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Church, state, and freedom

Author: Leo Pfeffer
Publisher: Boston : Beacon Press, ©1953.
Series: Beacon studies in church and state.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Pfeffer, Leo, 1910-
Church, state, and freedom.
Boston : Beacon Press, ©1953
(OCoLC)644654511
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Leo Pfeffer
OCLC Number: 1238333
Description: xvi, 675 pages ; 24 cm
Contents: Part One: The evolution of a principle --
1. Old world antecedents --
A. Priest and king in ancient religion --
B. The Hebrew theocracy --
C. Ancient Greece --
D. Pre-Christian Rome --
E. Christianity oppressed --
F. The church triumphant --
G. Church and emperor in the Middle Ages --
H. The inquisition --
I. The Reformation --
2. The solution in other countries --
A. Countries in the Catholic tradition --
a. Spain --
b. Portugal --
c. Italy --
d. Ireland --
e. Latin America --
f. Quebec --
B. Protestant countries --
a. Great Britain --
b. The Scandinavian countries --
C. Other west European countries --
D. Communist Europe --
E. Countries in the Moslem tradition --
F. Israel --
G. Other Asiatic countries --
H. Summary --
3. The colonial period in America --
A. Old world patterns transplanted --
B. Puritan New England --
C. The Anglican establishments --
D. New York's multiple establishments --
E. Catholic Maryland --
F. Roger Williams "Livelie experiment" --
G. Pennsylvania --
4. The principle is born --
A. Influences leading to freedom and separation --
B. Practical considerations --
a. The English act of toleration --
b. Multiplicity of sects --
c. The unchurched --
d. The rise of commerce --
e. The revolutionary war --
C. Ideological influences --
a. The Williams-Penn tradition --
b. Locke and the social contract --
c. The Great awakening --
d. Rationalism and deism --
D. The revolution in Virginia --
E. The other states --
F. Religion and the continental congress --
G. The framing of the Constitution --
H. The First Amendment --
5. The meaning of the principle --
A. The constitution and the First Amendment --
B. The First Amendment as a restriction on presidential and judicial powers --
C. The First Amendment and the "separation of church and state" --
D. The unitary guaranty of the First Amendment --
E. The First Amendment and the states --
F. The meaning of separation --
a. Neutrality a recent invention --
b. The Semantic argument --
c. The practices in the states --
d. The prior versions --
e. Congressional debates --
f. Friends of religion --
g. Virginia's dissatisfaction --
h. Practical construction --
i. The Virginia bill and Madison's remonstrance --
j. The First Amendment and the Constitution --
k. The Zorach decision Part Two: ...No respecting an establishment of religion..." --
6. State aid to religion --
A. Court attacks on financial grants to religious bodies --
a. Reluctance to sue --
b. Taxpayer's standing on Sue --
c. Judicial reluctance to decide against state aid to religion --
B. Governmental grants to denominational welfare institutions --
C. Church use of state property --
D. Tax exemption --
a. The background --
b. The justification --
c. Opposition to exemption --
d. The constitutional issue --
E. Other government aid to church and clergy --
7. Church intervention in state affairs --
A. The church in politics --
a. Churchmen in government --
b. The social gospel --
c. Past battles --
d. The church in politics --
B. References to God in official utterances --
C. References to Christ in official utterances --
D. The United States as a Christian nation? --
E. Congressional chaplains --
F. Chaplains in the Armed Forces --
G. Religion in court proceedings --
H. The church and the divorce court --
8. State intervention in church affairs --
A. Proclamation of thanksgiving, fasts, and prayers --
B. Closing public buildings on religious holidays --
C. Sunday laws --
a. Historical background --
b. A typical present-day Sunday law --
c. Sabbatarians and the Sunday law --
d. The constitutionality of Sunday laws --
D. State intervention in ecclesiastical controversies --
a. The Presbyterian church schism cases --
b. Lay trustees in the Catholic church --
c. The Russian church schism --
d. The Melish controversy --
e. Summary observations on state intervention in ecclesiastical controversies E. Ambassador to the Vatican --
a. The background --
b. The arguments pro --
c. The arguments con --
d. The constitutional issue --
9. The public school and religious education --
A. Evolution of the American public school --
a. Colonial backgrounds --
