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Drugs, behavior, and modern society

Author: Charles F Levinthal
Publisher: Boston : Allyn & Bacon, ©2012.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 7th edView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Charles F Levinthal
ISBN: 9780205037261 0205037267 9780205093632 0205093639
OCLC Number: 698082810
Description: xx, 444 : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 26 cm
Contents: pt. I: Drugs in society / drugs in our lives --
1. Drugs and behavior today --
What is a drug? --
Instrumental and recreational use of drugs --
Misuse and abuse of drugs --
Drug abuse and the college student --
Drugs in early times --
Drugs in the Nineteenth Century --
Drugs and behavior in the Twentieth Century --
Drugs and behavior from 1945 to 1960 --
Drugs and behavior after 1960 --
Understanding the history of drugs and behavior --
Present-day attitudes toward drugs --
Patterns of drug use in the United States --
Illicit drug use among high school seniors --
Illicit drug use among eighth graders and tenth graders --
Illicit drug use among adolescents, 1975-2009 --
Drug use among college students and young adults --
Patterns of alcohol use --
Patterns of tobacco use --
Drug attitudes and drug use --
Patterns of illicit drug use in adults aged twenty-six and older --
Understanding present-day drug use in the United States --
Why some individuals use drugs and others don't --
Specific risk factors --
Specific protective factors --
Club drugs --
Nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers --
Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medications --
Nonmedical use of over-the-counter cough-and-cold medications --
Why drugs? --
2. Drug-taking behavior: the personal and social concerns --
Drug toxicity --
Acute toxicity in the news: drug-related deaths --
Understanding does-response curves --
The DAWN reports --
Emergencies related to illicit drugs --
Drug-related deaths --
Judging drug toxicity from drug-related deaths --
Demographics and trends --
From acute toxicity to chronic toxicity --
Behavioral tolerance and drug overdose --
Understanding behavioral tolerance through conditioning --
Physical and psychological dependence --
Psychiatric definitions --
Drug abuse in pregnancy --
Drug abuse and HIV infection --
Effects of psychoactive drugs on pregnant women and newborns --
Drugs, violence, and crime --
Pharmacological violence --
Economically compulsive violence --
Systemic violence --
Governmental policy, regulation, and laws --
Efforts to regulate drugs, 1900-1970 --Harry J. Anslinger: America's first Drug Czar --
Rethinking the approach toward drug regulation, 1970-present --
Enforcement of drug laws on a global scale --
Harm reduction as a National Drug-abuse Policy --
Should we legalize drugs? --
3. How drugs work in the bod and on the mind --
How drugs enter the body --
Oral administration --
Injection --
Inhalation --
Absorption through the skin or membranes --
How drugs exit the body --
Ways to take drugs: routes of administration --
Factors determining the behavioral impact of drugs --
Timing --
Drug interactions --
Understanding drug interactions --
Cross-tolerance and cross-dependence --
Adverse effects of drugs-drug and food-drug combinations --
Introducing the nervous system --
The peripheral nervous system --
Sympathetic and parasympathetic responses --
The central nervous system --
Understanding the brain --
The hindbrain --
The midbrain --
The forebrain --
Understanding drugs and brain functioning --
Understanding the biochemistry of psychoactive drugs --
Introducing neurons --
Synaptic communication --
The major neurotransmitters in brief: the big seven --
Physiological aspects of drug-taking behavior --
Endorphins in our lives: a psychosocial perspective --
The blood-brain barrier --
Biochemical processes underlying drug tolerance --
Understanding cross-tolerance and cross-dependence --
Physiological factors in psychological dependence --
Drug craving and the insula of the brain --
Psychological factors in drug-taking behavior --
Expectation effects --
Drug research procedures --
Nora D. Volkow: imaging the face of addiction in the brain. pt. II: Legally restricted drugs in our society --
4. The major stimulants: cocaine and amphetamines --
The history of cocaine --
Cocaine in Nineteenth Century life --
Cocaine after alcohol: the risk of cocaethylene toxicity --
Freud and cocaine --
What happened to the Coca in Coca-cola? --
Understanding the history of cocaine --
Acute effects of cocaine --
Chronic effects of cocaine --
The physical signs of possible cocaine abuse --
Medical uses of cocaine --
How cocaine works in the brain --
Present-day cocaine abuse --
From coca to cocaine --
From cocaine to crack --
Patterns of cocaine abuse --
Treatment programs for cocaine abuse --
