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Carbohydrate metabolism in cultured cells

Author: Michael J Morgan
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, ©1986.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Aufsatzsammlung
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Carbohydrate metabolism in cultured cells.
New York : Plenum Press, ©1986
(OCoLC)645896879
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Michael J Morgan
ISBN: 0306422409 9780306422409
OCLC Number: 13582276
Description: xxi, 514 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: 1 Studies of Regulation of Hexose Transport into Cultured Fibroblasts.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Hexose Uptake or Transport Tests.- 2.1. Effects of Cycloheximide on Hexose Transport Regulation.- 2.2. Is the Release of the Mediated Curb of the Hexose Transport System Dependent on Transcription?.- 3. Metabolic Pathways.- 4. Characterization of Certain Cellular Macromolecules and Structures.- 4.1. Enzyme Assays of the Hexose Uptake System in Lysed Cells.- 4.2. Membrane-Associated Glucose-Binding Proteins Released without Cell Lysis.- 4.3. Studies on Isolated Plasma Membrane Preparations in Regard to Their Hexose Transport Population and Identification of Specific Transport Proteins.- 5. Effects of Glucose Starvation on a Variety of Plasma Membrane Proteins.- 6. The Glucose-Mediated Curb of Hexose Transport Requires Oxidative Energy.- 7. Nucleoside Triphosphate Levels in Cultured Fibroblasts as a Function of General Metabolism and Nutrition.- 8. Hexose Transport Regulation and Oncogenic Transformation of Cultured Fibroblasts.- 9. Evolutionary Aspects.- References.- 2 The Utilization of Carbohydrates by Animal Cells: An Approach to Their Biochemical Genetics.- 1. The Utilization of Carbohydrates.- 2. Glycolysis.- 2.1. Glucokinase.- 2.2. Hexokinase.- 2.3. Phosphoglucose Isomerase.- 2.4. Phosphofructokinase.- 2.5. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase.- 2.6. Phosphoglycerate Kinase.- 2.7. Other Glycolytic Enzymes.- 3. The Provision of Energy.- 3.1. Pyruvate Metabolism.- 4. Pentose Phosphate Pathway.- 4.1. Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase.- 5. Differentiation.- 5.1. Alternative Carbon Sources.- 5.2. Gluconeogenesis.- 6. Other Effects of Carbohydrates.- 6.1. Effects on Morphology.- 6.2. Glucose-Regulated Proteins.- 6.3. Hypergravity.- 7. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 3 Biochemical Genetics of Respiration-Deficient Mutants of Animal Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Selection of Respiration-Deficient Mammalian Cell Mutants.- 2.1. Characterization of the First Mutant.- 2.2. Protocol for the Isolation of Additional Mutants.- 3. Glycolysis and Respiration in Wild-Type Parents and res- Mutants.- 4. Biochemical Characterization of Mutants.- 4.1. Defect in NADH-CoQ Reductase.- 4.2. Defect in Succinate Dehydrogenase.- 4.3. Defect in Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis.- 5. Genetic Characterization of Mutants.- 6. Work in Progress and Future Prospects.- 7. Summary.- References.- 4 Glutaminolysis in Animal Cells.- 1. Glutamine Metabolism in Mammals.- 2. Glutaminolysis in Tissues.- 2.1. Liver and Kidney.- 2.2. Brain.- 2.3. Pancreas.- 2.4. Mammary Gland.- 2.5. The Intestine.- 2.6. Embryonic and Placental Tissue.- 2.7. Tumors.- 3. Glutaminolysis in Isolated Tissues and Primary Cell Suspensions.- 3.1. Enterocytes.- 3.2. Blood Cells.- 3.3. Lens.- 3.4. Germ Cells.- 3.5. Calvaria.- 3.6. Astrocytes.- 4. Glutaminolysis in Normal and Tumor Cells in Culture.