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Bioavailability, Leachability, Chemical Speciation and Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in the Process of Composting

Author: Jiwan Singh; Ajay Kalamdhad
Publisher: Milton : Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2018.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Singh, Jiwan.
Bioavailability, Leachability, Chemical Speciation and Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in the Process of Composting.
Milton : Chapman and Hall/CRC, ©2018
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Jiwan Singh; Ajay Kalamdhad
ISBN: 9780429486395 0429486391
OCLC Number: 1045588317
Notes: 4.3.3.2 Using Bacteria
Description: 1 online resource (171 pages)
Contents: Cover; Half Title; Title Page; Copyright Page; Contents; List of Figures; List of Tables; Preface; Acronyms and Abbreviations; Authors; Chapter 1 Introduction; 1.1 Overview; 1.2 Effects of Heavy Metals on the Environment; 1.2.1 Effects of Metals on Soil; 1.2.2 Effects of Metals on Plants; 1.3 Conclusion; References; Chapter 2 Composting Process; 2.1 Composting Process; 2.2 Factors Affecting the Composting Process; 2.2.1 Carbon-to-Nitrogen (C/N) Ratio; 2.2.2 Particle Size; 2.2.3 Moisture Content; 2.2.4 Porosity; 2.2.5 Oxygen Requirement; 2.2.6 Temperature; 2.2.7 pH Value 2.3 Types of Composting Process2.3.1 Agitated Pile/Windrow; 2.3.2 Aerated Static Pile; 2.3.3 Vertical Flow Reactor; 2.3.4 Horizontal Flow Reactor (Rotary Drum Reactor); 2.4 Phases of the Composting Process; 2.5 Microorganisms Involved during Composting; 2.5.1 Bacteria; 2.5.2 Fungi; 2.6 Degradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass by Fungi-Bacteria; 2.7 Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectra Compost Samples; 2.8 Advantages of Composting; 2.9 Disadvantages of Composting; 2.10 Conclusion; References; Chapter 3 Analysis of Compost Samples; 3.1 Physical Analysis; 3.1.1 Moisture 3.1.2 Water-Holding Capacity (WHC)3.1.3 Water-Absorption Capacity (WAC); 3.1.4 Bulk Density (BD); 3.1.5 Compost Porosity; 3.1.6 Free Air Space (FAS); 3.1.7 Temperature; 3.2 Chemical Analysis; 3.2.1 Volatile Solid (VS) and Ash Content; 3.2.2 Analysis of Na, K, Mg, and Ca; 3.2.3 The pH; 3.2.4 Electrical Conductivity (EC); 3.2.5 Total Nitrogen; 3.2.6 Nitrate (NO[sub(3)]-N); 3.2.7 Ammonical Nitrogen (NH[sub(4)]-N).; 3.2.8 Total Phosphorus; 3.2.9 Available Phosphorus; 3.2.10 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD); 3.2.11 Total Heavy Metal Content; 3.2.12 Extraction of Water-Soluble Heavy Metals 3.2.13 Extraction of Heavy Metals with Diethylene Triamine Penta-Acetic Acid (DTPA)3.2.14 Leachability of Heavy Metals; 3.2.15 Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals; 3.3 Biological Analysis; 3.3.1 CO[sub(2)] Evaluation by Soda-lime Method; 3.3.2 Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR); 3.3.3 Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD); 3.3.4 Coliform Analysis; 3.3.4.1 Total Coliform; 3.3.4.2 Fecal Coliform; 3.3.5 Protein Determination by Lowry Procedure; 3.3.6 Microbial Diversity during Composting; 3.3.6.1 Total Heterotrophic Bacteria; 3.3.6.2 Spore Forming Bacteria; 3.3.6.3 Total Fungus; 3.3.6.4 Streptomycetes 3.3.6.5 Actinomycetes3.3.6.6 Escherichia coli; References; Chapter 4 Composting and Heavy Metals; 4.1 Heavy Metals in Composting; 4.2 Effects of Heavy Metals on the Composting Process; 4.3 Reduction of Total Heavy Metals and Their Bioavailability during the Composting Process; 4.3.1 Physicochemical Methods; 4.3.2 Reduction of Metals by Addition of Chemicals; 4.3.2.1 Lime/Waste Lime and Sodium Sulfide Treatment; 4.3.2.2 Natural Zeolite Treatment; 4.3.2.3 BC and Bamboo Vinegar (BV) Treatments; 4.3.2.4 Red Mud Treatment; 4.3.3 Biological Method; 4.3.3.1 Application of Fungi

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