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Criminal justice

Auteur: Jay S Albanese
Uitgever: Boston : Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, ©2008.
Editie/Formaat:   Gedrukt boek : Engels : 4th edAlle edities en materiaalsoorten bekijken.

This successful introductory text uses thorough and current research to focus on critical thinking as well as the media's influence on both criminal justice and the public perception of criminal  Meer lezen...


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Genre: Internetbron
Soort document Boek, Internetbron
Alle auteurs / medewerkers: Jay S Albanese
ISBN: 9780205499090 0205499090
OCLC-nummer: 123818252
Beschrijving: xxiii, 583 pages : color illustrations ; 29 cm
Inhoud: ContentsFeatures xviiPreface xix 1 Perspectives on Criminal Justice 1Perspectives on Crime 2Media Perspectives on Crime 2The Political Perspective on Crime 3Crime and Other Life Events 6Effects of Fear 7The Universality of Crime 11What Is Crime? 12Historical and Political Contexts of Crime 12Origins of the Criminal Justice System 15Justice in the Colonial Period 17The Evolution of Due Process 18THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Fear of Crime 8MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Television Crime Dramasand the Causes of Homicide 14CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Carjackings in the United States 19Binge Drinking 19 2 The Nature and Causes of Crime 23Defining Deviance 25Thinking versus Acting 26Mala in Se, Mala Prohibita, and Criminal Harm 26Criminalization of Behavior 29How Can Crime Be Explained? 32Biological Determinism and PsychologicalExplanations 36Sociological Explanations 37Rational Choice Explanations 41Gender-Based Explanations 42Guns, Drugs, and Crime 42Guns 42Drugs and Alcohol 46THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Gun Control by Teenagersand Adults 45MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Perceptions and theReality of Crime 39CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Choosing What to Criminalize 49A Case Study of Delinquency 49 3 Defining and Measuring Crime 54What Are the Types of Crime? 56How Are Violent Crimes and Property CrimesClassified? 56Homicide 57Sexual Assault 58Assault 58Robbery 59Burglary 60Larceny 60Arson 61How Are Crime Rates Determined? 61The FBI Uniform Crime Reports 63The National Crime Victimization Survey 66What Offenders Say 72The Future of Crime in the United States 73THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on the Crime Index 68MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: America's Most Wanted:America Fights Back 62CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:The Circumstances of Crime 75Identifying Serious Crimes 75 4 Perpetrators and Victims of Crime 78Who Are the Victims and Perpetrators of Crime? 80Age 80Gender 81Race and Ethnicity 84Socioeconomic Status 89What Is Crime Profiling? 89Offender Profiles 89Victim Profiles 91Crime Scene Profiles 92THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Partner Violence 84MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Superheroes and CrimePrevention 90CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:The Characteristics of Homicide 93Preventing School Shootings 94 5 Criminal Law 97What Is Criminal Law? 99Four Sources of American Criminal Law 100Limits on Criminal Law 101How Did the American System of Law and JusticeDevelop? 103Evolution of Lawful Justice 103Evolution of Due Process 105How Does the Law Define the Elements of aCrime? 107Characteristics of Criminal Acts 109The State of Mind Requirement 110What Defenses against Criminal Charges Does the LawRecognize? 111Defenses Related to Mental Illness 111Defenses Involving Force 114Defenses Involving Justification or Excuse 116What Are Some Concerns about Applying CriminalLaw? 120Controlling Animals or Owners? 121Assisted Suicide or Murder? 121THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Liability for the Death ofOthers 118MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Murder on TV: Law &Order, The Practice, and NYPD Blue 108CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Justice on the Carolina Frontier (1764) 123What Are the Crimes of the Century? 123 6 The Criminal Justice System 128What Are the Agencies of Criminal Justice? 130Law Enforcement 130Courts 131Corrections 132What Is Procedural Law? 133Law, Investigation, and Arrest 134The Fourth Amendment and Probable Cause 134Arrest 136What Is Involved in Criminal Court Procedure? 136Initial Appearance and Preliminary Hearing 136Grand Jury, Indictment, Arraignment 138Trial and Conviction 140Sentencing and Appeals 140What Are Some Concerns about the Criminal JusticeSystem? 142The Cost of Justice 142Fairness in Adjudication 145THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Fairness in the CriminalJustice System 144MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: The Star Chamber 146CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:The Limits of Drug Testing 147Addressing Violence in Entertainment 147 7 Criminal Procedure and the Police 151What Is the Role of Police in Criminal Procedure? 