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Assessing the potential impact of invasive ring-necked parakeets <i>Psittacula krameri</i> on native nuthatches <i>Sitta europeae</i> in Belgium
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Assessing the potential impact of invasive ring-necked parakeets Psittacula krameri on native nuthatches Sitta europeae in Belgium

Author: Diederik Strubbe Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, 650 Life Sciences Building, Stony Brook University, NY 11794, USA;; Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; Erik Matthysen Affiliation: Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; Catherine H Graham Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, 650 Life Sciences Building, Stony Brook University, NY 11794, USA;
Edition/Format: Article Article : English
Publication:Journal of Applied Ecology, v47 n3 (June 2010): 549-557
Other Databases: WorldCatWorldCatWorldCat
Summary:
1. Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity. Given the large number of invasive species, we need to be able to identify invaders with large effects in order to prioritize management efforts. Here, we present a framework using species distribution modelling to predict how abundance of native species will change as a result of competition with an invasive species using ring-necked parakeets  Read more...
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Document Type: Article
All Authors / Contributors: Diederik Strubbe Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, 650 Life Sciences Building, Stony Brook University, NY 11794, USA;; Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; Erik Matthysen Affiliation: Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium; Catherine H Graham Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolution, 650 Life Sciences Building, Stony Brook University, NY 11794, USA;
ISSN:0021-8901
Language Note: English
Unique Identifier: 5155667494
Notes: Correspondence author. E-mail: diederik.strubbe@ua.ac.be
Received 31 August 2009; accepted 6 March 2010 Handling Editor: Jack Lennon
Number of Figures: 5
Fig. S1. Moran’s I correlogram ofresiduals from the Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) models.
Fig. S2. Partial regression plots showing all variables influencing parakeet abundance.
Fig. S3. Partial regression plots showing all variables influencing nuthatch distribution.
Fig. S4. Interactions between predictor variables for nuthatch distribution.
Fig. S5. Partial regression plots showing all variables influencing nuthatch abundance.
Fig. S6. Interactions between predictor variables for nuthatch abundance.
Fig. S7. Partial GAM plots showing variables influencing nuthatch abundance in Brussels.
Fig. S8. Spatial distribution of impact on nuthatches according to a worst-case scenario.
Fig. S9. Parakeet impact on nuthatches in different habitat types.
Table S1. Summary of the variables used to model parakeet and nuthatch abundance
As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors.
Awards:
Other Titles: Predicting parakeet impact on nuthatches
Responsibility: D. Strubbe, E. Matthysen & C. H. Graham

Abstract:

1. Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity. Given the large number of invasive species, we need to be able to identify invaders with large effects in order to prioritize management efforts. Here, we present a framework using species distribution modelling to predict how abundance of native species will change as a result of competition with an invasive species using ring-necked parakeets Psittacula krameri and nuthatches Sitta europaea as a case study.
2. Ring-necked parakeets are widely introduced throughout Europe and compete with native cavity-nesters. Using the relationship between parakeet abundance and environmental variables in Brussels (Belgium), we predict parakeet abundance across Flanders. A competition coefficient, quantifying the parakeets’ impact on nuthatches, was obtained by a regression on a data set of parakeet and nuthatch abundance. An estimate of the number of nuthatches that will be lost when parakeets have occupied all suitable sites was calculated by superimposing the abundance maps of the two species and applying the competition coefficient.
3. Our results predict a potential population of about 22 000 parakeet pairs, indicating that they could become one of the most numerous cavity-nesters in the region. Parakeet abundance is the highest in older, more fragmented forest in urban areas whereas nuthatches prefer larger, old and oak-dominated forests.
4. Our models indicate that throughout much of their range, and in a variety of habitats, parakeets and nuthatches will compete for nesting cavities, but as the competition strength is only moderate, the total impact of parakeets on nuthatch populations will be limited, with at most one-third of the population at risk.
5.Synthesis and applications. Species distribution models combined with empirical estimates of competition strength can be used as a general tool to make an assessment of the potential impact of established invasive species. Such information is required to make effective decisions on how to prioritize management effort and resources across the multitude of invasive species that currently threaten native ecosystems. For the ring-necked parakeet, our results indicate that there is no compelling evidence indicating that parakeets pose a threat large enough to justify an eradication campaign where they are currently present.

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2. Ring-necked parakeets are widely introduced throughout Europe and compete with native cavity-nesters. Using the relationship between parakeet abundance and environmental variables in Brussels (Belgium), we predict parakeet abundance across Flanders. A competition coefficient, quantifying the parakeets’ impact on nuthatches, was obtained by a regression on a data set of parakeet and nuthatch abundance. An estimate of the number of nuthatches that will be lost when parakeets have occupied all suitable sites was calculated by superimposing the abundance maps of the two species and applying the competition coefficient.
3. Our results predict a potential population of about 22 000 parakeet pairs, indicating that they could become one of the most numerous cavity-nesters in the region. Parakeet abundance is the highest in older, more fragmented forest in urban areas whereas nuthatches prefer larger, old and oak-dominated forests.
4. Our models indicate that throughout much of their range, and in a variety of habitats, parakeets and nuthatches will compete for nesting cavities, but as the competition strength is only moderate, the total impact of parakeets on nuthatch populations will be limited, with at most one-third of the population at risk.
5.Synthesis and applications. Species distribution models combined with empirical estimates of competition strength can be used as a general tool to make an assessment of the potential impact of established invasive species. Such information is required to make effective decisions on how to prioritize management effort and resources across the multitude of invasive species that currently threaten native ecosystems. For the ring-necked parakeet, our results indicate that there is no compelling evidence indicating that parakeets pose a threat large enough to justify an eradication campaign where they are currently present.
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