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Criminal justice : a brief introduction

Author: Frank Schmalleger
Publisher: Boston : Pearson, [2016]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Eleventh editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, Eleventh Edition offers a contemporary, authoritative look at crime in America with a focus on police, courts, and corrections. To make information resonate with students, Schmalleger asks readers to consider the balance between freedom and security issues and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the American justice system as it adapts to cultural, political, and societal  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Textbooks
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Frank Schmalleger
ISBN: 9780133591316 013359131X
OCLC Number: 881875883
Description: xxiii, 424 [71] pages ; 28 cm
Contents: pt. 1. Crime in America --
1. What is criminal justice? --
Brief history of crime in America --
Criminal justice and basic fairness --
American Criminal Justice System and functions --
The consensus model --
Surveillance technology --
The conflict model --
American Criminal Justice : the process --
Due process and individual rights --
Evidence-based practice in criminal justice --
Multiculturalism and diversity in criminal justice --
Cost-efficient criminal justice --
Careers in criminal justice --
2. The crime picture --
Crime data and social policy --
The collection of crime data --
The UCR/NIBRS Program --
The National Incident-Based Reporting System --
"Flash robs" --
Race and the Criminal Justice System --
Offenses --
The National Crime Victimization Survey --
Special categories of crime --
Crime against women --
Crime against the elderly --
Hate crime --
Corporate and white-collar crime --
Organized crime --
Gun crime --
Drug crime --
High technology and computer crime --
Terrorism --
Crime in international context --
3. Criminal law --
Nature and purpose of law --
The rule of law --
Types of law --
Criminal law --
Statutory law --
Civil law --
Administrative law --
Case law --
General categories of crime --
Felonies --
Misdemeanors --
Offenses --
Treason and espionage --
Inchoate offenses --
General features of crime --
The criminal act (actus reus) --
A guilty mind (mens rea) --
Concurrence --
Elements of a specific criminal offense --
Murder --
The Corpus Delicti of a crime --
Types of defenses to a criminal charge --
Islamic law --
Alibi --
Justifications --
Excuses --
Procedural defenses --
pt. 2. Policing --
4. Policing : purpose and organization --
Police mission --
Enforcing the law --
Apprehending offenders --
Preventing crime --
Preserving the peace --
Providing services --
American policing today : from the federal to the local level --
Federal agencies --
State agencies --
The FBI oath --
Policing in an economic downturn --
Local agencies --
Fusion centers- - Private protective services --
International police agencies --
Careers : Security professional --
Police administration --
Police organization and structure --
chain of command --
Policing epochs and styles --
The Watchman style of policing --
The legalistic style of policing --
The service style of policing --
Police-community relations --
Team policing --
Community policing --
Evidence-based policing --
The Kansas City experiment --
Discretion and the individual officer --
5. Policing : legal aspects --
The abuse of police power --
The Rodney King incident --
A changing legal climate --
Individual rights --
Checks and balances --
Due process requirements --
Search and seizure --
The Exclusionary Rule --
The Warren Court (1953-1969) --
The Burger Court (1969-1986) and the Rehnquist Court (1986-2005) --
Plain-view requirements --
Arrest --
Careers : Patrol officer --
Searches incident to arrest --
Emergency searches of persons --
Vehicle searches --
Suspicionless searches --
High-technology searches --
The intelligence function --
Informants --
Police interrogation --
The right to a lawyer at interrogation --
Suspect rights : the Miranda Decision --
The Miranda warnings --
Gathering of special kinds of nontestimonial evidence --
Electronic eavesdropping --
The USA Patriot Act of 2001 and the USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 --
6. Policing : issues and challenges --
Police personality and culture --
Corruption and integrity --
Policing a multicultural society --
Money : the root of police evil? --
Building police integrity --
The Law Enforcement Oath of Honor --
Drug testing of police employees --
The dangers of police work --
Violence in the line of duty --
Risk of disease and infected evidence --
DNA sampling --
Stress and fatigue among police officers --
Careers : police officer --
Terrorism's impact on policing --
The FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Forces --
Intelligence-led policing and antiterrorism --
Information sharing and antiterrorism --
Police civil liability --
Cost-efficient policing --
Common sources of civil suits --
Federal lawsuits --
Video-recording of police --
Racial profiling and biased policing --
Police use of force --
Deadly force --
Less-lethal weapons --
Professionalism and ethics --
The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics --
Education and training --
Recruitment and selection --
Ethnic and gender diversity in policing --
Investigating a crime in a multicultural setting --
Women as effective police officers --
pt. 3. Adjudication --
7. The courts --
