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Diplomacy in black and white : John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and their Atlantic world alliance

Author: Ronald Angelo Johnson
Publisher: Athens ; London : University of Georgia Press, [2014]
Series: Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900.
Edition/Format:   Print book : Biography : State or province government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"From 1798 to 1801, during the Haitian Revolution, President John Adams and Toussaint Louverture forged diplomatic relations that empowered white Americans to embrace freedom and independence for people of color in Saint-Domingue. The United States supported the Dominguan revolutionaries with economic assistance and arms and munitions; the conflict was also the U.S. Navy's first military action on behalf of a
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Genre/Form: Local author
History
Named Person: John Adams; Toussaint Louverture; John Adams; Toussaint Louverture; John Adams; Toussaint Louverture; John Adams; François Dominique Toussaint Louverture; John Adams; Toussaint Louverture
Material Type: Biography, Government publication, State or province government publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Ronald Angelo Johnson
ISBN: 9780820342122 0820342122 9780820347691 0820347698 9780820342139 0820342130
OCLC Number: 841897209
Description: xv, 241 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm.
Contents: 1 Saint-Dominguan Revolution: "We Can and Must Do Something There" 13 --
2 U.S. Involvement: "Even South Carolinians Voted for It" 39 --
3 Edward Stevens: "Our Minister to Toussaint" 68 --
4 Dominguan-American Diplomacy: "So Natural" 87 --
5 Allied Command: "Willing to Serve General Toussaint" 113 --
6 The United States and Hispaniola: "On a Permanent and Advantageous Footing" 137 --
7 After Adams and Louverture: "Great Changes Likely to Take Place" 161.
Series Title: Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900.
Responsibility: Ronald Angelo Johnson.

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From 1798 to 1801, during the Haitian Revolution, President John Adams and Toussaint Louverture, forged diplomatic relations that empowered white Americans to embrace freedom and independence for  Read more...

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[U]ntil Johnson, no one has thought fit to isolate for detailed study this remarkable story of transracial cooperation and overseas military intervention, a high-water mark of progressive American Read more...

