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Atomic and nuclear physics : an introduction

Author: T A Littlefield; N Thorley
Publisher: New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.
Series: Modern university physics series.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 3d edView all editions and formats
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After the death of Dr. Littlefield it was decided that I should undertake the revision ofthe whole of Atomic and Nuclear Physics: an Introduction for the third edition, and it was soon apparent that  Read more...

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Littlefield, T.A. (Thomas Albert), 1912-
Atomic and nuclear physics.
New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979
(OCoLC)625376963
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: T A Littlefield; N Thorley
ISBN: 0442301898 9780442301897 0442301901 9780442301903 0442301782 9780442301781
OCLC Number: 4593346
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xv, 487 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm.
Contents: 1 Kinetic Theory.- 1.1 The Atom in History.- 1.2 Brownian Motion.- 1.3 Basic Assumptions of Kinetic Theory.- 1.4 Pressure of a Gas.- 1.5 Molecular Velocities.- 1.6 Temperature of a Gas: Avogadro's Hypothesis.- 1.7 Mean Free Path.- 1.8 Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity.- 1.9 Specific Heat Capacities.- 1.10 Atomicity.- 1.11 Molar Heat Capacities.- 1.12 Van der Waals' Equation.- 1.13 Molecular Sizes.- 1.14 Summary.- 2 The Electron.- 2.1 Electrical Conduction in Solutions.- 2.2 Conduction in Gases.- 2.3 Properties of Cathode Rays.- 2.4 Thomson's Method for Measuring Charge per Unit Mass (e/m).- 2.5 Dunnington's Method for e/m.- 2.6 Charge on the Electron.- 3 Natural Radioactivity.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 e/m for ?-Rays.- 3.3 Bucherer's Method for e/m of ?-Rays.- 3.4 The Charge-Mass Ratio (E/M) for ?-Rays.- 3.5 Charge on ?-Particles.- 3.6 Identification of ?-Particles.- 3.7 Early Models of the Atom.- 3.8 The Scattering of ?-Particles.- 3.9 Estimates of Nuclear Diameter and Charge.- 3.10 The Neutron.- 4 Radioactive Series and Isotopes.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Equation of Radioactive Decay.- 4.3 Mean Lifetime of Radioactive Substance.- 4.4 Half-Lives of Radioactive Substances.- 4.5 Radioactive Series.- 4.6 Radioactive Equilibrium.- 4.7 Isotopes.- 4.8 The Bainbridge Mass Spectrograph.- 5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum.- 5.1 Theories of Light.- 5.2 Interference.- 5.3 Diffraction.- 5.4 Spectra.- 5.5 The Electromagnetic Theory.- 5.6 Hertz's Experiment.- 5.7 The Electromagnetic Spectrum.- 6 Quantum Theory.- 6.1 The Continuous Spectrum.- 6.2 Planck's Quantum Theory.- 6.3 The Photoelectric Effect.- 6.4 Einstein's Equation.- 6.5 The Discovery of X-Rays.- 6.6 Diffraction of X-Rays.- 6.7 X-Ray Wavelengths.- 6.8 Continuous Spectrum of X-Rays.- 6.9 Compton Effect.- 6.10 Summary.- 7 Spectra.- 7.1 The Hydrogen Spectrum.- 7.2 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom.- 7.3 Isotope Effect.- 7.4 The Spectrum of Sodium.- 7.5 Quantum Defects - Interpretation.- 7.6 Selection Rules and the Correspondence Principle.- 7.7 Excitation Potentials.- 7.8 Controlled Excitation of Spectra.- 7.9 X-Ray Spectra.- 7.10 Moseley's Work.- 7.11 The Interpretation of X-Ray Spectra.- 8 Fine Structure and Electron Spin.- 8.1 Fine Structure of Alkali-Metal Spectra.- 8.2 Electron Spin.- 8.3 Characteristic X-Rays and Absorption Spectra.