History and structure of the American Court System --
The State Court System --
The development of state courts --
State court systems today --
The Federal Court System --
U.S. District Courts --
U.S. Courts of Appeal --
The U.S. Supreme Court --
Cost-efficient courts --
Pretrial activities --
The first appearance --
Careers : Surety agent --
The International Criminal Court --
Nonjudicial pretrial release decisions --
The Grand Jury --
The preliminary hearing --
Arraignment and the plea --
Plea bargaining --
8. The courtroom work group and the criminal trial --
The courtroom work group : professional courtroom actors --
The judge --
The prosecuting attorney --
Careers : Assistant district attorney --
The defense counsel --
The American Bar Association's Model rules of Professional Conduct --
The bailiff --
Trial court administrators --
The court reporter --
The clerk of court --
Expert witnesses --
Outsiders : nonprofessional courtroom participants --
Lay witnesses --
Jurors --
The victim --
The defendant --
Spectators and the press --
The criminal trial --
Procedure --
Nature and purpose of the criminal trial --
Stages in a criminal trial --
Trial initiation --
Jury selection --
Opening statements --
Presentation of evidence --
Pretrial and post-trial motions --
Closing arguments --
Judge's charge to the jury --
Jury deliberations and the verdict --
The bilingual courtroom --
9. Sentencing --
The philosophy and goals of criminal sentencing --
Retribution --
Incapacitation --
Deterrence --
Rehabilitation --
Restoration --
Indeterminate sentencing --
Structured sentencing --
Aggravating and mitigating circumstances --
Federal sentencing guidelines --
The legal environment of structured sentencing --
Three-Strikes laws --
Careers : Medicolegal death investigator --
Mandatory sentencing --
Alternative sentencing options --
Alternative sanctions --
The presentence investigation --
The victim --
Victims' rights --
Victims' rights in California --
Victim-impact statements --
Modern sentencing options --
Sentencing rationales --
Sentencing practices --
Death : the ultimate sanction --
Habeas Corpus review --
Opposition to capital punishment --
Death-row exonerations based on DNA --
Justifications for capital punishment --
The courts and the death penalty --
Future of the death penalty --
Limits of genetic privacy --
pt. 4. Corrections --
10. Probation, parole, and community corrections --
What is probation? --
The Federal Probation System --
Culturally skilled probation officers --
What is parole? --
Federal parole --
Probation and parole --
The legal environment --
Careers : Probation officer --
Intermediate sanctions --
Split sentencing --
Shock probation and shock parole --
Shock incarceration --
Mixed sentencing and community service --
Intensive probation supervision --
Home confinement and remote location monitoring --
American Probation and Parole Association Code of Ethics --
GPS bracelets - Changes in reentry policies --
The reinvention of probation and evidence-based practices --
Remote reporting probation --
11. Prisons and jails --
The philosophy of imprisonment --
Prisons today --
California's Public Safety Realignment (PSR) Program --
Overcrowding --
The prison population --
Selective incapacitation : a contemporary strategy to reduce prison populations --
Security levels --
Evidence-based corrections --
Prison classification systems --
The Federal Prison System --
Jails --
women and jail --
The growth of jails --
New generation jails --
Jails and the future --
American Jail Association Code of Ethics for Jail Officers --
Private prisons --
Arguments for and against the privatization of prisons --
12. Prison life --
Total institutions --
The male inmate's world --
Prison subcultures --
Prison argot : the language of confinement --
Prison lifestyles and inmate types --
Homosexuality and sexual victimization in prison --
The female inmate's world --
Sexual victimization of women prisoners --
Parents in prison --
Gender-responsiveness --
Institutions for women --
Social structure in women's prisons --
Types of female inmates --
Violence in women's prisons --
The staff world --
The professionalization of corrections officers --
Prison riots --
American Correctional Association Code of Ethics --
Causes of riots --
The Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice Prisoners' Rights --
The legal basis of prisoners' rights --
Censoring prison communications --
Grievance procedures --
Hands-off doctrine --
Prison libraries --
Issues facing prisons today --
AIDS --
Geriatric offenders --
Inmates with mental illness and intellectual disabilities --
Terrorism --
Radical Islam, terrorism, and U.S. prisons --
pt. 5. the Juvenile Justice System --
13. Juvenile justice --
Juvenile justice throughout history --
Earliest times --
The Juvenile court era --
Categories of children in the Juvenile Justice System --
The legal environment --
Schools are taking bullying seriously --
Legislation concerning children and justice --
The legal rights of juveniles --
The juvenile justice process today --
Adult and juvenile justice compared --
How the system works --
The Girls Study Group --
The post-juvenile court era --
Careers : juvenile justice professional --
Evidence-based juvenile justice --
Appendix A. Bill of rights --
Appendix B. List of acronyms --
Glossary.
Responsibility: Frank Schmalleger, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor Emeritus, The University of North Carolina at Pembroke.

