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Concepts in biology

Author: Eldon D Enger; Frederick C Ross; David B Bailey
Publisher: Dubuque, IA : McGraw-Hill, ©2009.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 13th edView all editions and formats
Summary:

Covers the main areas of study in biology from cells through ecosystems. This book combines evolution and ecology to emphasize the relationship between these two main subject areas.

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Enger, Eldon D.
Concepts in biology.
Dubuque, IA : McGraw-Hill, ©2009
(OCoLC)761357109
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Eldon D Enger; Frederick C Ross; David B Bailey
ISBN: 9780073403434 0073403431 9780077229962 0077229967 9780071287890 0071287892
OCLC Number: 162118894
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xxii, 682 pages : color illustrations ; 28 cm
Contents: Machine derived contents note: Brief Contents --
Part I --
Introduction 1 --
1 What Is Biology? 1 --
Part Ii --
Cornerstones Chemistry, Cells, and Metabolism 23 --
2 The Basics of Life: Chemistry 23 --
3 Organic Molecules?the Molecules of --
Life 45 --
4 Cell Structure and Function 67 --
5 Enzymes, Coenzymes, and Energy 95 --
6 Biochemical Pathways?Cellular --
Respiration 111 --
7 Biochemical Pathways? --
Photosynthesis 129 --
Part Iii --
Molecular Biology, Cell Division, --
and Genetics 143 --
8 DNA and RNA: The Molecular Basis of --
Heredity 143 --
9 Cell Division?Replication and --
Reproduction 163 --
10 Patterns of Inheritance 191 --
11 Applications of Biotechnology 215 --
Part Iv --
Evolution and Ecology 239 --
12 Diversity Within Species and Population --
Genetics 239 --
13 Evolution and Natural Selection 259 --
14 The Formation of Species and --
Evolutionary Change 281 --
15 Ecosystem Dynamics: The Flow of --
Energy and Matter 303 --
16 Community Interactions 323 --
17 Population Ecology 359 --
18 Evolutionary and Ecological Aspects of --
Behavior 377 --
Part V --
The Origin and Classification --
of Life 421 --
19 The Origin of Life and the Evolution of --
Cells 401 --
20 The Classification and Evolution of --
Organisms 421 --
21 The Nature of Microorganisms 441 --
22 The Plant Kingdom 465 --
23 The Animal Kingdom 491 --
Part Vi --
Physiological Processes 519 --
24 Materials Exchange in the Body 519 --
25 Nutrition: Food and Diet 541 --
26 The Body?s Control Mechanisms and --
Immunity 567 --
27 Human Reproduction, Sex, and --
Sexuality 595 --
Contents --
Preface xvi --
Part I --
Introduction 1 --
1 What Is Biology? 1 --
1.1 The Significance of Biology in Your Life 2 --
1.2 Science and the Scientific Method 2 --
Basic Assumptions in Science 2 --
Cause-and-Effect Relationships 3 --
The Scientific Method 3 --
Observation 3 --
1.3 Science, Nonscience, and Pseudoscience 8 --
Fundamental Attitudes in Science 8 --
Theoretical and Applied Science 9 --
Science and Nonscience 10 --
Pseudoscience 10 --
The Limitations of Science 11 --
1.4 The Science of Biology 12 --
What Makes Something Alive? 12 --
The Levels of Biological Organization 14 --
The Significance of Biology 16 --
The Consequences of Not Understanding Biological --
Principles 17 --
Future Directions in Biology 20 --
Part Ii --
Cornerstones Chemistry, Cells, --
and Metabolism 23 --
2 The Basics of Life: Chemistry 23 --
2.1 Matter, Energy, and Life 24 --
The Law of Conservation of Energy 24 --
Forms of Energy 24 --
2.2 The Nature of Matter 25 --
Structure of the Atom 25 --
Elements May Vary in Neutrons but Not Protons 27 --
Subatomic Particles and Electrical Charge 27 --