- 8.4 Multiplicity of X-Ray Levels.- 9 Waves and Particles.- 9.1 The Radiation Dilemma.- 9.2 De Broglie's Theory.- 9.3 Group Velocity.- 9.4 The Davisson and Germer Experiment.- 9.5 The Experiment of Thomson and Reid.- 9.6 The Electron Microscope.- 9.7 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.- 9.8 Born's Statistical Interpretation of Waves and Particles.- 10 Wave Mechanics.- 10.1 Some Preliminaries.- 10.2 The Need for Change.- 10.3 The Schroedinger Wave Equation.- 10.4 An Alternative Approach.- 10.5 Solution of the Schroedinger Wave Equation.- 10.6 Simple One-Electron Atom Model.- 10.7 The Hydrogen Atom.- 10.8 Angular Momenta.- 10.9 Summary.- 11 The Vector Model of the Atom.- 11.1 Quantum Numbers and Angular Momenta: Summary of Symbols and Notation.- 11.2 Magnetic Moments - Orbital and Spin.- 11.3 The Stern-Gerlach Experiment.- 11.4 Spatial Quantization of Electron Spin.- 11.5 Spin-Orbit Coupling and the Total Angular Momentum j.- 12 Two-Electron Atoms - Pauli Principle.- 12.1 Wave Functions of Two-Electron Atoms.- 12.2 Vector Coupling for Two Electrons.- 12.3 The Helium Spectrum.- 12.4 jj Coupling.- 12.5 The Electronic Structure of the Elements and the Periodic Table.- 12.6 The Periodic Table - Some Empirical Rules.- 12.7 Hyperfine Structure and Nuclear Spin Angular Momentum.- 13 The Zeeman Effect.- 13.1 Introduction.- 13.2 The Normal Zeeman Effect.- 13.3 Explanation of Zeeman Effect in Terms of Vector Model.- 13.4 Zeeman Effect of Cadmium 643*8 nm Line.- 13.5 The Anomalous Zeeman Effect and the Lande Splitting Factor.- 13.6 Zeeman Splitting in a Strong Magnetic Field: the Paschen-Back Effect.- 13.7 Conclusion.- 14 The Structure of the Nucleus.- 14.1 Introduction.- 14.2 Nuclear Constituents: Isotopes and Isobars.- 14.3 The Size of the Nucleus.- 14.4 Exact Atomic Masses - Mass Excess ?M.- 14.5 Binding Energies of Nuclides - Mass Defect.- 14.6 Stable and Unstable Nuclides.- 14.7 Derivation of Practical Form of E = m0c2.- 15 Properties and Uses of Natural Radioactivity.- 15.1 The Nature of Radioactivity.- 15.2 ?-Particles and the Geiger-Nuttall Rule.- 15.3 The Theory of ?-Decay.- 15.4 ?-Rays and the Neutrino.- 15.5 The Absorption and Range of ?-Rays.- 15.6 The Properties of ?-Rays.- 15.7 Radioactivity as a Measurable Quantity.- 16 Nuclear Bombarding Experiments.- 16.1 Single ?-Particle Scattering.- 16.2 Nuclear Alchemy.- 16.3 Cockcroft-Walton Proton Experiments.- 16.4 The Neutron.- 16.5 Nuclear Reactions.- 16.6 Formation of Tritium.- 17 The Measurement and Detection of Charged Particles.- 17.1 The Wilson Cloud Chamber.- 17.2 The Bubble Chamber.- 17.3 Ionization Chambers.- 17.4 The Proportional Counter.- 17.5 The Geiger-Muller Counter.- 17.6 Scintillation Counters and Semiconductor Counters.- 17.7 The Spark Chamber.- 17.8 The Cerenkov Counter.- 17.9 Neutron Counting.- 17.10 The Photographic Plate.- 17.11 Summary.- 18 Accelerating Machines as Used in Nuclear Physics.- 18.1 Introduction.- 18.2 The Cockcroft-Walton Proton Accelerator.- 18.3 The Van de Graaff Electrostatic Generator.- 18.4 The Linear Accelerator.- 18.5 The Lawrence Cyclotron.- 18.6 The Synchrocyclotron.- 18.7 Electron Accelerating Machines. The Betatron.- 18.8 Electron Synchrotron.- 18.9 Proton Synchrotron.- 18.10 The Alternating-Gradient Synchrotron.- 18.11 Intersecting Beam Accelerators.- 18.12 The Growth and Future of Large Accelerating Machines.- 19 Nuclear Models and Magic Numbers.- 19.1 Introduction.- 19.2 Neutron Cross-Sections and Nuclear Radii.- 19.3 The Liquid-Drop Model.