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LES DEMOISELLES DE SAINT-CYR (1686-1793)

Author: Dominique Picco; Daniel Roche; Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris),
Publisher: [S.l.] : [s.n.], 1999.
Dissertation: Thèse de doctorat: HISTOIRE: Paris 1: 1999.
Edition/Format:   Thesis/dissertation : Thesis/dissertation : FrenchView all editions and formats
Summary:
FONDEE EN 1686 PAR LOUIS XIV SUR LES CONSEILS DE MME DE MAINTENON, LA MAISON ROYALE DE SAINT-LOUIS ETABLIE A SAINT-CYR, AU BOUT DU PARC DU CHATEAU DE VERSAILLES, ETAIT UNE INSTITUTION EDUCATIVE DESTINEE AUX JEUNES FILLES DE LA VIEILLE NOBLESSE FRANCAISE DESARGENTEE. CETTE ETUDE S'ATTACHE A FAIRE UNE PARTIE DE L'HISTOIRE DES ELEVES DE L'ETABLISSEMENT DE 1686 A SA FERMETURE EN 1793. CAR, SI SAINT-CYR, DANS SES LIENS
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Material Type: Thesis/dissertation
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Dominique Picco; Daniel Roche; Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris),
OCLC Number: 490449248
Description: 3 vol. (806 f.)
Responsibility: DOMINIQUE PICCO ; SOUS LA DIRECTION DE DANIEL ROCHE.

Abstract:

FONDEE EN 1686 PAR LOUIS XIV SUR LES CONSEILS DE MME DE MAINTENON, LA MAISON ROYALE DE SAINT-LOUIS ETABLIE A SAINT-CYR, AU BOUT DU PARC DU CHATEAU DE VERSAILLES, ETAIT UNE INSTITUTION EDUCATIVE DESTINEE AUX JEUNES FILLES DE LA VIEILLE NOBLESSE FRANCAISE DESARGENTEE. CETTE ETUDE S'ATTACHE A FAIRE UNE PARTIE DE L'HISTOIRE DES ELEVES DE L'ETABLISSEMENT DE 1686 A SA FERMETURE EN 1793. CAR, SI SAINT-CYR, DANS SES LIENS AVEC LOUIS XIV ET MME DE MAINTENON, DANS SES CONTENUS PEDAGOGIQUES A PU INTERESSER LES HISTORIENS, CEUX-CI, HORMIS QUELQUES GENEALOGISTES ERUDITS DU XIXE ET DU DEBUT DU XXE SIECLE, N'ONT GUERE PORTE ATTENTION AUX TROIS MILLE ELEVES QUI Y SEJOURNERENT. TOUT, OU PRESQUE ETAIT DONC A FAIRE LES CONCERNANT. CETTE RECHERCHE S'EST D'ABORD ORIENTEE, A PARTIR DE SOURCES MANUSCRITES ET IMPRIMEES CONSERVEES A LA BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE, VERS LES DIRECTIVES MONARCHIQUES EN MATIERE DE RECRUTEMENT, SUR LES MODALITES EFFECTIVES DE CELUI-CI ET EN PARTICULIER SUR LES CRITERES DE SELECTION DU MONARQUE. LA TOTALITE DES EFFECTIFS (3152 ELEVES) A ETE SAISIE SUR INFORMATIQUE A PARTIR, ENTRE AUTRES, DES DOSSIERS DE PREUVES DE NOBLESSE INDISPENSABLES A L'ADMISSION. DE LA, IL A ETE POSSIBLE DE RECENSER ET D'ANALYSER LES ORIGINES GEOGRAPHIQUES DES DEMOISELLES. TOUTES CES FILLETTES RECUES A SAINT-CYR DEVAIENT ETRE DE NOBLE EXTRACTION, ET NOUS AVONS TENTE DE DETERMINER LEUR APPARTENANCE AUX DIFFERENTES CATEGORIES DE LA NOBLESSE DES XVIIEME ET XVIIIEME SIECLES AFIN DE VERIFIER SI ELLES ETAIENT UNIQUEMENT, COMME L'AVAIT SOUHAITE LE FONDATEUR, MEMBRES D'UNE NOBLESSE ANCIENNE, MILITAIRE ET AUX FAIBLES REVENUS. CETTE RECHERCHE PERMET DE MESURER QUEL A ETE L'IMPACT DIFFERENT DE CETTE FONDATION ROYALE SUR LES NOBLESSES DE LA FRANCE D'ALORS. ACHEVEE ELLE SORTIRA ENFIN DU SILENCE DE L'OUBLI CES JEUNES FILLES QUI RECURENT PENDANT ENVIRON DIX ANNEES UNE EDUCATION DONT LES PRINCIPES, ETABLIS PAR MME DE MAINTENON, DEMEURERENT INCHANGES DE 1686 A 1793. EDUCATION QU'ELLES TRANSMIRENT A LEUR MILIEU FAMILIAL JUSQUE DANS LE PREMIER QUART DU XIXE SIECLE.