- 4.1. Tumor-Derived Cells and Transformed Cell Lines.- 4.2. Untransformed Normal Cells in Culture.- 5. Glutaminolysis-The Pathway of Glutamine Oxidation.- 5.1. Enzymology.- 5.2. Compartmentation.- 5.3. Regulation of Glutaminolysis.- 6. Glutaminolysis and Glycolysis in Cell Growth and Function.- 6.1. The Role of Glycolysis in Cell Proliferation.- 6.2. Can Cells Proliferate in the Absence of Glutaminolysis?.- 6.3. The Role of Glutaminolysis in Cell Specialization.- 6.4. Potential Impact of Tumor Glutaminolysis on Host Glutamine and Glucose Metabolism.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. Addendum.- References.- 5 The Metabolism and Utilization of Carbohydrates by Suspension Cultures of Plant Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Carbon Sources for Culture Growth.- 2.1. The Range of Carbon Sources Tested.- 2.2. Effects on Growth (Physiology and Biochemistry).- 2.3. Effects on Natural Product Synthesis.- 3. Uptake Mechanisms for Carbon Sources.- 3.1. Differential Mechanisms.- 3.2. Cellular Location.- 3.3. Effect of Internal Pools.- 4. Intracellular Fate of Carbon Source-Biochemistry: Oxidation, Biosynthesis, Storage.- 5. Summary Comments.- References.- 6 Carbohydrate Metabolism in African Trypanosomes, with Special Reference to the Glycosome.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. General Background and Scope.- 1.2. Biology of the Kinetoplastida.- 1.3. Medical and Economic Importance of African Trypanosomiasis.- 2. Life Cycle.- 3. Methods for Cultivation.- 3.1. Mammalian Forms of T. brucei.- 3.2. Insect Forms of T. brucei.- 4. Substrates and End Products of Metabolism.- 4.1. Mammalian Forms.- 4.2. Insect Forms of the brucei Subgroup.- 5. Terminal Respiratory Systems.- 5.1. Mammalian Forms.- 5.2. Insect Forms.- 6. The Glycosome.- 6.1. Occurrence.- 6.2. Isolation and Purification.- 6.3. General Properties.- 6.4. Glycosomal Enzymes in T. brucei.- 7. Pathways of Glucose Metabolism.- 7.1. Long-Slender Trypomastigotes.- 7.2. Short-Stumpy Trypomastigotes.- 7.3. Procyclic Trypomastigotes.- 8. Glycolysis as a Target for Chemotherapy.- 8.1. Energy Metabolism.- 8.2. Action of Trivalent Aromatic Arsenicals.- 8.3. Action of Suramin.- 8.4. Action of SHAM-Glycerol.- 9. Summary and Outlook.- References.- 7 Sugar Transport Systems of Baker's Yeast and Filamentous Fungi.- 1. Yeast.- 1.1. Monosaccharide Transport Systems.- 1.2. Disaccharide Transport Systems.- 2. Filamentous Fungi.- 2.1. Aspergillus nidulans.- 2.2. Neurospora crassa.- References.- 8 Carbohydrate Metabolism in Yeast.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methodological Approaches.- 2.1. Determination of Enzymatic Activities.- 2.2. Determination of Metabolite Levels.- 2.3. Fate of Labeled Substrates: Calculation of the Proportion of Carbohydrates Used through Different Pathways.- 2.4. Continuous Cultures versus Batch Cultures.- 2.5. Use of Mutants.- 3. Overview of the Pathways of Carbohydrate Metabolism.- 3.1. Glycolytic Pathway.- 3.2. Metabolism of Carbohydrates Other Than Glucose.- 3.3. Pentose Phosphate Pathway.- 3.4. Citric Acid Cycle.- 3.5. Reserve Carbohydrates.- 4. Regulatory Mechanisms.- 4.1. Catabolite Repression.- 4.2. Catabolite Inactivation.- 4.3. Pasteur Effect and Other Effects.- 4.4. Futile Cycles.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Regulation of Carbon Metabolism in Filamentous Fungi.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Extracellular Formation of Hexoses from Polysaccharides.- 2.1. Cellulose Degradation.- 2.2. Hemicellulose (Xylan) Degradation.