Abstract:

Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, Eleventh Edition offers a contemporary, authoritative look at crime in America with a focus on police, courts, and corrections. To make information resonate with students, Schmalleger asks readers to consider the balance between freedom and security issues and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the American justice system as it adapts to cultural, political, and societal changes. An interactive website along with author tweets (@schmalleger) extends chapter material and provides up-to-the minute information on this ever-evolving field. Its unifying theme, unmatched timeliness, and coverage of trends and technology make this text the standard by which all other brief texts are judged.

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Crime in America -- 1. What is criminal justice? -- Brief history of crime in America -- Criminal justice and basic fairness -- American Criminal Justice System and functions -- The consensus model -- Surveillance technology -- The conflict model -- American Criminal Justice : the process -- Due process and individual rights -- Evidence-based practice in criminal justice -- Multiculturalism and diversity in criminal justice -- Cost-efficient criminal justice -- Careers in criminal justice -- 2. The crime picture -- Crime data and social policy -- The collection of crime data -- The UCR\/NIBRS Program -- The National Incident-Based Reporting System -- \"Flash robs\" -- Race and the Criminal Justice System -- Offenses -- The National Crime Victimization Survey -- Special categories of crime -- Crime against women -- Crime against the elderly -- Hate crime -- Corporate and white-collar crime -- Organized crime -- Gun crime -- Drug crime -- High technology and computer crime -- Terrorism -- Crime in international context -- 3. Criminal law -- Nature and purpose of law -- The rule of law -- Types of law -- Criminal law -- Statutory law -- Civil law -- Administrative law -- Case law -- General categories of crime -- Felonies -- Misdemeanors -- Offenses -- Treason and espionage -- Inchoate offenses -- General features of crime -- The criminal act (actus reus) -- A guilty mind (mens rea) -- Concurrence -- Elements of a specific criminal offense -- Murder -- The Corpus Delicti of a crime -- Types of defenses to a criminal charge -- Islamic law -- Alibi -- Justifications -- Excuses -- Procedural defenses -- pt. 2. Policing -- 4. Policing : purpose and organization -- Police mission -- Enforcing the law -- Apprehending offenders -- Preventing crime -- Preserving the peace -- Providing services -- American policing today : from the federal to the local level -- Federal agencies -- State agencies -- The FBI oath -- Policing in an economic downturn -- Local agencies -- Fusion centers- - Private protective services -- International police agencies -- Careers : Security professional -- Police administration -- Police organization and structure -- chain of command -- Policing epochs and styles -- The Watchman style of policing -- The legalistic style of policing -- The service style of policing -- Police-community relations -- Team policing -- Community policing -- Evidence-based policing -- The Kansas City experiment -- Discretion and the individual officer -- 5. Policing : legal aspects -- The abuse of police power -- The Rodney King incident -- A changing legal climate -- Individual rights -- Checks and balances -- Due process requirements -- Search and seizure -- The Exclusionary Rule -- The Warren Court (1953-1969) -- The Burger Court (1969-1986) and the Rehnquist Court (1986-2005) -- Plain-view requirements -- Arrest -- Careers : Patrol officer -- Searches incident to arrest -- Emergency searches of persons -- Vehicle searches -- Suspicionless searches -- High-technology searches -- The intelligence function -- Informants -- Police interrogation -- The right to a lawyer at interrogation -- Suspect rights : the Miranda Decision -- The Miranda warnings -- Gathering of special kinds of nontestimonial evidence -- Electronic eavesdropping -- The USA Patriot Act of 2001 and the USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 -- 6. Policing : issues and challenges -- Police personality and culture -- Corruption and integrity -- Policing a multicultural society -- Money : the root of police evil? -- Building police integrity -- The Law Enforcement Oath of Honor -- Drug testing of police employees -- The dangers of police work -- Violence in the line of duty -- Risk of disease and infected evidence -- DNA sampling -- Stress and fatigue among police officers -- Careers : police officer -- Terrorism\'s impact on policing -- The FBI\'s Joint Terrorism Task Forces -- Intelligence-led policing and antiterrorism -- Information sharing and antiterrorism -- Police civil liability -- Cost-efficient policing -- Common sources of civil suits -- Federal lawsuits -- Video-recording of police -- Racial profiling and biased policing -- Police use of force -- Deadly force -- Less-lethal weapons -- Professionalism and ethics -- The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics -- Education and training -- Recruitment and selection -- Ethnic and gender diversity in policing -- Investigating a crime in a multicultural setting -- Women as effective police officers --<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction, Eleventh Edition offers a contemporary, authoritative look at crime in America with a focus on police, courts, and corrections. To make information resonate with students, Schmalleger asks readers to consider the balance between freedom and security issues and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the American justice system as it adapts to cultural, political, and societal changes. An interactive website along with author tweets (@schmalleger) extends chapter material and provides up-to-the minute information on this ever-evolving field. Its unifying theme, unmatched timeliness, and coverage of trends and technology make this text the standard by which all other brief texts are judged.