Evaluation of Linguistic Features""; ""6.7 Social Class and Language Change""; ""6.8 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""7 Ethnicity and American English""; ""7.1 Ethnic Varieties and Ethnolinguistic Repertoire""; ""7.2 Patterns of Ethnolinguistic Variation""; ""7.3 Latino English""; ""7.4 Cajun English""; ""7.5 Lumbee English""; ""7.6 Jewish American English""; ""7.7 Asian American English""; ""7.8 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""8 African American English"" ""8.1 Defining the English of African Americans""""8.2 The Relationship between European American and African American English""; ""8.3 The Origin and Early Development of African American English""; ""8.4 The Contemporary Development of African American Speech""; ""8.5 Conclusion""; ""8.6 Further Reading""; ""References""; ""9 Gender and Language Variation""; ""9.1 Gender-based Patterns of Variation""; ""9.2 Explaining General Patterns""; ""9.3 Localized Expressions of Gender Relations""; ""9.4 Communities of Practice: Linking the Local and the Global""; ""9.5 Gender and Language Use""
Series Title: Language in Society.
Responsibility: Walt Wolfram and Natalie Schilling.

Abstract:

The new edition of this classic text chronicles recent breakthrough developments in the field of American English, covering regional, ethnic, and gender-based differences.  Read more...

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