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Atmospheric chemistry and physics : from air pollution to climate change

Author: John H Seinfeld; Spyros N Pandis
Publisher: Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, [2016]
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Third editionView all editions and formats
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A detailed account of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere - for graduate students, professionals and libraries involved in environmental, civil and chemical engineering projects and studies.
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Seinfeld, John H.
Atmospheric chemistry and physics.
Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., [2016]
(DLC) 2015043236
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: John H Seinfeld; Spyros N Pandis
ISBN: 9781119221166 1119221161 9781119221173 111922117X
OCLC Number: 929985467
Notes: "A Wiley-Interscience publication."
Includes index.
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: Cover --
Title Page --
Copyright --
Dedication --
Content --
Preface to the First Edition --
Preface to the Third Edition --
Part I: The Atmosphere and Its Constituents --
Chapter 1: The Atmosphere --
1.1 History and Evolution of Earth's Atmosphere --
1.2 Climate --
1.3 Layers of the Atmosphere --
1.4 Pressure in the Atmosphere --
1.4.1 Units of Pressure --
1.4.2 Variation of Pressure with Height in the Atmosphere --
1.5 Temperature in the Atmosphere --
1.6 Expressing the Amount of a Substance in the Atmosphere --
1.7 Airborne Particles --
1.8 Spatial and Temporal Scales of Atmospheric Processes --
Problems --
References --
Chapter 2: Atmospheric Trace Constituents --
2.1 Atmospheric Lifetime --
2.2 Sulfur-Containing Compounds --
2.2.1 Dimethyl Sulfide (CH3SCH3) --
2.2.2 Carbonyl Sulfide (OCS) --
2.2.3 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) --
2.3 Nitrogen-Containing Compounds --
2.3.1 Nitrous Oxide (N2O) --
2.3.2 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) --
2.3.3 Reactive Odd Nitrogen (NOy) --
2.3.4 Ammonia (NH3) --
2.3.5 Amines --
2.4 Carbon-Containing Compounds --
2.4.1 Classification of Hydrocarbons --
2.4.2 Methane --
2.4.3 Volatile Organic Compounds --
2.4.4 Biogenic Hydrocarbons --
2.4.5 Carbon Monoxide --
2.4.6 Carbon Dioxide --
2.5 Halogen-Containing Compounds --
2.5.1 Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) --
2.5.2 Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) --
2.6 Atmospheric Ozone --
2.7 Particulate Matter (Aerosols) --
2.7.1 Stratospheric Aerosol --
2.7.2 Chemical Components of Tropospheric Aerosol --
2.7.3 Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) --
2.7.4 Sizes of Atmospheric Particles --
2.7.5 Carbonaceous Particles --
2.7.6 Mineral Dust --
2.7.7 Biomass Burning --
2.7.8 Summary of Atmospheric Particulate Matter --
2.8 Mercury --
2.9 Emission Inventories --
Appendix 2.1 Us Air Pollution Legislation --
Appendix 2.2 Hazardous Air Pollutants (Air Toxics) --
Problems --
References. Part II: Atmospheric Chemistry --
Chapter 3: Chemical Kinetics --
3.1 Order of Reaction --
3.2 Theories of Chemical Kinetics --
3.2.1 Collision Theory --
3.2.2 Transition State Theory --
3.2.3 Potential Energy Surface for a Bimolecular Reaction --
3.3 The Pseudo-Steady-State Approximation --
3.4 Reactions of Excited Species --
3.5 Termolecular Reactions --
3.6 Chemical Families --
3.7 Gas-Surface Reactions --
Problems --
References --
Chapter 4: Atmospheric Radiation and Photochemistry --
4.1 Radiation --
4.2 Radiative Flux in the Atmosphere --