<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"pt. 3. Adjudication -- 7. The courts -- History and structure of the American Court System -- The State Court System -- The development of state courts -- State court systems today -- The Federal Court System -- U.S. District Courts -- U.S. Courts of Appeal -- The U.S. Supreme Court -- Cost-efficient courts -- Pretrial activities -- The first appearance -- Careers : Surety agent -- The International Criminal Court -- Nonjudicial pretrial release decisions -- The Grand Jury -- The preliminary hearing -- Arraignment and the plea -- Plea bargaining -- 8. The courtroom work group and the criminal trial -- The courtroom work group : professional courtroom actors -- The judge -- The prosecuting attorney -- Careers : Assistant district attorney -- The defense counsel -- The American Bar Association\'s Model rules of Professional Conduct -- The bailiff -- Trial court administrators -- The court reporter -- The clerk of court -- Expert witnesses -- Outsiders : nonprofessional courtroom participants -- Lay witnesses -- Jurors -- The victim -- The defendant -- Spectators and the press -- The criminal trial -- Procedure -- Nature and purpose of the criminal trial -- Stages in a criminal trial -- Trial initiation -- Jury selection -- Opening statements -- Presentation of evidence -- Pretrial and post-trial motions -- Closing arguments -- Judge\'s charge to the jury -- Jury deliberations and the verdict -- The bilingual courtroom -- 9. Sentencing -- The philosophy and goals of criminal sentencing -- Retribution -- Incapacitation -- Deterrence -- Rehabilitation -- Restoration -- Indeterminate sentencing -- Structured sentencing -- Aggravating and mitigating circumstances -- Federal sentencing guidelines -- The legal environment of structured sentencing -- Three-Strikes laws -- Careers : Medicolegal death investigator -- Mandatory sentencing -- Alternative sentencing options -- Alternative sanctions -- The presentence investigation -- The victim -- Victims\' rights -- Victims\' rights in California -- Victim-impact statements -- Modern sentencing options -- Sentencing rationales -- Sentencing practices -- Death : the ultimate sanction -- Habeas Corpus review -- Opposition to capital punishment -- Death-row exonerations based on DNA -- Justifications for capital punishment -- The courts and the death penalty -- Future of the death penalty -- Limits of genetic privacy -- pt. 4. Corrections -- 10. Probation, parole, and community corrections -- What is probation? -- The Federal Probation System -- Culturally skilled probation officers -- What is parole? -- Federal parole -- Probation and parole -- The legal environment -- Careers : Probation officer -- Intermediate sanctions -- Split sentencing -- Shock probation and shock parole -- Shock incarceration -- Mixed sentencing and community service -- Intensive probation supervision -- Home confinement and remote location monitoring -- American Probation and Parole Association Code of Ethics -- GPS bracelets - Changes in reentry policies -- The reinvention of probation and evidence-based practices -- Remote reporting probation -- 11. Prisons and jails -- The philosophy of imprisonment -- Prisons today -- California\'s Public Safety Realignment (PSR) Program -- Overcrowding -- The prison population -- Selective incapacitation : a contemporary strategy to reduce prison populations -- Security levels -- Evidence-based corrections -- Prison classification systems -- The Federal Prison System -- Jails -- women and jail -- The growth of jails -- New generation jails -- Jails and the future -- American Jail Association Code of Ethics for Jail Officers -- Private prisons -- Arguments for and against the privatization of prisons -- 12. Prison life -- Total institutions -- The male inmate\'s world -- Prison subcultures -- Prison argot : the language of confinement -- Prison lifestyles and inmate types -- Homosexuality and sexual victimization in prison -- The female inmate\'s world -- Sexual victimization of women prisoners -- Parents in prison -- Gender-responsiveness -- Institutions for women -- Social structure in women\'s prisons -- Types of female inmates -- Violence in women\'s prisons -- The staff world -- The professionalization of corrections officers -- Prison riots -- American Correctional Association Code of Ethics -- Causes of riots -- The Cost-Benefit Knowledge Bank for Criminal Justice Prisoners\' Rights -- The legal basis of prisoners\' rights -- Censoring prison communications -- Grievance procedures -- Hands-off doctrine -- Prison libraries -- Issues facing prisons today -- AIDS -- Geriatric offenders -- Inmates with mental illness and intellectual disabilities -- Terrorism -- Radical Islam, terrorism, and U.S. prisons -- pt. 5. the Juvenile Justice System -- 13. 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<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/mau<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"mau<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780133591316<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"013359131X<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780133591316<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n