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Climatology

Author: Robert V Rohli; Anthony J Vega
Publisher: Sudbury, MA : Jones & Bartlett Learning, ©2012.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Robert V Rohli; Anthony J Vega
ISBN: 9780763791018 0763791016
OCLC Number: 569552317
Description: xvi, 425 pages, 8 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps (some color) ; 28 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: pt. 1 THE BASICS --
ch. 1 Introduction to Climatology --
Meteorology and Climatology --
Scales in Climatology --
Subfields of Climatology --
Climatic Records and Statistics --
Summary --
ch. 2 Introduction to the Atmosphere --
Origin of the Earth and Atmosphere --
Atmospheric Composition --
The Carbon Cycle --
Constant and Variable Gases --
Faint Young Sun Paradox --
Atmospheric Structure --
Summary --
pt. 2 CUMATOlOGICAl PROCESSES --
ch. 3 The Climate System: Controls on Climate --
Latitude --
Earth-Sun Relationships --
Revolution --
Rotation --
Axial Tilt and Parallelism --
Combined Effect of Revolution, Rotation, and Tilt --
Distance to Large Bodies of Water --
Circulation --
Pressure --
Wind --
Surface Versus Upper-Level Winds --
Vertical Motion --
Cyclones and Anticyclones --
Oceanic Circulation --
ch. 4 Effects on the Climate System --
Ocean Circulation --
Surface Currents --
Deep Ocean Thermohaline Circulations --
El Nino-Southern Oscillation Events --
Walker Circulation --
Historical Observations of ENSO --
El Nino Characteristics --
La Nina Characteristics --
Global Effects --
Effects in the United States --
Relationship to Global Warming? --
Volcanic Activity and Climate --
General Effects --
Aerosol Indices --
Major Volcanic Eruptions --
Deforestation and Desertification --
Cryospheric Changes --
Ice on the Earth's Surface --
Feedbacks in the Cryosphere --
Summary --
ch. 5 Energy, Matter, and Momentum Exchanges Near the Surface --
Properties of the Troposphere --
Near-Surface Troposphere --
Energy in the Climate System --
Sun as Energy Source --
Measuring Radiant Energy --
Radiation Balance --
Turbulent Fluxes --
Substrate Heat Flux --
Energy Balance --
Local Flux of Matter: Moisture in the Local Atmosphere --
Atmospheric Moisture --
Moisture in the Surface Boundary Layer --
Measuring Evapotranspiration --
Atmospheric Statics, the Hydrostatic Equation, and Stability --
Statics and the Hydrostatic Equation --
Atmospheric Stability --
Assessing Stability in the Local Atmosphere --
Momentum Flux --
Putting It All Together: Thermal and Mechanical Turbulence and the Richardson Number --
Summary --
ch. 6 Global Hydrologie Cycle and Surface Water Balance --
Global Hydrologie Cycle --
Surface Water Balance --
Potential Evapotranspiration --
Evapotranspiration --
Precipitation --
Soil Moisture Storage --
Deficit --
Surplus and Runoff --
Putting It All Together: A Worked Example of the Surface Water Balance --
Types of Surface Water Balance Models --
Water Balance Diagrams --
Drought Indices --
Summary --
ch. 7 General Circulation and Secondary Circulations --
Circulation of a Nonrotating Earth --
Idealized General Circulation on a Rotating Planet --
Hadley Cells --
Polar Cells --
Planetary Wind Systems --
Modifications to the Idealized General Circulation: Observed Surface Patterns --
Land-Water Contrasts --
Locations and Strength of Features in the Hadley Cells --
Locations and Strength of Features in the Polar Cells --
Locations and Strength of Surface Midlatitude Features --
Putting It All Together: Surface Pressure Patterns and Impacts --
Modifications to the Idealized General Circulation: Upper-Level Airflow and Secondary Circulations --
Vorticity --
Constant Absolute Vorticity Trajectory --
Flow Over Mountainous Terrain --
Baroclinicity --
Rossby Wave Divergence and Convergence --
RossbyWave Diffluence and Confluence --
The Polar Front Jet Stream --
Mean Patterns of Rossby Wave Flow --
Summary --
pt. 3 CLIMATES ACROSS SPACE --
ch. 8 Climatic Classification --
Early Attempts at Global Climatic Classification --
Classical Age of Climatic Classifications --
Modified Koppen Climatic Classification System --
Thornthwaite Climatic Classification System --
Other Global Classification Systems --
Genetic Classifications --
Air Masses and Fronts --
Local and Regional Classifications --
Quantitative Analysis to Derive Climatic Types --
Eigenvector Analysis --
Cluster Analysis --
Hybrid Techniques --
Summary --
ch. 9 Extratropical Northern Hemisphere Climates --