- 19.4 Nuclear Shells and Magic Numbers.- 19.5 The Theory of the Nuclear Shell Model.- 19.6 The Collective Model.- 19.7 Superheavy Elements: Experimental and Theoretical.- 19.8 Latest Developments.- 19.9 The Melting of the Moon.- 20 Artificial Radioactivity.- 20.1 The Discovery of the Positron.- 20.2 K-Electron Capture.- 20.3 The Origin of Electrons and Positrons within the Nucleus.- 20.4 Nuclear Isomerism.- 20.5 The Production of Radioisotopes.- 20.6 Some Uses of Radioisotopes.- 21 Neutron Physics.- 21.1 Introduction.- 21.2 Properties of the Neutron.- 21.3 Neutron Bombardment Reactions.- 21.4 Archaeological Dating by the 14C Method.- 21.5 Tree-Ring Calibration of 14C Dates.- 22 Nuclear Fission and Its Implications.- 22.1 Introduction.- 22.2 The Theory of Nuclear Fission.- 22.3 The Energy of Nuclear Fission.- 22.4 The Distribution of Fission Products.- 22.5 Characteristics of Fission Neutrons.- 22.6 The ?-Decay Chains of Fission.- 22.7 Controlled Fission-Nuclear Reactors.- 22.8 Nuclear Power Reactors.- 22.9 Nuclear Power Prospects.- 23 The Transuranic Elements.- 23.1 Neptunium (Z = 93) to ?.- 23.2 Formation of Transuranic Elements.- 23.3 Neptunium, Np (Z = 93).- 23.4 Plutonium, Pu (Z = 94).- 23.5 Americium, Am (Z = 95), and Curium, Cm (Z = 96).- 23.6 Berkelium, Bk (Z = 97), and Californium, Cf (Z = 98).- 23.7 Einstein, Es (Z = 99), and Fermium, Fm (Z = 100).- 23.8 Mendelevium, Md (Z = 101), and Nobelium (Z = 102).- 23.9 Lawrencium, Lw (Z = 103).- 23.10 Elements with Z = 104, 105, 106 and 107.- 23.11 The Actinide Series.- 24 Thermonuclear Reactions and Nuclear Fusion.- 24.1 Introduction.- 24.2 The Source of Stellar Energy.- 24.3 The Plasma.- 24.4 Nuclear Fusion Reactions in the Plasma.- 24.5 Conditions for a Maintained Fusion Reaction.- 24.6 The Possibility of a Fusion Reactor.- 24.7 Tokomak Fusion Systems.- 24.8 Energy in the Future.- 25 Cosmic Rays.- 25.1 Discovery.- 25.2 Nature of Cosmic Rays.- 25.3 The Origin of Cosmic Rays.- 25.4 Geomagnetic Effects.- 25.5 Cosmic Rays at Sea-Level.- 25.6 Extensive Air Showers.- 25.7 The Detection of Cosmic Ray Particles.- 25.8 The Future of Cosmic Ray Research.- 26 Stable and Semi-Stable Particles.- 26.1 Introduction.- 26.2 The Positron: Particles and Antiparticles.- 26.3 Pions, Muons and Kaons.- 26.4 Hyperons.- 26.5 Classification of the Elementary Particles.- 26.6 Mesic Atoms: The Muonium Atom.- 27 Short-Lived Resonance States.- 27.1 Forces and Fields.- 27.2 What is an Elementary Particle?.- 27.3 Short-Lived or Resonance Particles.- 27.4 Conservation Laws: Baryon and Lepton Conservation.- 27.5 Multiplet Structure - Isospin and Hypercharges.- 27.6 Classification of Elementary Particles.- 27.7 Particle Symmetries.- 27.8 Quarks.- 27.9 Conclusions.- 28 Charm and All That.- 28.1 The Forces of Nature.- 28.2 The Three-Quirk Trick.- 28.3 The New Quark - Charm.- 28.4 The November Revolution - the J/? Particle.- 28.5 Quark Multiplet Representation.- 28.6 Gluons and Colour.- 28.7 The Confinement of Quarks.- 28.8 The Hunting of the Quark.- 28.9 Latest News: New Quarks.- 28.10 Conclusions.- Appendix A Relativity Theory.- Appendix B The Dangers of Atomic Radiations.- B.1 Introduction.- B.2 Biological Effects of Nuclear and Electromagnetic Radiations.- B.3 Maximum Permissible Radiation Levels for Safety.- B.4 Precautions against Radiation Hazards.- Appendix C Complete List of Nuclides of the Elements.
Series Title: Modern university physics series.
Responsibility: T.A. Littlefield and N. Thorley.

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