- 2.3. Starch Degradation.- 3. Growth on Glucose and Related Carbon Sources.- 3.1. General Considerations.- 3.2. Enzymes of Hexose Metabolism.- 3.3. Synthesis of Reserve Carbohydrates.- 3.4. Pathways of "Overflow Metabolism" and Their Control.- 4. Growth on Three-Carbon Substrates.- 4.1. Glycerol.- 4.2. Pyruvate and Related Substrates.- 5. Growth on Acetate or Ethanol.- 5.1. General Considerations.- 5.2. Enzymes of Acetate or Ethanol Metabolism.- 6. Growth on Substrates Utilized via the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 10 The Bacterial Phosphoenolpyruvate: Sugar Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The PEP:Sugar PTS: An Overview.- 3. Components of the PTS.- 3.1. Soluble Proteins.- 3.2. Membrane-Bound PTS Proteins.- 3.3. Levels of PTS Proteins.- 4. In Vitro Phosphorylation of Sugars by the PTS.- 5. Transport via the PTS.- 6. Role of the PTS in Chemotaxis.- 7. Genetics of the PTS.- 8. Phenotype of PTS Mutants.- 9. Regulation by the PTS.- 9.1. The crr Gene.- 9.2. Adenylate Cyclase.- 9.3. In Vitro Reconstitution of the Regulatory System.- 9.4. Regulation of Carbohydrate Uptake in Vivo by the PTS.- 9.5. Other Mutations That Suppress the pts Phenotype.- 9.6. A Model Involving Stoichiometric Interactions between PTS and Non-PTS Components.- 9.7. Growth in Batch Cultures versus Chemostat Cultures.- 9.8. Final Remarks on PTS-Mediated Regulation.- 10. Comparison with Other Regulatory Mechanisms.- References.- 11 Active Transport of Sugars into Escherichia coli.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The "Active Transport" Systems for Carbohydrates in E. coli.- 1.2. Lactose Transport-A Special Case.- 1.3. Primary and Secondary Transport, Symport, and Antiport.- 1.4. Amino Acid Transport.- 1.5. The Cell Membranes.- 2. Experimental Systems for Measuring Transport.- 2.1. Carbohydrate Transport into Intact Cells of E. coli.- 2.2. Variations on the Transport Theme-Equilibrium Exchange, Efflux, and Overshoot.- 2.3. Carbohydrate Transport in Subcellular Vesicles.- 2.4. Flow Dialysis.- 3. Proton-Linked Sugar Transport Systems.- 3.1. The Chemiosmotic Theory.- 3.2. Experimental Evidence for Sugar/H+ Symport.- 3.3. Examples of Sugar/H+ Symport in E. coli.- 4. Cation-Linked Melibiose Transport.- 4.1. Characterization of a Separate Melibiose/Na+ Symport System Using Substrate Analogues.- 4.2. Genetics of Melibiose Transport in E. coli.- 4.3. Reconstitution of the Melibiose/Na+ Symporter.- 4.4. Identification of the melB Gene Product.- 4.5. Kinetic Constants for Melibiose Transport.- 5. Binding Protein Sugar Transport Systems.- 5.1. Detection of Binding Protein-Mediated Transport.- 5.2. Energization of Binding Protein-Mediated Transport.- 5.3. Examples of Sugar Transport Systems of E. coli That Contain a Binding Protein.- 6. New Developments.- References.- 12 Convergent Pathways of Sugar Catabolism in Bacteria.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pathways for the Degradation of Glucose.- 2.1. Embden-Meyerhof Pathway.- 2.2. Entner-Doudoroff Pathway.- 2.3. Hexose Monophosphate Pathway.- 2.4. Pentose Phosphate Phosphoketolase Pathway.- 2.5. Hexose Phosphate-Pentose Phosphate Phosphoketolase Pathway.- 2.6. Methylglyoxal Pathway.- 3. Individual Catabolic Pathways Leading to Central Intermediates.- 3.1. d-Galactose.- 3.2. d-Fructose.- 3.3. d-Allose.- 3.4. Hexonic and Hexuronic Sugar Acids.- 3.5. l-Fucose, d-Arabinose, l-Rhamnose, and l-Mannose.- 3.6. Apologia.- 4. Epilogue.- References.
Responsibility: edited by Michael J. Morgan.

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