IT WAS ON MADAME DE MAINTENON'S ADVICE THAT KING LOUIS XIV ESTABLISHED THE MAISON ROYALE DE SAINT-LOUIS IN 1686. LOCATED AT SAINT-CYR, CLOSE TO THE PALACE OF VERSAILLES, THE INSTITUTION CATERED FOR THE EDUCATION OF DAUGHTERS FROM IMPOVERISHED NOBLE FAMILIES. THIS STUDY AIMS AT WRITING A PART OF THE HISTORY OF THE PUPILS OF THE SCHOOL FROM ITS INCEPTION IN 1686 TO ITS CLOSING DOWN IN 1793. HISTORIANS HAVE BEEN HITHERTO MORE INTERESTED IN STUDYING THE LINKS BETWEEN THE INSTITUTION AND ITS FOUNDERS, OR IN THE COURSES THAT WERE TAUGHT, AND THE 3,000-ODD PUPILS WHO WERE BOARDED THERE ATTRACTED LITLLE ATTENTION, EXCEPTED FROM SOME 19TH- OR 20TH-CENTURY GENEALOGISTS. VIRTUALLY EVERYTHING REMAINED TO BE DONE. MANUSCRIPT AS WELL AS PRINTED SOURCES KEPT IN THE BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE WERE FIRST USED TO STUDY THE RULES EDICTED BY THE KING ABOUT WHO WAS TO BE ADMITTED, HOW THESE RULES WERE EFFECTIVELY IMPLEMENTED, AND MORE PARTICULARLY THE SELECTION PROCESS AND ITS CRITERIA. APPLICANTS HAD TO BE OF NOBLE DESCENT AND A DOSSIER, CALLED +PREUVES DE NOBLESSE;, WAS TO BE PRESENTED TO SUPPORT THEIR CLAIM. THE PERSONAL DETAILS FOR ALL THE PUPILS (3,152 NAMES) HAVE BEEN COMPUTERIZED IN ORDER TO STUDY THE GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGINS OF THE DEMOISELLES. WE TRIED TO DETERMINE WHICH STRATA OF THE 17TH- AND 18TH-CENTURY NOBILITY THEY BELONGED TO, AND IF THE WISHES EXPRESSED BY LOUIS XIV, THAT THESE YOUNG GIRLS WERE TO BELONG TO THE ANCIENT AND MILITARY BRAND OF THE NOBILITY, WITH LOW INCOMES, HAD BEEN RESPECTED. THIS WORK SHOWS WHAT THE IMPACT OF THIS INSTITUTION WAS AND HOW IT VARIED FROM ONE STRATA OF THE NOBILITY TO ANOTHER. IT WILL PUT IN BROAD DAYLIGHT ALL THESE HITHERTO FORGOTTEN YOUNG GIRLS, WHO WERE EACH RAISED AND EDUCATED THERE FOR AHOUT 10 YEARS, ALONG THE LINES THAT WERE STATED BY MME DE MAINTENON AND REMAINED UNTOUCHED UNTIL 1793 - AN EDUCATION THEY SUBSEQUENTLY PASSED ON TO THEIR DESCENDANTS WELL INTO THE FIRST QUARTER OF THE 19TH CENTURY.

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