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Characterization of catalytic materials

Author: Israel E Wachs
Publisher: [New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017) : Momentum Press, 2010.
Series: Materials characterization series.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 1st edView all editions and formats
Summary:
Heterogeneous catalysis has undergone a revolutionary change in the past two decades due to the development of sophisticated characterization methods that provide fundamental information about the catalyst bulk structures, surfaces, and their properties. For the first time, these characterization methods have allowed researchers to "see" the surfaces of catalytic materials, their bulk structures (crystalline as well  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Characterization of catalytic materials.
New York : Momentum Press, 2010
(OCoLC)643699404
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Israel E Wachs
ISBN: 9781606501863 1606501860 9781606501849 1606501844
OCLC Number: 815725731
Notes: Originally published by Butterworth-Heinemann in 1993.
Title from PDF title page (viewed on September 1, 2010).
Description: 1 online resource (xv, 202 pages : illustrations
Contents: Preface to the reissue of the Materials characterization series --
Preface to series --
Preface to the reissue of Characterization of catalytic material --
Preface --
Contributors. 1. Bulk metals and alloys --
1.1. Introduction --
The role of metals and alloys in catalysis --
1.2. Preparation of bulk alloy or bimetallic catalysts --
1.3. Bulk metal characterization methods --
Bulk chemical analysis --
Determination of crystal structure --
Morphology and microstructure --
Quantification of surface area --
Surface composition --
Gas-surface interactions --
Surface structure of single crystals and metal films --
1.4. Surface composition-structure and catalysis relationship. 2. Supported metals --
2.1. Introduction --
Characteristics of supported metals --
Conditions of characterization of supported metals --
2.2. Typical approaches to metals characterization --
Chemisorption --
Methods of measuring chemisorption --
2.3. Reaction studies of supported metals --
2.4. X-ray diffraction and scattering methods --
Particle sizes from line-broadening --
Small-angle x-ray scattering --
2.5. Electron microscopy --
2.6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy --
Preparation for measurements --
Interpretation of information --
Strengths and weaknesses of XAS --
2.7. Mössbauer spectroscopy --
2.8. Photoelectron/photoemission spectroscopy --
2.9. Magnetic methods --
2.10. Summary. 3. Bulk metal oxides --
3.1. Introduction --
Oxides as catalysts --
Mechanistic features of oxide catalyzed reactions --
3.2. Synthesis methods --
3.3. Properties of oxides and their relation to catalytic behavior --
Determination of bulk structure --
Bulk composition --
Metal oxidation --
State and local structural environment --
Characterization by electron microscopy --
Surface characterization using molecular probes --
Surface characterization using spectroscopic analyses --
Reducibility and oxide ion mobility --
Magnetic and electronic properties --
3.4. Summary. 4. Supported metal oxides --
4.1. Introduction --
4.2. Synthesis methods --
4.3 Characterization --
Structure of the supported metal oxide phase --
Surface coverage of the supported metal oxide phase --
Oxidation states and local structural environments of supported metal oxide phases --
Morphology of the supported metal oxide phase --
Surface chemistry of supported metal oxides --
Characterization summary --
4.4. Impregnating solution chemistry --
4.5. Supported metal oxide catalysts under ambient conditions --
4.6. Supported metal oxide catalysts under in situ conditions --
4.7. Catalysis and structure-reactivity relationship --
4.8. Summary. 5. Bulk metal sulfides --
5.1. Introduction --
5.2. Preparation of bulk TMS catalysts --
Binary sulfides --
Mixed metal sulfides --
5.3. Bulk characterization --
Structures of TMS and stable catalytic phases --
Morphology, particle size and surface area --
Metal oxidation state and structural environment --
5.4. Surface composition --
Chemisorption and molecular probes --
Surface characterization using spectroscopic techniques --
5.5. Structure-function relationships --
Importance of the electronic structure --
Effect of the crystallographic structure --
Effect of the sulfur vacancies --
5.6. Summary. 6. Supported metal sulfides --
6.1. Introduction --
6.2. Structure of the oxidic catalyst --
6.3. Structure of the sulfidic catalyst --
Structure of molybdenum --
Structure of cobalt and nickel --
6.4. Specific surface area --
6.5. Structure-reactivity relationships --
Role of molybdenum --
Role of the promoter --
Role of phosphate --
6.6. Summary. 7. Zeolites and molecular sieves --
7.1. Introduction --
7.2. Structure of zeolites and molecular sieves --
7.3. X-ray, neutron, and electron diffraction --
Identification of zeolites --
Compositional and phase changes --
Structure determination by diffraction techniques --
7.4. High-resolution electron microscopy --
7.5. Solid state NMR spectroscopy --
Framework composition --
Tetrahedral atom ordering --
New developments --
7.6. Adsorption --
Void volume --
Pore size --
7.7. Structure and catalytic behavior --
7.8. Summary. 8. Alumina pillared clays: methods of preparation and characterization --
8.1. Introduction --
8.2. Synthesis methods --
8.3. Properties of pillared clays --
X-ray diffraction pattern --
Elemental analysis --
Electron microscopy --
Pore structure by adsorption-desorption techniques --
Surface acidity --
29Si and 27Al MAS-NMR --
Pillared clays as catalysts --
8.4. Summary. Appendix, technique summaries --
1. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) --
2. Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (D-SIMS) --
3. Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Transmission Electron Microscope (EELS) --
4. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance/Electron Spin Resonance --
5. Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPMA) --
6. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) --
7. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) --
8. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) --
9. High-Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) --
10. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) --
11. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) --
12. Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) --
13. Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) --
14. Mössbauer Spectroscopy --
15. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) --
16. Neutron Diffraction --
17. Physical and Chemical Adsorption for the Measurement of Solid State Areas --
18. Raman Spectroscopy --
19. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) --
20. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) --
21. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Scanning Force Microscopy (STM and SFM) --
22. Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) --
23. Static Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (Static SIMS) --
24. Temperature Programmed Techniques --
25. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) --
26. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) --
27. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) --
28. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) --
29. X-Ray Photoelectron and Auger Electron Diffraction (XPD and AED) --
30. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) --
Index.
Series Title: Materials characterization series.
Responsibility: editor, Israel E. Wachs.
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Abstract:

Catalytic materials are essential to nearly every commercial and industrial chemical process in order to make reaction times faster and more efficient. This volume reviews the more common types of  Read more...

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