The Climatic Setting of North America --
General Characteristics --
Severe Weather --
Role of the Gulf of Mexico and the Low-Level Jet --
Effect of Mountain Ranges --
Effect of the Great Lakes --
Ocean Currents and Land-Water Contrast --
Climatic Setting of Europe --
General Characteristics --
Effect of Ocean Currents --
Effect of Mountain Ranges --
Blocking Anticyclones --
Climatic Setting of Asia --
General Characteristics --
Monsoonal Effects --
Effect of Mountain Ranges --
Effect of Coastal Zones on Climate --
Regional Climatology --
B. Arid Climates --
C. Mesothermal Climates --
D. Microthermal Midlatitude Climates --
E. Polar Climates --
H. Highland Climates --
Summary --
ch. 10 Tropical and Southern Hemisphere Climates --
Contrasts Between Extratropical and Tropical Atmospheric Behavior --
Contrasts Between Northern and Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Behavior --
Climatic Setting of Africa --
General Characteristics --
Intertropical Convergence Zone --
Air Mass and General Circulation Influences --
Climatic Setting of Australia and Oceania --
General Characteristics --
El Niho-Southern Oscillation Influences --
South Pacific Convergence Zone --
Madden-Julian Oscillation --
Quasi-Biennial Oscillation --
Climatic Setting of Latin America --
ENSO Contributions --
Climatic Setting of Antarctica --
Regional Climates --
A. Tropical Climates --
B. Arid Climates --
C. Mesothermal Climates --
E. Polar Climates --
EF. Ice Cap --
H. Highland Climates --
Summary --
pt. 4 CLIMATES THROUGH TIME --
ch. 11 Climatic Change and Variability --
Climatic Changes in Geologic History --
Temperature --
Ice Ages and Sea Level --
Recent Trends --
How Do We Know What We Know about Past Climatic Changes? --
Basic Principles --
Radiometric Dating --
Lithospheric and Cryospheric Evidence --
Biological Evidence --
Historical Data --
Converging Proxy Evidence --
Natural Causes of Climatic Change and Variability --
Continental Drift and Landforms --
Milankovitch Cycles --
Volcanic Activity --
Variations in Solar Output --
El Nino-Southern Oscilation Events --
Summary --
ch. 12 Anthropogenic Climatic Changes --
Global Warming --
The Greenhouse Effect --
Greenhouse Gases --
The Urban Heat Island --
Global Warming: The Great Debate --
Atmospheric Pollution --
Global Dimming --
Atmospheric Factors Affecting Pollution Concentrations --
Air Quality Legislation in the United States --
Classifying Air Pollutants --
By Response --
By Source --
Reactions and Attitudes to Climatic Change --
Prevention --
Mitigation --
Adaptation --
Continued Research --
Summary --
ch. 13 Linking Spatial and Temporal Aspects of Climate Through Quantitative Methods --
Computerized Climate Models --
Types of GCMs --
Representing the Earth-Ocean-Atmosphere System in GCMs --
Data for GCMs --
The Seven Basic Equations --
Navier-Stokes Equations of Motion --
Thermodynamic Energy Equation --
Moisture Conservation Equation --
Continuity Equation --
Equation of State --
Similarities and Differences Between GCMs and Weather Forecasting Models --
Statistical Techniques --
Atmospheric Teleconnections --
Extratropical Teleconnections in the Pacific: The Pacific Decadal Oscillation --
Extratropical Teleconnections in the Atlantic Ocean --
Teleconnections over North America --
Summary --
pt. 5 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CLIMATE AND OTHER ENDEAVORS --
ch. 14 Applied Climatology, Climate Impacts, and Climatic Data --
Climate Impacts --
Impacts on Natural Systems --
Impacts on Societal Systems --
Impacts on Human Health and Comfort --
Climatological Data Sources --
Data Collection Agencies --
Primary Versus Secondary Data --
Secondary Data Sources for Applied Synoptic and Dynamic Climatological Studies --
Secondary Sources for Applied Studies of the Climate System --
Secondary Sources Well Suited to Studies in Paleoclimatology and Climate Change --
Secondary Sources Well Suited to Studies in Physical Climatology --
Summary --
ch. 15 The Future of Climatology --
Relationship Between Climatology and Meteorology --
Interdisciplinary Work with Other Scientists --
Interaction Between Climate Scientists and Nonscientific Professionals --
Improved Atmospheric Data Availability and Display --
Recognition of the Possibility for Rapid Climate Change --
Climatology as Part of the Ultimate Goal of Sustainability --
Summary.
Responsibility: Robert V. Rohli, Anthony J. Vega.

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