Paco: a cheap new form of cocaine floods Argentine slums and beyond --
Robert Downey Jr.: cleaning up his life after cocaine --
Amphetamines --
The different forms of amphetamines --
Crack babies revisited: what are the effects? --
The history of amphetamines --
How amphetamines work in the brain --
Acute effects of amphetamines --
Chronic effects of amphetamines --
Methamphetamine abuse --
Present-day patterns of methamphetamine abuse --
Methamphetamine across America --
Methamphetamine-abuse treatment --
Understanding patterns of cocaine and methamphetamine abuse --
Medical uses for amphetamines and similar stimulant drugs --
Stimulant medications for ADHD --
Ritalin and adderall abuse --
Stimulant medications as "smart pills" --
Should cognitive performance-enhancing drugs be used by healthy people? --
5. Narcotics: opium, heroin, and synthetic opiates --
Opium in history --
The opium war --
Opium in Britain --
Opium in the United States --
Morphine and the advent of heroin --
Opiates and heroin in American Society --
Opiate use and abuse after 1914 --
Heroin abuse in the 1960s and 1970s --
Heroin and synthetic opiates since the 1980s --
Understanding the history of opiates --
Effects on the mind and the body --
How opiates work in the brain --
Patterns of heroin abuse --
Tolerance and withdrawal symptoms --
The lethality of heroin abuse --
Understanding the effects of administering and withdrawing heroin --
Heroin abuse and society --
Treatment for heroin abuse --
Opiate detoxification --
Methadone maintenance --
Alternative maintenance programs --
Sustained-release buprenorphine: a new era in heroin-abuse treatment --
Behavioral and social-community programs --
Medical uses of opiate and opiate-related drugs --
Beneficial effects --
Potential adverse effects --
Misuse or abuse of prescription pain relievers --
Barry Tuttle and Russell Fitch: the two sides of OxyContin --
6. LSD and other hallucinogens --
Classifying hallucinogens --
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) --
Strange days in Salem: witchcraft or hallucinogens? --
The beginning of the Psychedelic Era --
Timothy Leary: whatever happened to him? --
Acute effects of LSD --
Effects of LSD on the brain --
Patterns of LSD use --
Facts and fiction about LSD --
Will LSD produce substance dependence? --
Will LSD produce a panic attack or psychotic behavior? --
Will LSD increase your creativity? --
Will LSD damage your chromosomes? --
Emergency guidelines for a bad trip on LSD --
Will LSD have residual (flashback) effects? --
Will LSD increase criminal or violent behavior? --
Psilocybin and other hallucinogens related to Serotonin --
Bufotenine and the Bufo toad --
Lysergic Acid Amide (LAA) --
Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) --
Harmine --
Hallucinogens related to Norepinephrine --
Present-day Peyotism and the Native American Church --
DOM --
MDMA (Ecstasy) --
MDMA toxicity: the other side of Ecstasy --
Hallucinogens related to Acetylcholine --
Amanita muscaria --
The Hexing drugs and witchcraft --
Phencyclidine (PCP) --
Acute effects of PCP --
Understanding the diversity of hallucinogens --
Patterns of PCP abuse --
Ketamine --
Understanding PCP --
Salvia divinorum --
7. Marijuana --
The history marijuana and hashish --
Hashish in the Nineteenth Century --
Marijuana and hashish in the Twentieth Century --
The Anti-marijuana Crusade --
Challenging old ideas about marijuana --
Acute effects of marijuana --
Acute physiological effects --
Acute psychological and behavioral effects --
Understanding the effects of marijuana --
Effects of marijuana on the brain --
Chronic effects of marijuana --
Tolerance --
Withdrawal and dependence --
Cardiovascular effects --
Respiratory effects and the risk of cancer --
Effects on the immune system --
Effects on sexual functioning and reproduction --
Long-term cognitive effects and amotivational syndrome --
The Gateway Hypothesis --
The sequencing question --
The association question --
The causation question --
Understanding the adverse effects of chronic marijuana abuse --
Patterns of marijuana smoking --
Current trends as causes for concern --
Street language for marijuana --
Medical marijuana --
Nausea and weight loss --
Angel McClary Raich, medical marijuana, and the Raich v. Ashcroft decision --
The medical marijuana controversy --
The issues of decriminalization and legalization. pt. III: Legal drugs in our society --
8. Alcohol: social beverage / social drug --
What makes an alcoholic beverage? --
Alcohol use through history --
Alcohol in Nineteenth Century America --
The rise of the Temperance Movement --
The road to National Prohibition --
The beginning and ending of a "noble experiment" --
Present-day alcohol regulation by taxation --
Patterns of alcohol consumption today --
Multiple ways of getting a standard drink --
Visualizing the pattern of alcohol consumption in the United States --
