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Before writing

Author: Denise Schmandt-Besserat; William W Hallo
Publisher: Austin : University of Texas Press, 1992.
Edition/Format:   Print book : State or province government publication : English : 1st edView all editions and formats
Summary:
The author presents a system of counters (tokens) which represented a breakthrough in communication. These tokens were small objects modeled in clay in various geometric forms used for counting and accounting for goods. The system has implications for studies in origins of civilization, communication, and mathematics.
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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Schmandt-Besserat, Denise.
Before writing.
Austin : University of Texas Press, 1992
(OCoLC)645822684
Material Type: Government publication, State or province government publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Denise Schmandt-Besserat; William W Hallo
ISBN: 0292707835 9780292707832 0292707843 9780292707849
OCLC Number: 22860675
Description: 2 volumes : illustrations, map ; 29 cm
Contents: v. 1. From counting to cuneiform --
v. 2. A catalog of Near Eastern tokens.
Responsibility: by Denise Schmandt-Besserat ; foreword by William W. Hallo.
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Abstract:

The author presents a system of counters (tokens) which represented a breakthrough in communication. These tokens were small objects modeled in clay in various geometric forms used for counting and accounting for goods. The system has implications for studies in origins of civilization, communication, and mathematics.

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"What shines here is the human mind, spinning a tight web of inference from abundant evidence." * Scientific American * "Schmandt-Besserat's discovery and its ramifications . . . are crucial to Read more...

 
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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/22860675<\/a>> # Before writing<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:CreativeWork<\/a>, schema:Book<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"22860675<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/austin<\/a>> ; # Austin<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/txu<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Unknown \'gen\' value: sgp<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/737.30956\/e20\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/ecriture_histoire<\/a>> ; # \u00C9criture--Histoire<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/schrift<\/a>> ; # Schrift<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/rekenen<\/a>> ; # Rekenen<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/tokens_middle_east<\/a>> ; # Tokens--Middle East<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1152195<\/a>> ; # Tokens<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/munten<\/a>> ; # Munten<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1241586<\/a>> ; # Middle East.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1181638<\/a>> ; # Writing<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/jetons_moyen_orient<\/a>> ; # Jetons--Moyen-Orient<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/moyen_orient<\/a>> ; # Moyen-Orient<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/middle_east<\/a>> ; # Middle East<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/810745<\/a>> ; # Antiquities<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/authorities\/subjects\/sh85148638<\/a>> ; # Writing--History<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/ecriture_cuneiforme<\/a>> ; # \u00C9criture cun\u00E9iforme<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookEdition<\/a> \"1st ed.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> bgn:PrintBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/22188218<\/a>> ; # William W. Hallo<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:creator<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/2485603<\/a>> ; # Denise Schmandt-Besserat<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"1992<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"The author presents a system of counters (tokens) which represented a breakthrough in communication. These tokens were small objects modeled in clay in various geometric forms used for counting and accounting for goods. The system has implications for studies in origins of civilization, communication, and mathematics.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/5513714265<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"History<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Government publication<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/645822684<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Before writing<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"22860675<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publication<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/22860675#PublicationEvent\/austin_university_of_texas_press_1992<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:publisher<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Agent\/university_of_texas_press<\/a>> ; # University of Texas Press<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780292707832<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780292707849<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/22860675<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/737.30956\/e20\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Agent\/university_of_texas_press<\/a>> # University of Texas Press<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Agent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"University of Texas Press<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/austin<\/a>> # Austin<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Austin<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/middle_east<\/a>> # Middle East<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Middle East<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/moyen_orient<\/a>> # Moyen-Orient<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Moyen-Orient<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/ecriture_cuneiforme<\/a>> # \u00C9criture cun\u00E9iforme<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"\u00C9criture cun\u00E9iforme<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/ecriture_histoire<\/a>> # \u00C9criture--Histoire<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"\u00C9criture--Histoire<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/jetons_moyen_orient<\/a>> # Jetons--Moyen-Orient<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Jetons--Moyen-Orient<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Jetons--Moyen-Orient<\/span>\"@fr<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/munten<\/a>> # Munten<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Munten<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/rekenen<\/a>> # Rekenen<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Rekenen<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/schrift<\/a>> # Schrift<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Schrift<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Topic\/tokens_middle_east<\/a>> # Tokens--Middle East<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:hasPart<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/authorities\/subjects\/sh85135840<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Tokens--Middle East<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/authorities\/subjects\/sh85148638<\/a>> # Writing--History<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Writing--History<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/txu<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"txu<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1152195<\/a>> # Tokens<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Tokens<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1181638<\/a>> # Writing<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Writing<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1241586<\/a>> # Middle East.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Middle East.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/810745<\/a>> # Antiquities<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Antiquities<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/22188218<\/a>> # William W. Hallo<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Hallo<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"William W.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"William W. Hallo<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/2485603<\/a>> # Denise Schmandt-Besserat<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Schmandt-Besserat<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Denise<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Denise Schmandt-Besserat<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780292707832<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"0292707835<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780292707832<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780292707849<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"0292707843<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780292707849<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/645822684<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:label<\/a> \"Before writing.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Online version:<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isSimilarTo<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/22860675<\/a>> ; # Before writing<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/22860675<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \ngenont:InformationResource<\/a>, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/22860675<\/a>> ; # Before writing<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:dateModified<\/a> \"2020-07-31<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nvoid:inDataset<\/a> <http:\/\/purl.oclc.org\/dataset\/WorldCat<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/22860675#PublicationEvent\/austin_university_of_texas_press_1992<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:PublicationEvent<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:location<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Place\/austin<\/a>> ; # Austin<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:organizer<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5513714265#Agent\/university_of_texas_press<\/a>> ; # University of Texas Press<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:startDate<\/a> \"1992<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Content-negotiable representations<\/p>\n