153Reasonable Suspicion and Stop and Frisk 153The Exclusionary Rule 156The Good Faith Exception 157Knock and Announce 158Searches without Warrants 159The Fifth Amendment and the MirandaWarning 165The Public Safety Exception 169Interrogations and Confessions 169Impacts of Procedural Law on LawEnforcement 170THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Profiling 172MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Law & Order 168CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:The Limits of Stop and Frisk 174Civil Suits against Police 175 8 Origins and Organization of Law Enforcement 178How Did Policing Evolve? 180The Watch and Ward System 180The New Police Bobbies 182Metropolitan Police in American Cities 183Crime Commissions and the Professionalization ofPolicing 185The Law Enforcement AssistanceAdministration 186What Is the Organization of Law Enforcement? 187Local Police 187State Police 192Federal Law Enforcement Agencies 193Transnational Law Enforcement 196Who Are the Police? 198Training and Education 199Issues of Gender and Race 201What Are Some Concerns about Policing in theUnited States? 204The Dilemma of Jurisdictions and Need forCooperation 204The Impacts of Technology and the Media on PoliceWork 206The Movement toward Private Policing 209THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Police Agencies YouHaven't Heard About 202MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Police Dramas onTelevision 205CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Campus Law Enforcement and Crime 211The Cyclical Nature of Community Policing 212 9 Issues in Law Enforcement and Police Behavior 218Is There Such a Thing as a Police Personality? 220Myths and Stereotypes about Police 220Three Styles of Policing 222Current Research on Police Attitudes toward TheirJobs 223Current Research on Police Attitudes toward thePublic They Serve 224How Should Police Performance Be Evaluated? 227Police Discretion and Police Misconduct 228Police Pursuits 231Crime Response and Clearance Rates 232Arrest and Conviction Rates 233Community Service 234What Are Some Forms of Police Corruption? 236Explanations of Corruption 237Preventing Corruption 240What Is Legitimate Use of Deadly Force? 242Victims of Violent Crime Control 242"Fleeing Felon" and "Prowler Inside" Laws 244Police Brutality 246THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on a New Role for Police:Intelligence Gathering 234MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Police and Terrorists inFilm 241CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Responding to Spouse Abuse 249An Appropriate Remedy for Police Misconduct? 250 10 Origins and Organization of the Courts 257How Were Criminal Courts Similar and Different in thePast? 259How Did the State and Federal Court SystemsDevelop? 260State Court Systems 261The Federal Court System 263Who Are the Participants in the Judicial Process? 266Prosecutors 266Defense Counsel and Defendants 269Judges 270Victims and Witnesses 272Juries 275The Courtroom Work Group 276How Are Specialized and Alternative Courts Changingthe Court System? 278Felony Drug Courts 278Dispute Resolution and Community Courts 279THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on the Deluge of CriminalCases 280MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Seeking Justice in Courtand on TV 277CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Independent Counsel and Prosecutorial Misconduct 282Limiting Criminal Appeals 283 11 Trial Defense and Prosecution 288What Are the Rights of the Accused? 290Right to Counsel 290Right to Effective Counsel 293How Are Cases Settled without Trial? 295Prosecutorial Discretion 297Diversion of Cases 298Plea Bargaining 299What Are Some Problems of the Court System? 300Caseloads 301Case Mortality 303Adjudicate the Offender or the Act? 308Crime Control or Due Process? 310THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Adjudication 302MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: The Matrix Made MeDo It 296CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Selective Prosecution of High-Rate Offenders 311Should a Lawyer Defend a Guilty Person? 312 12 Trials and Sentencing 317What Happens at Trial? 319Jury Selection 320Witness Testimony and Evidence 321Defense Strategies 322Arguments and Outcomes 323How Do Judges Decide on a Sentence? 323Retribution and Incapacitation 324Deterrence and Rehabilitation 326Probation, Restitution, and Incarceration 327The Presentence Report 328How Do Sentencing Options Differ? 328Indeterminate Sentencing 328Determinate Sentencing 329Sentencing Guidelines 334How Does the Eighth Amendment RestrictSentencing? 336What Is the Answer to the Death PenaltyDebate? 337The Legal Status of the Death Penalty 337Application of The Death Penalty 341Arguments for and against CapitalPunishment 342THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on the Death Penalty 343MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Dead ManWalking 338CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Victim's Race and Death Penalty Decisions 348Is Life Imprisonment a More Severe Punishment Than theDeath Penalty? 349 13 Origins and Organization of Jails and Prisons 356How Are Correctional Institutions in the United StatesOrganized? 358The Invention of the Prison 358Levels of Custody 360State and Federal Correctional Systems 361Problems with Jails 362How Do Correctional Institutions Operate? 