b. The states assume responsibility --
c. Mann's struggle against sectarianism --
d. The triumph of secularization --
B. The religious groups and the public schools --
a. Protestant --
b. The Catholic church --
c. The Jewish groups --
d. Others --
C. The case for public school responsibility for religious education --
D. The case against public school responsibility --
E. Proposed solutions --
a. Teaching Protestantism and excusing non-Protestants --
b. Separate teaching of each faith --
c. School credit for outside religious teaching --
d. Teaching the "common core" of major faiths --
e. Objective teaching "about" religion --
10. The released-time experiment --
A. The background --
B. Extent of the plan --
C. Distribution among the faiths --
D. Introducing the program --
E. How the program operates --
F. The case for released time --
G. The case against released time --
H. The positions of the faiths --
a. The Protestants --
b. The Catholic church --
c. The Jewish position --
I. Results of the released-time experiment --
a. Erasing religious illiteracy --
b. Improving interfaith relations --
c. The community's moral standards --
J. The law and the constitution --
K. The McCollum case --
a. The facts --
b. Justice Black's opinion --
c. Justice Frankfurter's concurring opinion --
d. Justice Jackson's concurring opinion --
e. Justice Reed's dissent --
L. The four-year confusion --
M. The Zorach case --
a. The protagonists --
b. The facts in the record --
c. The facts not disclosed in the New York courts --
d. The proceedings in the New York courts --
e. Justice Douglas's opinion --
f. Justice Black's dissent --
g. Justice Frankfurter's dissent --
h. Justice Jackson's dissent --
i. What the Zorach case holds --
11. Religious practices in the public school --
A. Bible reading --
a. The background --
b. Extent and nature of the practice today --
c. The case for Bible reading --
d. The case against Bible reading --
e. The positions of the faiths --
f. The constitutional issue --
B. Bible distribution --
C. Hymns and prayers D. Holy day celebration --
E. Joint holiday celebrations --
F. Garbed nuns as public school teachers --
G. Baccalaureate services --
H. Religion in state universities --
12. State aid to religious education --
A. The parochial school system --
a. Extent of the system --
b. Philosophy of the parochial school --
c. The development of the system --
d. The case for parochial schools --
e. The case against parochial schools --
B. Constitutional protection of parochial schools --
C. Inspection and regulation of parochial schools --
D. The problem of finances --
E. The case for state aid --
F. The case against state aid --
G. The positions of the faiths of others --
a. Protestants --
b. The Catholic church --
c. The Jews and others --
H. Direct grants of state funds to parochial schools --
a. The struggle in New York --
b. The constitutions and the laws --
I. Incorporating parochial schools into the public school system --
a. The background --
b. North college hill --
c. Dixon, New Mexico --
d. Other cases --
e. The law and the constitution --
13. Indirect and federal aid --
A. Indirect aid --
B. Secular textbooks --
C. Transportation at public expense --
a. The background --
b. The state cases --
c. The Everson case --
D. Federal aid to education --
a. The background --
b. The contemporary controversy --
Part Three: "...Or prohibiting the free exercise, thereof..." --
14. Freedom and the common defense --
A. The meaning of "religion" --
B. The clash of conflicting interests --
C. National defense --
D. Loyalty and unity --
a. Cultural unity --
b. National unity and loyalty --
15. Freedom and domestic tranquility --
A. Protecting the public morals --
B. Jehovah's Witnesses --
C. Preserving the public peace --
D. Blasphemy and sacrilege --
a. Blasphemy and sacrilege --
a. Blasphemy --
b. Sacrilege and "the miracle" --
E. Regulating the use of public property --
a. Streets and parks --
b. Public buildings --
F. Protecting and regulating private property --
a. Protecting property --
b. Zoning regulations --
G. Preventing fraud --
16. Freedom and general welfare --
A. The people's health --
B. Marriage and the family --
C. The welfare of children --
a. The health of children --
b. The custody of children --
c. The adoption of children --
d. The secular education of children --
D. Protection against financial insecurity in old age and unemployment --
E. Raising of revenue.
Series Title: Beacon studies in church and state.
Responsibility: by Leo Pfeffer.

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