The Position of Electrons 28 --
2.3 The Kinetic Molecular Theory and Molecules 28 --
The Formation of Molecules 29 --
2.4 Molecules and Kinetic Energy 29 --
2.5 Physical Changes?Phases of Matter 30 --
2.6 Chemical Changes?Forming New Kinds --
of Matter 30 --
Ions and Ionic Bonds 31 --
Covalent Bonds 32 --
2.7 Water: The Essence of Life 33 --
Mixtures and Solutions 34 --
2.8 Chemical Reactions 36 --
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 36 --
Dehydration Synthesis Reactions 37 --
Hydrolysis Reactions 37 --
Phosphorylation Reactions 37 --
Acid-Base Reactions 37 --
2.9 Acids, Bases, and Salts 38 --
3 Organic Molecules?the Molecules --
of Life 45 --
3.1 Molecules Containing Carbon 46 --
Carbon: The Central Atom 46 --
Isomers 47 --
The Carbon Skeleton and Functional Groups 48 --
Macromolecules of Life 48 --
3.2 Carbohydrates 49 --
Simple Sugars 49 --
Complex Carbohydrates 51 --
3.3 Proteins 53 --
The Structure of Proteins 54 --
What do Proteins Do? 56 --
3.4 Nucleic Acids 56 --
Dna 56 --
Rna 58 --
3.5 Lipids 59 --
True (Neutral) Fats 59 --
Phospholipids 61 --
Steroids 62 --
4 Cell Structure and Function 67 --
4.1 The Development of the Cell Theory 68 --
Some History 68 --
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells 69 --
4.2 Cell Size 69 --
4.3 The Structure of Cellular Membranes 72 --
4.4 Organelles Composed of Membranes 73 --
Plasma Membrane 73 --
Endoplasmic Reticulum 75 --
Golgi Apparatus 75 --
Lysosomes 77 --
Peroxisomes 77 --
Vacuoles and Vesicles 77 --
Nuclear Membrane 78 --
Interconversion of Membranes 78 --
Energy Converters?Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 78 --
4.5 Nonmembranous Organelles 79 --
Ribosomes 79 --
Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate --
Filaments 81 --
Centrioles 82 --
Cilia and Flagella 82 --
Inclusions 82 --
4.6 Nuclear Components 82 --
4.7 Exchange Through Membranes 84 --
Diffusion 84 --
Osmosis 86 --
Controlled Methods of Transporting Molecules 87 --
4.8 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Revisited 89 --
Prokaryotic Cell Structure 90 --
Eukaryotic Cell Structure 90 --
5 Enzymes, Coenzymes, and Energy 95 --
5.1 How Cells Use Enzymes 96 --
5.2 How Enzymes Speed Chemical Reaction --
Rates 97 --
Enzymes Bind to Substrates 97 --
Naming Enzymes 97 --
5.3 Cofactors, Coenzymes, and Vitamins 99 --
5.4 How the Environment Affects Enzyme --
Action 100 --
Temperature 100 --
pH 100 --
Enzyme-Substrate Concentration 101 --
5.5 Cellular-Control Processes and Enzymes 101 --
Enzymatic Competition for Substrates 101 --
Gene Regulation 102 --
Inhibition 102 --
5.6 Enzymatic Reactions Used in Processing Energy --
and Matter 105 --
Biochemical Pathways 105 --
Generating Energy in a Useful Form: ATP 105 --
Electron Transport 106 --
Proton Pump 107 --
6 Biochemical Pathways?Cellular --
Respiration 111 --
6.1 Energy and Organisms 112 --
6.2 An Overview of Aerobic Cellular Respiration 113 --
Glycolysis 114 --
The Krebs Cycle 114 --
The Electron-Transport System (ETS) 115 --
6.3 The Metabolic Pathways of Aerobic Cellular --
Respiration 115 --
Fundamental Description 116 --
Detailed Description 117 --
6.4 Aerobic Cellular Respiration in Prokaryotes 121 --
6.5 Anaerobic Cellular Respiration 122 --
Alcoholic Fermentation 122 --
Lactic Acid Fermentation 123 --
6.6 Metabolic Processing of Molecules Other Than --
Carbohydrates 124 --
Fat Respiration 124 --
Protein Respiration 125 --
7 Biochemical Pathways?Photosynthesis 129 --
7.1 Photosynthesis and Life 130 --
7.2 An Overview of Photosynthesis 130 --