4.3 Beer-Lambert Law and Optical Depth --
4.4 Actinic Flux --
4.5 Atmospheric Photochemistry --
4.6 Absorption of Radiation By Atmospheric Gases --
4.7 Absorption By O2 and O3 --
4.8 Photolysis Rate As a Function of Altitude --
4.9 Photodissociation of O3 to Produce O and O(D) --
4.10 Photodissociation of No2 --
Problems --
References --
Chapter 5: Chemistry of the Stratosphere --
5.1 Chapman Mechanism --
5.2 Nitrogen Oxide Cycles --
5.2.1 Stratospheric Source of NOx from N2O --
5.2.2 NOx Cycles --
5.3 Hox Cycles --
5.4 Halogen Cycles --
5.4.1 Chlorine Cycles --
5.4.2 Bromine Cycles --
5.5 Reservoir Species and Coupling of the Cycles --
5.6 Ozone Hole --
5.6.1 Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) --
5.6.2 PSCs and the Ozone Hole --
5.6.3 Arctic Ozone Hole --
5.7 Heterogeneous (Nonpolar) Stratospheric Chemistry --
5.7.1 The Stratospheric Aerosol Layer --
5.7.2 Heterogeneous Hydrolysis of N2O5 --
5.7.3 Effect of Volcanoes on Stratospheric Ozone --
5.8 Summary of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion --
5.9 Transport and Mixing in the Stratosphere --
5.10 Ozone Depletion Potential --
Problems --
References --
Chapter 6: Chemistry of the Troposphere --
6.1 Production of Hydroxyl Radicals in the Troposphere --
6.2 Basic Photochemical Cycle of No2, No, and O3 --
6.3 Atmospheric Chemistry of Carbon Monoxide. 6.3.1 Low-NOx Limit --
6.3.2 High-NOx Limit --
6.3.3 Ozone Production Efficiency --
6.3.4 Theoretical Maximum Yield of Ozone from CO Oxidation --
6.4 Atmospheric Chemistry of Methane --
6.5 The Nox and Noy Families --
6.5.1 Daytime Behavior --
6.5.2 Nighttime Behavior --
6.6 Ozone Budget of the Troposphere and Role of Nox --
6.6.1 Ozone Budget of the Troposphere --
6.6.2 Role of NOx --
6.6.3 Global Hydroxyl Radical Budget --
6.7 Tropospheric Reservoir Molecules --
6.7.1 H2O2, CH3OOH, and Hydroperoxides --
6.7.2 Nitrous Acid (HONO) --
6.7.3 Peroxyacyl Nitrates (PANs) --
6.8 Relative Roles of Voc and Nox in Ozone Formation --
6.8.1 Importance of the VOC/NOx Ratio --
6.8.2 Ozone Isopleth Plot --
6.8.3 Weekend Ozone Effect --
6.9 Simplified Organic/Nox Chemistry --
6.10 Chemistry of Nonmethane Organic Compounds in the Troposphere --
6.10.1 Alkanes --
6.10.2 Alkenes --
6.10.2.1 OH Reaction --
6.10.2.2 NO3 Reaction --
6.10.2.3 Ozone Reaction --
6.10.3 Aromatics --
6.10.4 Aldehydes --
6.10.5 Ketones --
6.10.6 Ethers --
6.10.7 Alcohols --
6.10.8 Tropospheric Lifetimes of Organic Compounds --
6.11 Atmospheric Chemistry of Biogenic Hydrocarbons --
6.11.1 Atmospheric Chemistry of Isoprene --
6.11.1.1 Isoprene + OH --
6.11.1.2 Isoprene + O3 --
6.11.1.3 Isoprene + NO3 --
6.11.1.4 Chemistry of Isoprene Oxidation Products: Methacrolein and Methyl Vinyl Ketone --
6.11.2 Monoterpenes (α-Pinene) --
6.11.2.1 α-Pinene + O3 --
6.11.2.2 α-Pinene + OH --
6.12 Atmospheric Chemistry of Reduced Nitrogen Compounds --
6.12.1 Amines --
6.12.2 Nitriles --
6.12.3 Nitrites --
6.13 Atmospheric Chemistry (Gas Phase) of Sulfur Compounds --
6.13.1 Sulfur Oxides --
6.13.2 Reduced Sulfur Compounds (Dimethyl Sulfide) --
6.14 Tropospheric Chemistry of Halogen Compounds --
6.14.1 Chemical Cycles of Halogen Species. 6.14.2 Tropospheric Chemistry of CFC Replacements: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) --
6.15 Atmospheric Chemistry of Mercury --
Appendix 6 Organic Functional Groups --
Problems --
References --
Chapter 7: Chemistry of the Atmospheric Aqueous Phase --
7.1 Liquid Water in the Atmosphere --
7.2 Absorption Equilibria and Henry's Law --
7.3 Aqueous-Phase Chemical Equilibria --
7.3.1 Water --
7.3.2 Carbon Dioxide-Water Equilibrium --