Understanding alcoholic beverages --
The pharmacology of alcohol --
The breakdown and elimination of alcohol --
Measuring alcohol in the blood --
Gender, race, and medication: factors in alcohol metabolism --
Effects of alcohol on the brain --
Acute physiological effects --
Toxic reactions --
Emergency signs and procedure in acute alcohol intoxication --
Heat loss and the Saint Bernard myth --
Diuretic effects --
Effects on sleep --
Effects on pregnancy --
Interactions with other drugs --
Acute behavioral effects --
Blackouts --
Driving skills --
Preventing alcohol-related traffic fatalities --
Candace Lightner: founder of MADD --
Alcohol, violence, and aggression --
Alcohol, security, and spectator sports --
Sex and sexual drive --
Caffeine, alcohol, and the dangers of caffeinated alcoholic drinks --
Alcohol and health benefits --
Understanding the data from Balanced Placebo Designs --
Strategies for responsible drinking --
9. Chronic alcohol abuse and alcoholism --
Problems associated with a preoccupation with drinking --
Emotional problems --
Vocational, social and family problems --
Physical problems --
A Self-Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST) --
Denial and enabling --
Understanding the psychology of alcoholism --
Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence: the health professional's perspective --
Physiological effects of chronic alcohol use --
Tolerance and withdrawal --
Liver disease --
Cardiovascular problems --
Cancer --
Dementia and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome --
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) --
The TWEAK alcoholism screening instrument for pregnant women --
Patterns of chronic alcohol abuse --
The demographics of alcoholism --
Alcohol abuse among the elderly --
The family dynamics of alcoholism: a systems approach --
Children of an alcoholic parent or parents --
The genetics of alcoholism --
The concept of alcoholism as a disease --
Approaches to treatment for alcoholism --
Biologically based treatments --
Bill W. and Dr. Bob: founders of Alcoholics Anonymous --
Is controlled drinking possible for alcoholics? --
The non-disease model of alcoholism and other patterns of drug abuse --
Understanding Alcoholics Anonymous --
SMART recovery --
Chronic alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the workplace --
Should alcoholism be viewed as a disease? --
10. Nicotine and tobacco use --
Tobacco use through history --
Politics, economics and tobacco --
Snuffing and chewing --
Cigars and cigarettes --
Tobacco in the Twentieth Century --
Health concerns and smoking behavior --
African Americans, smoking and mentholated cigarettes --
Tobacco today: an industry on the defensive --
The Tobacco Settlement of 1998 --
The Tobacco Control Act of 2009 --
Tobacco regulation and global economics --
What's in tobacco? --
Carbon monoxide --
Tar --
Nicotine --
The dependence potential of nicotine --
The titration hypothesis of nicotine dependence --
Tolerance and withdrawal --
Health consequences of tobacco use --
Visualizing 4000,000 to 440,000 annual tobacco-related deaths --
Cardiovascular disease --
Respiratory diseases --
Lung cancer --
Other cancers --
Special health concerns for women --
Signs of trouble from smokeless tobacco --
The hazards of environmental smoke --
Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking --
Patterns of smoking behavior and use of smokeless tobacco --
The youngest smokers --
Attitudes toward smoking among young people --
Smokeless tobacco --
Cigars --
Tobacco use around the world --
Sigmund Freud: nicotine dependence, cigars, and cancer --
Quit smoking: the good news and the bad --
The good: undoing the damage --
The bad: how hard it is to quit --
Ten tips on how to succeed when trying to quit smoking --
Nicotine gums, patches, sprays, and inhalers --
The role of physicians in smoking cessation --
11. Caffeine --
Coffee in Britain and North America --
Major sources of coffee --
The caffeine content in coffee --
Why there are no (live) flies in you coffee --
Tea in Britain and North America --
The chemical content in tea --
Chocolate --
Chocolate, flavonoids, and a healthy heart --
How chocolate is made --
The chocolate industry today --
Milton S. Hershey and the town built on chocolate --
The xanthine content in chocolate --
Soft drinks --
Caffeine from OTC drugs and other products --
Understanding caffeine levels in foods and beverages --
Caffeine as a drug --
Effects of caffeine on the body --
Effects of caffeine on behavior --
Potential health benefits --
Potential health risks --
Cardiovascular effects --
Osteoporosis and bone fractures --
Coffee, genes and heart attacks --
Breast disease --
Effects during pregnancy and breastfeeding --
Panic attacks --
Dependence, acute toxicity, and medical applications --
Tolerance --
Withdrawal --
Craving --
Acute toxicity of caffeine --