7.3 The Metabolic Pathway of Photosynthesis 131 --
Fundamental Description 131 --
Detailed Description 134 --
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate: The Product of --
Photosynthesis 138 --
7.4 Other Aspects of Plant Metabolism 139 --
7.5 Interrelationships Between Autotrophs and --
Heterotrophs 139 --
Part Iii --
Molecular Biology, Cell Division, --
and Genetics 143 --
8 DNA and RNA: The Molecular Basis --
of Heredity 143 --
8.1 DNA and the Importance of Proteins 144 --
8.2 DNA Structure and Function 144 --
DNA Structure 144 --
Base Pairing in DNA Replication 145 --
The Repair of Genetic Information 145 --
The DNA Code 145 --
8.3 RNA Structure and Function 146 --
8.4 Protein Synthesis 147 --
Step One: Transcription 147 --
Step Two: Translation 148 --
8.5 The Control of Protein Synthesis 152 --
Controlling Protein Quantity 152 --
One Gene, Many Proteins 155 --
8.6 Mutations and Protein Synthesis 158 --
Point Mutations 158 --
Insertions and Deletions 159 --
Chromosomal Aberrations 160 --
Mutations Inheritance 160 --
9 Cell Division 163 --
9.1 The Importance of Cell Division 164 --
Asexual Reproduction 164 --
Sexual Reproduction 164 --
9.2 The Cell Cycle and Mitosis 164 --
G1 of Interphase 164 --
The S Stage of Interphase 165 --
The G2 Stage of Interphase 166 --
9.3 Mitosis?Cell Replication 166 --
Prophase 166 --
Metaphase 167 --
Anaphase 167 --
Telophase 168 --
Cytokinesis 168 --
Summary 168 --
9.4 Controlling Mitosis 170 --
9.5 Cancer 171 --
Treatment Strategies 172 --
9.6 Determination and Differentiation 173 --
9.7 Cell Division and Sexual Reproduction 174 --
9.8 Meiosis?Gamete Production 174 --
Meiosis I 176 --
Meiosis II 178 --
9.9 Genetic Diversity?the Advantage of Sex 181 --
Mutation 182 --
Crossing-Over 182 --
Segregation 183 --
Independent Assortment 183 --
Fertilization 185 --
9.10 Nondisjunction and Chromosomal --
Abnormalities 185 --
10 Patterns of Inheritance 191 --
10.1 Meiosis, Genes, and Alleles 192 --
Various Ways to Study Genes 192 --
What Is an Allele? 192 --
Genomes and Meiosis 192 --
10.2 The Fundamentals of Genetics 193 --
Phenotype and Genotype 194 --
Predicting Gametes from Meiosis 193 --
Fertilization 193 --
10.3 Probability vs. Possibility 195 --
10.4 The First Geneticist: Gregor Mendel 196 --
10.5 Solving Genetics Problems 198 --
Single-Factor Crosses 198 --
Double-Factor Crosses 201 --
10.6 Modified Mendelian Patterns 202 --
Codominance 202 --
Incomplete Dominance 203 --
Multiple Alleles 205 --
Polygenic Inheritance 206 --
Pleiotropy 207 --
10.7 Linkage 208 --
Linkage Groups 208 --
Autosomal Linkage 209 --
Sex Linkage 209 --
10.8 Other Influences on Phenotype 211 --
11 Applications of Biotechnology 215 --
11.1 Why Biotechnology Works 216 --
11.2 Comparing DNA 216 --
DNA Fingerprinting 216 --
Gene Sequencing and the Human Genome Project 218 --
11.3 The Genetic Modification of Organisms 227 --
Genetically Modified Organisms 229 --
Genetically Modified Foods 230 --
Gene Therapy 231 --
The Cloning of Organisms 231 --
11.4 Stem Cells 232 --
Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells 232 --
Personalized Stem Cell Lines 234 --
11.5 Biotechnology Ethics 234 --
What Are the Consequences? 234 --
Is Biotechnology Inherently Wrong? 235 --
Part Iv --
Evolution and Ecology 239 --
12 Diversity Within Species and --
Population Genetics 239 --
12.1 Genetics in Populations 240 --
12.2 The Biological Species Concept 240 --
Gene and All.
Responsibility: Eldon D. Enger, Frederick C. Ross, David B. Bailey.
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