364Punishment 364Custody and Deterrence 365Rehabilitation and Reform 365Models of Prison Administration 366Who Is in Prison? 367Correlates of Incarceration 367Incarceration of Women 370Prison Overcrowding 371What Is Inmate Life Like? 371Prison Work 372Drug Use and Treatment Programs 374AIDS in Prison 376Prison Gangs 377Violence in Prison 378What Are Prisoners' Rights and Responsibilities? 380Constitutional Rights 380Prison Rules 382THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Prisoner Trends 369MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: The ShawshankRedemption 373CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Private Prisons and Liability 383The Elderly Inmate 384 14 Probation and Community Corrections 390What Are the Alternatives to Incarceration? 392Fines as a Form of Criminal Sanction 393Probation 395Intensive Supervision 398Confinement and Monitoring 399How Can Ex-offenders Return to the Community afterPrison? 401Parole 401Work/Study Release and Furloughs 403Halfway Houses 405Pardons and Commutations 406What Are Forms of Authentic and RestorativeJustice? 407Restitution and Repair 409Mediation 409Shock Incarceration 410Corporal Punishment and Public Humiliation 412Forced Birth Control and Chemical Castration 414Forfeitures and Fees 416THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Probation andParole 397MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: 25th Hour 402CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:The Return of Chain Gangs 418Registering Former Sex Offenders 419 15 Justice and Punishment in the Twenty-First Century 426What Are New Ways of Administering Justice andPunishment? 428Technocorrections 428Risk-Based Treatment 429Early Life Interventions 430Virtual Prison 431How Can Offenders with Mental Health and DrugProblems Be Handled in the Criminal JusticeSystem? 431Mental Health of Offenders 432Is There Effective Treatment for Sex Offenders? 433Gender Issues 435Balancing Just Punishment with Public Safety 436What Is the Future of Corrections? 437Offender Accountability 437Professionalization of the CorrectionsProfession 438Punishment and Control by Distance 438Preparing Offenders for Release 440Corrections as Prevention 440 16 Juvenile Justice 483Juvenile Justice versus Criminal Justice 486The Nature and Extent of Delinquency 487Arrest Figures 487Self-Reports 491Victimization Surveys 492Foundations of Juvenile Justice 493Objections to Parens Patriae 494Modifications of the Juvenile Justice System 495The Law and Procedure of Juvenile Justice 496Lawyers and Self-Incrimination 497The Burden of Proof 500Juries in Juvenile Court 501Double Jeopardy 502Preventive Detention 503Searches and the Fourth Amendment 506Punishment and the Eighth Amendment 507Juveniles in the System: Police, Courts,Corrections 508Police Disposition of Juveniles Taken intoCustody 508Juvenile Court Outcomes 509Juvenile Dispositions 512Trends in Legislation 513The Outlook for Juvenile Justice 514THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Juvenile Backgroundsand Crime 511MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Scared Straight 505CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Abolish the Age of Majority? 515Juries for Juveniles? 515 17 Economic and Political Crime 101What Is Meant by Economic and PoliticalCrimes? 104How Can White-Collar Crimes Be Defined? 105Types of White-Collar Theft 106Crimes against Public Administration 107Corporate Crimes 108Trends in White-Collar Crime 110Why Is Computer Crime a Growing Threat? 111Types of Computer Crimes 112Consequences of Computer Crime 113How Does Organized Crime Operate? 116A Typology of Organized Crime 117Organized Crime Offenders 118National and International Aspects of OrganizedCrime 120What Are the Impacts of Terrorism and HateCrimes? 124Terrorism and Hate Crime Trends 125How Terrorism and Hate Crimes Merge 127THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Terrorism 126MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: A Civil Action 110CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Is the Internet an Avenue for Terrorists? 129Should There Be a Crackdown on InternetGambling? 130THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on Criminal Justice andMental Illness 434MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: American Me 439CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:Illicit Drug Use in Movies and Music 443Ecstasy: Crime Problem, Health Problem, orRecreation? 444 18 Comparative Criminal Justice 520The Risk of Crime around the World 522Incidence of Major Crimes 524Victimization 525Why Study Comparative Criminal Justice? 527Transnational Crimes 528Hijacking 528Trafficking in Humans 529Corruption 530War Crimes 531Transnational Law Enforcement 532International Justice 533International Corrections 535Legal, Ethical, and Practical Problems 536THAT'S A FACT: Perspectives on InternationalVictimization 526MEDIA AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE: Hotel Rwanda 537CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISES:War Crime Suspects Hiding in the United States? 539Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children 540 Appendix: The Constitution of the United States of America Glossary Name Index Subject Index
Verantwoordelijkheid: Jay S. Albanese.
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