Prescription drugs based on xanthines --
Kids and caffeine: a special concern --
Energy shots. pt. IV: Enhancers and depressants --
12. Performance-enhancing drugs and drug testing in sports --
Drug-taking behavior in sports --
What are anabolic steroids? --
Anabolic steroids at the modern Olympic Games --
anabolic steroids in professional and collegiate sports --
Gene doping: disqualified by your DNA --
Performance-enhancing drug abuse and baseball --
The hazards of anabolic steroids --
Suspension penalties for performance-enhancing drug use in sports --
Effects on other systems of the body --
Psychological problems --
Special problems for adolescents --
Understanding the effects of anabolic steroids --
Patterns off anabolic steroid abuse --
The potential for steroid dependence --
The symptoms of steroid abuse --
Counterfeit steroids and the placebo effect --
Nonsteroid hormones and performance-enhancing supplements --
Human Growth Hormone --
Dietary supplements as performance-enhancing aids --
Nonmedical use of stimulant medication in baseball --
Current drug-testing procedures and policies --
The forensics of drug testing --
THG and the war on performance-enhancing drugs --
Sensitivity and specificity --
Masking drugs and chemical manipulations --
Pinpointing the time of drug use --
Understanding drug testing --
The social context of performance-enhancing drugs --
13. Depressants and inhalants --
Barbiturates --
Is there any truth in "truth serum"? --
Chronic effects of barbiturates --
Current medical uses of barbiturates --
Patterns of barbiturate abuse --
Nonbarbiturate sedative-hypnotics --The development of antianxiety drugs --
Benzodiazepines --
Medical uses of Benzodiazepines --
Acute effects of benzodiazepines --
Chronic effects of benzodiazepines --
How benzodiazepines work in the brain --
Patterns of benzodiazepine misuse and abuse --
The dangers of rohypnol as a date-rape drug --
Nonbenzodiazepine depressants --
Zolpidem and eszopiclone --
Buspirone --
Beta blockers --
Antidepressants --
The risks of GHB --
Patricia White, GHB, and the "perfect" crime --
Understanding the abuse potential in drugs --
Protective strategies for women --
Inhalants through history --
Nitrous oxide --
Ether --
Glue, solvent, and aerosol inhalation --
The abuse potential of inhalants --
Acute effects of glues, solvents, and aerosols --
The dangers of inhalant abuse --
The signs of possible inhalant abuse --
Ristol and resistoleros in Latin America --
The dependence potential of chronic inhalant abuse --
A gateway for future substance abuse? --
Responses of society to inhalant abuse --
Understanding the history of inhalants. pt. V: Medicinal drugs --
14. Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and dietary supplements --
The history of prescription drug regulations --
Procedures for approving prescription drugs --
Phases of clinical testing for prescription drugs --
Patents and generic forms of prescription drugs --
Speeding up the FDA approval process --
Procedures for approving OTC drugs --
Bioequivalence, bioavailability and generic drugs --
Understanding the FDA approval process --
Are FDA-approved drugs safe? --
The issue of speed versus caution --
Patterns of prescription drug misuse --
The potential for death by prescription error --
Unintentional drug misuse through prescription errors --
Patterns of prescription drug abuse --
Major OTC analgesic drugs --
Aspirin --
Acetaminophen --
Ibuprofen --
Naproxen --
OTC analgesic drugs and attempted suicide --
Understanding OTC analgesic drugs --
Sleep aids --
Cough-and-cold remedies --
The pharmaceutical industry today --
Dietary supplements --
Ryan Haight and the Ryan Haight Act of 2008 --
What we know about nine herbal supplements --
Should prescription drugs be advertised to the general public? --
15. Drugs for treating schizophrenia and mood disorders --
The biomedical model --
Antipsychotic drugs and schizophrenia --
The symptoms of schizophrenia --
The early days of antipsychotic drug treatment --
Mercury poisoning: on being mad as a hatter --
Antipsychotic drug treatment --
Antipsychotic drugs --
Effects of antipsychotic drugs on the brain --
Drugs use to treat depression --
The melancholy president: Abraham Lincoln, depression, and those "little blue pills" --
Antidepressant drugs --
SSRI antidepressants and elevated risk of suicide among children and adolescents --
Effects of antidepressant drugs on the brain --
The effectiveness of specific antidepressant drugs --
Drugs for other types of mental disorders --
Mania and bipolar disorder --
Understanding the biochemistry of mental illness --
Autism --
Off-label usage of psychotropic medications --
Psychiatric drugs, social policy and deinstitutionalization --
Psychiatric drugs and the Civil Liberties Debate. pt. VI: Prevention and treatment --
16. Substance-abuse prevention --
Levels of intervention in substance-abuse prevention --