 
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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/841897209<\/a>> # Diplomacy in black and white : John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and their Atlantic world alliance<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Book<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"841897209<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/gau<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Unknown \'gen\' value: sgp<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/atlantic_ocean_region<\/a>> ; # Atlantic Ocean Region<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/aussenpolitik<\/a>> ; # Au\u00DFenpolitik<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/history_united_states_colonial_period_1600_1775<\/a>> ; # HISTORY--United States--Colonial Period (1600-1775)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/history_revolutionary<\/a>> ; # HISTORY--Revolutionary<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/327.730729409034\/e23\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1723575<\/a>> ; # Atlantic Ocean Region.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/hispaniola<\/a>> ; # Hispaniola<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/diplomatie<\/a>> ; # Diplomatie<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/usa<\/a>> ; # USA.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1205135<\/a>> ; # Haiti.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/833987<\/a>> ; # Blacks--Race identity<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Person\/toussaint_louverture_1743_1803<\/a>> ; # Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/united_states_haiti<\/a>> ; # United States--Haiti.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1086509<\/a>> ; # Race relations<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/haiti<\/a>> ; # Haiti<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/972484<\/a>> ; # Influence (Literary, artistic, etc.)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/10637807<\/a>> ; # Fran\u00E7ois Dominique Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/95296943<\/a>> ; # John Adams<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1907412<\/a>> ; # Diplomatic relations<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/history_caribbean_&_west_indies_general<\/a>> ; # HISTORY--Caribbean & West Indies--General<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Person\/adams_john_1735_1826<\/a>> ; # John Adams<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Event\/1791_1899<\/a>> ; # 1791-1899<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1204155<\/a>> ; # United States.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/blacks_race_identity_atlantic_ocean_region<\/a>> ; # Blacks--Race identity--Atlantic Ocean Region<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/haiti_united_states<\/a>> ; # Haiti--United States.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:bookFormat<\/a> bgn:PrintBook<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:creator<\/a> <http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/302691160<\/a>> ; # Ronald Angelo Johnson<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2014<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"\"This will be the first monograph-length study of U.S. diplomacy toward Saint-Domingue during the Adams administration. The book offers a detailed examination of the relationship between U.S. President John Adams and Toussaint Louverture, military commander of the French colony Saint-Domingue. Ronald Johnson presents the complex history of the bilateral relations between these two Atlantic leaders representing the first diplomatic relationship the United States had with a government of black leaders. Over the course of seven chapters, Johnson looks beyond the diplomacy itself to find the long lasting effects it had on the evolving meanings of race, the struggles over emancipation, and the formation of an African identity in the Atlantic world. Johnson argues that this brief moment of cross-cultural cooperation, while not changing racial traditions immediately, helped to set the stage for incremental changes in American and Atlantic world discussions of race well into the twentieth-century. Diplomacy in Black and White suggests that President John Adams and his administration abetted the idea of independence for people of color on the island of Hispaniola. This proposal represents an interpretative shift in the historiography. The book illuminates U.S. diplomacy in Saint-Domingue to explain how Americans and Dominguans worked together as relatively equal partners, occupying a similar position within a volatile Atlantic context\"--<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"\"From 1798 to 1801, during the Haitian Revolution, President John Adams and Toussaint Louverture forged diplomatic relations that empowered white Americans to embrace freedom and independence for people of color in Saint-Domingue. The United States supported the Dominguan revolutionaries with economic assistance and arms and munitions; the conflict was also the U.S. Navy\'s first military action on behalf of a foreign ally. This cross-cultural cooperation was of immense and strategic importance as it helped to bring forth a new nation: Haiti. Diplomacy in Black and White is the first book on the Adams-Louverture alliance. Historian and former diplomat Ronald Angelo Johnson details the aspirations of the Americans and Dominguans--two revolutionary peoples--and how they played significant roles in a hostile Atlantic world. Remarkably, leaders of both governments established multiracial relationships amid environments dominated by slavery and racial hierarchy. And though U.S.-Dominguan diplomacy did not end slavery in the United States, it altered Atlantic world discussions of slavery and race well into the twentieth century. Diplomacy in Black and White reflects the capacity of leaders from disparate backgrounds to negotiate political and societal constraints to make lives better for the groups they represent. Adams and Louverture brought their peoples to the threshold of a lasting transracial relationship. And their shared history reveals the impact of decisions made by powerful people at pivotal moments. But in the end, a permanent alliance failed to emerge, and instead, the two republics born of revolution took divergent paths\"--<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/1416685404<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Government publication<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"History<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Biography<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Local author<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isPartOf<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Series\/race_in_the_atlantic_world_1700_1900<\/a>> ; # Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Diplomacy in black and white : John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and their Atlantic world alliance<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"841897209<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780820342122<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780820342139<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:workExample<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780820347691<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\numbel:isLike<\/a> <http:\/\/bnb.data.bl.uk\/id\/resource\/GBB504649<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/841897209<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Related Entities<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/327.730729409034\/e23\/<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Event\/1791_1899<\/a>> # 1791-1899<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Event<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"1791-1899<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Person\/adams_john_1735_1826<\/a>> # John Adams<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1735<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"1826<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Adams<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"John<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"John Adams<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Person\/toussaint_louverture_1743_1803<\/a>> # Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1743<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"1803<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/atlantic_ocean_region<\/a>> # Atlantic Ocean Region<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Atlantic Ocean Region<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/haiti<\/a>> # Haiti<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Haiti<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/haiti_united_states<\/a>> # Haiti--United States.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Haiti--United States.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/hispaniola<\/a>> # Hispaniola<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Hispaniola<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/united_states_haiti<\/a>> # United States--Haiti.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"United States--Haiti.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Place\/usa<\/a>> # USA.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"USA.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Series\/race_in_the_atlantic_world_1700_1900<\/a>> # Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:PublicationSeries<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:hasPart<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/841897209<\/a>> ; # Diplomacy in black and white : John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and their Atlantic world alliance<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Race in the Atlantic world, 1700-1900<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/aussenpolitik<\/a>> # Au\u00DFenpolitik<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Au\u00DFenpolitik<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/blacks_race_identity_atlantic_ocean_region<\/a>> # Blacks--Race identity--Atlantic Ocean Region<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:hasPart<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/authorities\/subjects\/sh85014685<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Blacks--Race identity--Atlantic Ocean Region<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/diplomatie<\/a>> # Diplomatie<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Diplomatie<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/history_caribbean_&_west_indies_general<\/a>> # HISTORY--Caribbean & West Indies--General<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"HISTORY--Caribbean & West Indies--General<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/history_revolutionary<\/a>> # HISTORY--Revolutionary<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"HISTORY--Revolutionary<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/1416685404#Topic\/history_united_states_colonial_period_1600_1775<\/a>> # HISTORY--United States--Colonial Period (1600-1775)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"HISTORY--United States--Colonial Period (1600-1775)<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/gau<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"gau<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1086509<\/a>> # Race relations<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Race relations<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1204155<\/a>> # United States.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"United States.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1205135<\/a>> # Haiti.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Haiti.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1723575<\/a>> # Atlantic Ocean Region.<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Atlantic Ocean Region.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/1907412<\/a>> # Diplomatic relations<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Diplomatic relations<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/833987<\/a>> # Blacks--Race identity<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Blacks--Race identity<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.worldcat.org\/fast\/972484<\/a>> # Influence (Literary, artistic, etc.)<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Influence (Literary, artistic, etc.)<\/span>\"@en<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/10637807<\/a>> # Fran\u00E7ois Dominique Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"ca. 1743<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1743<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"1803<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Fran\u00E7ois Dominique<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Fran\u00E7ois Dominique Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Toussaint Louverture<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/302691160<\/a>> # Ronald Angelo Johnson<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1970<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Johnson<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Ronald Angelo<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Ronald Angelo Johnson<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/viaf.org\/viaf\/95296943<\/a>> # John Adams<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1735<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"1826<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Adams<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"John<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"John Adams<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780820342122<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"0820342122<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780820342122<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780820342139<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"0820342130<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780820342139<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/worldcat.org\/isbn\/9780820347691<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:ProductModel<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"0820347698<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:isbn<\/a> \"9780820347691<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/841897209<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \ngenont:InformationResource<\/a>, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/841897209<\/a>> ; # Diplomacy in black and white : John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and their Atlantic world alliance<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:dateModified<\/a> \"2020-03-31<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nvoid:inDataset<\/a> <http:\/\/purl.oclc.org\/dataset\/WorldCat<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

Content-negotiable representations<\/p>\n