7.3.3 Sulfur Dioxide-Water Equilibrium --
7.3.4 Ammonia-Water Equilibrium --
7.3.5 Nitric Acid-Water Equilibrium --
7.3.6 Equilibria of Other Important Atmospheric Gases --
7.3.6.1 Hydrogen Peroxide --
7.3.6.2 Ozone --
7.3.6.3 Oxides of Nitrogen --
7.3.6.4 Formaldehyde --
7.3.6.5 Formic and Other Atmospheric Acids --
7.3.6.6 OH and HO2 Radicals --
7.4 Aqueous-Phase Reaction Rates --
7.5 S(IV)-S(VI) Transformation and Sulfur Chemistry --
7.5.1 Oxidation of S(IV) by Dissolved O3 --
7.5.2 Oxidation of S(IV) by Hydrogen Peroxide --
7.5.3 Oxidation of S(IV) by Organic Peroxides --
7.5.4 Uncatalyzed Oxidation of S(IV) by O2 --
7.5.5 Oxidation of S(IV) by O2 Catalyzed by Iron and Manganese --
7.5.5.1 Iron Catalysis --
7.5.5.2 Manganese Catalysis --
7.5.5.3 Iron/Manganese Synergism --
7.5.6 Comparison of Aqueous-Phase S(IV) Oxidation Paths --
7.6 Dynamic Behavior of Solutions With Aqueous-Phase Chemical Reactions --
7.6.1 Closed System --
7.6.2 Calculation of Concentration Changes in a Droplet with Aqueous-Phase Reactions --
Appendix 7.1 Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data --
Appendix 7.2 Additional Aqueous-Phase Sulfur Chemistry --
7A.1 S(IV) Oxidation by the OH Radical --
7A.2 Oxidation of S(IV) by Oxides of Nitrogen --
7A.3 Reaction of Dissolved SO2 with HCHO --
Appendix 7.3 Aqueous-Phase Nitrite and Nitrate Chemistry --
7A.4 NOx Oxidation --
7A.5 Nitrogen Radicals. Appendix 7.4 Aqueous-Phase Organic Chemistry --
Appendix 7.5 Oxygen and Hydrogen Chemistry --
Problems --
References --
Part III: Aerosols --
Chapter 8: Properties of the Atmospheric Aerosol --
8.1 The Size Distribution Function --
8.1.1 The Number Distribution nN(Dp) --
8.1.2 The Surface Area, Volume, and Mass Distributions --
8.1.3 Distributions Based on ln Dp and log Dp --
8.1.4 Relating Size Distributions Based on Different Independent Variables --
8.1.5 Properties of Size Distributions --
8.1.6 Definition of the Lognormal Distribution --
8.1.7 Plotting the Lognormal Distribution --
8.1.8 Properties of the Lognormal Distribution --
8.2 Ambient Aerosol Size Distributions --
8.2.1 Urban Aerosols --
8.2.2 Marine Aerosols --
8.2.3 Rural Continental Aerosols --
8.2.4 Remote Continental Aerosols --
8.2.5 Free Tropospheric Aerosols --
8.2.6 Polar Aerosols --
8.2.7 Desert Aerosols --
8.3 Aerosol Chemical Composition --
8.4 Spatiotemporal Variation --
Problems --
References --
Chapter 9: Dynamics of Single Aerosol Particles --
9.1 Continuum and Noncontinuum Dynamics: the Mean Free Path --
9.1.1 Mean Free Path of a Pure Gas --
9.1.2 Mean Free Path of a Gas in a Binary Mixture --
9.2 The Drag on a Single Particle: Stokes' Law --
9.2.1 Corrections to Stokes' Law: The Drag Coefficient --
9.2.2 Stokes' Law and Noncontinuum Effects: Slip Correction Factor --
9.3 Gravitational Settling of an Aerosol Particle --
9.4 Motion of an Aerosol Particle in an External Force Field --
9.5 Brownian Motion of Aerosol Particles --
9.5.1 Particle Diffusion --
9.5.2 Aerosol Mobility and Drift Velocity --
9.5.3 Mean Free Path of an Aerosol Particle --
9.6 Aerosol and Fluid Motion --
9.6.1 Motion of a Particle in an Idealized Flow (90° Corner) --
9.6.2 Stop Distance and Stokes Number --
9.7 Equivalent Particle Diameters --
9.7.1 Volume Equivalent Diameter.
Responsibility: John H. Seinfeld, Spyros N. Pandis.

Abstract:

A detailed account of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere - for graduate students, professionals and libraries involved in environmental, civil and chemical engineering projects and studies.

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