Understanding levels of intervention in substance-abuse prevention programs --
Strategies for substance-abuse prevention --
Resilience and primary prevention efforts --
Measuring success in a substance-abuse prevention program --
A matter of public health --
The Public Health Model and the analogy of infectious disease control --
Dr. A. Thomas McLellan: reframing National Drug Policy --
Lessons from the past: prevention approaches that have failed --
Reducing the availability of drugs --
Punitive measures --
Scare tactics and negative education --
Objective information approaches --
Magic bullets and promotional campaigns --
Self-esteem enhancement and affective education --
Hope and promise: components of effective school-based prevention programs --
Peer-refusal skills --
Anxiety and stress reduction --
Social skills and personal decision making --
An example of an effective school-based prevention program --
Peer-refusal skills: ten ways to make it easier to say no --
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) --
Understanding primary prevention and education --
Community-based prevention programs --
Alternative-behavior programming --
The influence of media --
Family systems in primary and secondary prevention --
Special role models in substance-abuse prevention --
Parental communication in substance-abuse prevention --
The triple threat: stress, boredom and spending money --
Multicultural issues in primary and secondary prevention --
Prevention approaches in Latino communities --
Prevention approaches in African American communities --
Substance-abuse prevention in the workplace --
The economic costs of substance abuse in the workplace --
Drug testing in the workplace --
The impact of drug-free workplace policies --
Substance-abuse prevention and the college student --
Changing the culture of alcohol and other drug use in college --
Substance-abuse prevention on college campuses --
Alcohol 101 on college campuses --
Substance-abuse prevention information --
Should we DARE or shouldn't we? --
17. Substance-abuse treatment: strategies for change --
Designing effective substance-abuse treatment programs --
the biopsychosocial model for substance-abuse treatment --
Intervention through incarceration and other punitive measures --
Substance-abuse treatment and law enforcement --
Penalties for crack versus penalties for powder cocaine: correcting an injustice --
Prison-alternative treatment programs --
Prison-based treatment programs --
Monsignor William O'Brien: founder of Daytop Village --
Substance-abuse treatment in the workplace --
The personal journey to treatment and recovery --
Rehabilitation and the stages of change --
Understanding the stages of change in substance-abuse treatment --
The impact of family systems on treatment and recovery --
Family dynamics in drug abuse --
Coping with a child's abuse of alcohol or other drugs: what parents should or should not do --
Enabling behaviors as obstacles to rehabilitation --
Survival roles and coping mechanisms --
Resistance at the beginning, support along the way --
Finding the right substance-abuse treatment program --
Judging the quality of the treatment facility --
Principles to maximize the chances of successful treatment --
Needing versus receiving substance-abuse treatment.
Other Titles: Drugs, behavior, & modern society
Responsibility: Charles F. Levinthal.

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    schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/108872717> ; # Charles F. Levinthal
    schema:datePublished "2012" ;
    schema:description "pt. V: Medicinal drugs -- 14. Prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and dietary supplements -- The history of prescription drug regulations -- Procedures for approving prescription drugs -- Phases of clinical testing for prescription drugs -- Patents and generic forms of prescription drugs -- Speeding up the FDA approval process -- Procedures for approving OTC drugs -- Bioequivalence, bioavailability and generic drugs -- Understanding the FDA approval process -- Are FDA-approved drugs safe? -- The issue of speed versus caution -- Patterns of prescription drug misuse -- The potential for death by prescription error -- Unintentional drug misuse through prescription errors -- Patterns of prescription drug abuse -- Major OTC analgesic drugs -- Aspirin -- Acetaminophen -- Ibuprofen -- Naproxen -- OTC analgesic drugs and attempted suicide -- Understanding OTC analgesic drugs -- Sleep aids -- Cough-and-cold remedies -- The pharmaceutical industry today -- Dietary supplements -- Ryan Haight and the Ryan Haight Act of 2008 -- What we know about nine herbal supplements -- Should prescription drugs be advertised to the general public? -- 15. Drugs for treating schizophrenia and mood disorders -- The biomedical model -- Antipsychotic drugs and schizophrenia -- The symptoms of schizophrenia -- The early days of antipsychotic drug treatment -- Mercury poisoning: on being mad as a hatter -- Antipsychotic drug treatment -- Antipsychotic drugs -- Effects of antipsychotic drugs on the brain -- Drugs use to treat depression -- The melancholy president: Abraham Lincoln, depression, and those "little blue pills" -- Antidepressant drugs -- SSRI antidepressants and elevated risk of suicide among children and adolescents -- Effects of antidepressant drugs on the brain -- The effectiveness of specific antidepressant drugs -- Drugs for other types of mental disorders -- Mania and bipolar disorder -- Understanding the biochemistry of mental illness -- Autism -- Off-label usage of psychotropic medications -- Psychiatric drugs, social policy and deinstitutionalization -- Psychiatric drugs and the Civil Liberties Debate."@en ;
    schema:description "pt. II: Legally restricted drugs in our society -- 4. The major stimulants: cocaine and amphetamines -- The history of cocaine -- Cocaine in Nineteenth Century life -- Cocaine after alcohol: the risk of cocaethylene toxicity -- Freud and cocaine -- What happened to the Coca in Coca-cola? -- Understanding the history of cocaine -- Acute effects of cocaine -- Chronic effects of cocaine -- The physical signs of possible cocaine abuse -- Medical uses of cocaine -- How cocaine works in the brain -- Present-day cocaine abuse -- From coca to cocaine -- From cocaine to crack -- Patterns of cocaine abuse -- Treatment programs for cocaine abuse -- Paco: a cheap new form of cocaine floods Argentine slums and beyond -- Robert Downey Jr.: cleaning up his life after cocaine -- Amphetamines -- The different forms of amphetamines -- Crack babies revisited: what are the effects? -- The history of amphetamines -- How amphetamines work in the brain -- Acute effects of amphetamines -- Chronic effects of amphetamines -- Methamphetamine abuse -- Present-day patterns of methamphetamine abuse -- Methamphetamine across America -- Methamphetamine-abuse treatment -- Understanding patterns of cocaine and methamphetamine abuse -- Medical uses for amphetamines and similar stimulant drugs -- Stimulant medications for ADHD -- Ritalin and adderall abuse -- Stimulant medications as "smart pills" -- Should cognitive performance-enhancing drugs be used by healthy people? -- 5. Narcotics: opium, heroin, and synthetic opiates -- Opium in history -- The opium war -- Opium in Britain -- Opium in the United States -- Morphine and the advent of heroin -- Opiates and heroin in American Society -- Opiate use and abuse after 1914 -- Heroin abuse in the 1960s and 1970s -- Heroin and synthetic opiates since the 1980s -- Understanding the history of opiates -- Effects on the mind and the body -- How opiates work in the brain -- Patterns of heroin abuse -- Tolerance and withdrawal symptoms -- The lethality of heroin abuse -- Understanding the effects of administering and withdrawing heroin -- Heroin abuse and society -- Treatment for heroin abuse -- Opiate detoxification -- Methadone maintenance -- Alternative maintenance programs -- Sustained-release buprenorphine: a new era in heroin-abuse treatment -- Behavioral and social-community programs -- Medical uses of opiate and opiate-related drugs -- Beneficial effects -- Potential adverse effects -- Misuse or abuse of prescription pain relievers -- Barry Tuttle and Russell Fitch: the two sides of OxyContin -- 6. LSD and other hallucinogens -- Classifying hallucinogens -- Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) -- Strange days in Salem: witchcraft or hallucinogens? -- The beginning of the Psychedelic Era -- Timothy Leary: whatever happened to him? -- Acute effects of LSD -- Effects of LSD on the brain -- Patterns of LSD use -- Facts and fiction about LSD -- Will LSD produce substance dependence? -- Will LSD produce a panic attack or psychotic behavior? -- Will LSD increase your creativity? -- Will LSD damage your chromosomes? -- Emergency guidelines for a bad trip on LSD -- Will LSD have residual (flashback) effects? -- Will LSD increase criminal or violent behavior? -- Psilocybin and other hallucinogens related to Serotonin -- Bufotenine and the Bufo toad -- Lysergic Acid Amide (LAA) -- Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) -- Harmine -- Hallucinogens related to Norepinephrine -- Present-day Peyotism and the Native American Church -- DOM -- MDMA (Ecstasy) -- MDMA toxicity: the other side of Ecstasy -- Hallucinogens related to Acetylcholine -- Amanita muscaria -- The Hexing drugs and witchcraft -- Phencyclidine (PCP) -- Acute effects of PCP -- Understanding the diversity of hallucinogens -- Patterns of PCP abuse -- Ketamine -- Understanding PCP -- Salvia divinorum -- 7. Marijuana -- The history marijuana and hashish -- Hashish in the Nineteenth Century -- Marijuana and hashish in the Twentieth Century -- The Anti-marijuana Crusade -- Challenging old ideas about marijuana -- Acute effects of marijuana -- Acute physiological effects -- Acute psychological and behavioral effects -- Understanding the effects of marijuana -- Effects of marijuana on the brain -- Chronic effects of marijuana -- Tolerance -- Withdrawal and dependence -- Cardiovascular effects -- Respiratory effects and the risk of cancer -- Effects on the immune system -- Effects on sexual functioning and reproduction -- Long-term cognitive effects and amotivational syndrome -- The Gateway Hypothesis -- The sequencing question -- The association question -- The causation question -- Understanding the adverse effects of chronic marijuana abuse -- Patterns of marijuana smoking -- Current trends as causes for concern -- Street language for marijuana -- Medical marijuana -- Nausea and weight loss -- Angel McClary Raich, medical marijuana, and the Raich v. Ashcroft decision -- The medical marijuana controversy -- The issues of decriminalization and legalization."@en ;
    schema:description "pt. IV: Enhancers and depressants -- 12. Performance-enhancing drugs and drug testing in sports -- Drug-taking behavior in sports -- What are anabolic steroids? -- Anabolic steroids at the modern Olympic Games -- anabolic steroids in professional and collegiate sports -- Gene doping: disqualified by your DNA -- Performance-enhancing drug abuse and baseball -- The hazards of anabolic steroids -- Suspension penalties for performance-enhancing drug use in sports -- Effects on other systems of the body -- Psychological problems -- Special problems for adolescents -- Understanding the effects of anabolic steroids -- Patterns off anabolic steroid abuse -- The potential for steroid dependence -- The symptoms of steroid abuse -- Counterfeit steroids and the placebo effect -- Nonsteroid hormones and performance-enhancing supplements -- Human Growth Hormone -- Dietary supplements as performance-enhancing aids -- Nonmedical use of stimulant medication in baseball -- Current drug-testing procedures and policies -- The forensics of drug testing -- THG and the war on performance-enhancing drugs -- Sensitivity and specificity -- Masking drugs and chemical manipulations -- Pinpointing the time of drug use -- Understanding drug testing -- The social context of performance-enhancing drugs -- 13. Depressants and inhalants -- Barbiturates -- Is there any truth in "truth serum"? -- Chronic effects of barbiturates -- Current medical uses of barbiturates -- Patterns of barbiturate abuse -- Nonbarbiturate sedative-hypnotics --The development of antianxiety drugs -- Benzodiazepines -- Medical uses of Benzodiazepines -- Acute effects of benzodiazepines -- Chronic effects of benzodiazepines -- How benzodiazepines work in the brain -- Patterns of benzodiazepine misuse and abuse -- The dangers of rohypnol as a date-rape drug -- Nonbenzodiazepine depressants -- Zolpidem and eszopiclone -- Buspirone -- Beta blockers -- Antidepressants -- The risks of GHB -- Patricia White, GHB, and the "perfect" crime -- Understanding the abuse potential in drugs -- Protective strategies for women -- Inhalants through history -- Nitrous oxide -- Ether -- Glue, solvent, and aerosol inhalation -- The abuse potential of inhalants -- Acute effects of glues, solvents, and aerosols -- The dangers of inhalant abuse -- The signs of possible inhalant abuse -- Ristol and resistoleros in Latin America -- The dependence potential of chronic inhalant abuse -- A gateway for future substance abuse? -- Responses of society to inhalant abuse -- Understanding the history of inhalants."@en ;
    schema:description "pt. III: Legal drugs in our society -- 8. Alcohol: social beverage / social drug -- What makes an alcoholic beverage? -- Alcohol use through history -- Alcohol in Nineteenth Century America -- The rise of the Temperance Movement -- The road to National Prohibition -- The beginning and ending of a "noble experiment" -- Present-day alcohol regulation by taxation -- Patterns of alcohol consumption today -- Multiple ways of getting a standard drink -- Visualizing the pattern of alcohol consumption in the United States -- Understanding alcoholic beverages -- The pharmacology of alcohol -- The breakdown and elimination of alcohol -- Measuring alcohol in the blood -- Gender, race, and medication: factors in alcohol metabolism -- Effects of alcohol on the brain -- Acute physiological effects -- Toxic reactions -- Emergency signs and procedure in acute alcohol intoxication -- Heat loss and the Saint Bernard myth -- Diuretic effects -- Effects on sleep -- Effects on pregnancy -- Interactions with other drugs -- Acute behavioral effects -- Blackouts -- Driving skills -- Preventing alcohol-related traffic fatalities -- Candace Lightner: founder of MADD -- Alcohol, violence, and aggression -- Alcohol, security, and spectator sports -- Sex and sexual drive -- Caffeine, alcohol, and the dangers of caffeinated alcoholic drinks -- Alcohol and health benefits -- Understanding the data from Balanced Placebo Designs -- Strategies for responsible drinking -- 9. Chronic alcohol abuse and alcoholism -- Problems associated with a preoccupation with drinking -- Emotional problems -- Vocational, social and family problems -- Physical problems -- A Self-Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST) -- Denial and enabling -- Understanding the psychology of alcoholism -- Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence: the health professional's perspective -- Physiological effects of chronic alcohol use -- Tolerance and withdrawal -- Liver disease -- Cardiovascular problems -- Cancer -- Dementia and Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome -- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) -- The TWEAK alcoholism screening instrument for pregnant women -- Patterns of chronic alcohol abuse -- The demographics of alcoholism -- Alcohol abuse among the elderly -- The family dynamics of alcoholism: a systems approach -- Children of an alcoholic parent or parents -- The genetics of alcoholism -- The concept of alcoholism as a disease -- Approaches to treatment for alcoholism -- Biologically based treatments -- Bill W. and Dr. Bob: founders of Alcoholics Anonymous -- Is controlled drinking possible for alcoholics? -- The non-disease model of alcoholism and other patterns of drug abuse -- Understanding Alcoholics Anonymous -- SMART recovery -- Chronic alcohol abuse and alcoholism in the workplace -- Should alcoholism be viewed as a disease? -- 10. Nicotine and tobacco use -- Tobacco use through history -- Politics, economics and tobacco -- Snuffing and chewing -- Cigars and cigarettes -- Tobacco in the Twentieth Century -- Health concerns and smoking behavior -- African Americans, smoking and mentholated cigarettes -- Tobacco today: an industry on the defensive -- The Tobacco Settlement of 1998 -- The Tobacco Control Act of 2009 -- Tobacco regulation and global economics -- What's in tobacco? -- Carbon monoxide -- Tar -- Nicotine -- The dependence potential of nicotine -- The titration hypothesis of nicotine dependence -- Tolerance and withdrawal -- Health consequences of tobacco use -- Visualizing 4000,000 to 440,000 annual tobacco-related deaths -- Cardiovascular disease -- Respiratory diseases -- Lung cancer -- Other cancers -- Special health concerns for women -- Signs of trouble from smokeless tobacco -- The hazards of environmental smoke -- Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking -- Patterns of smoking behavior and use of smokeless tobacco -- The youngest smokers -- Attitudes toward smoking among young people -- Smokeless tobacco -- Cigars -- Tobacco use around the world -- Sigmund Freud: nicotine dependence, cigars, and cancer -- Quit smoking: the good news and the bad -- The good: undoing the damage -- The bad: how hard it is to quit -- Ten tips on how to succeed when trying to quit smoking -- Nicotine gums, patches, sprays, and inhalers -- The role of physicians in smoking cessation -- 11. Caffeine -- Coffee in Britain and North America -- Major sources of coffee -- The caffeine content in coffee -- Why there are no (live) flies in you coffee -- Tea in Britain and North America -- The chemical content in tea -- Chocolate -- Chocolate, flavonoids, and a healthy heart -- How chocolate is made -- The chocolate industry today -- Milton S. Hershey and the town built on chocolate -- The xanthine content in chocolate -- Soft drinks -- Caffeine from OTC drugs and other products -- Understanding caffeine levels in foods and beverages -- Caffeine as a drug -- Effects of caffeine on the body -- Effects of caffeine on behavior -- Potential health benefits -- Potential health risks -- Cardiovascular effects -- Osteoporosis and bone fractures -- Coffee, genes and heart attacks -- Breast disease -- Effects during pregnancy and breastfeeding -- Panic attacks -- Dependence, acute toxicity, and medical applications -- Tolerance -- Withdrawal -- Craving -- Acute toxicity of caffeine -- Prescription drugs based on xanthines -- Kids and caffeine: a special concern -- Energy shots."@en ;
    schema:description "pt. I: Drugs in society / drugs in our lives -- 1. Drugs and behavior today -- What is a drug? -- Instrumental and recreational use of drugs -- Misuse and abuse of drugs -- Drug abuse and the college student -- Drugs in early times -- Drugs in the Nineteenth Century -- Drugs and behavior in the Twentieth Century -- Drugs and behavior from 1945 to 1960 -- Drugs and behavior after 1960 -- Understanding the history of drugs and behavior -- Present-day attitudes toward drugs -- Patterns of drug use in the United States -- Illicit drug use among high school seniors -- Illicit drug use among eighth graders and tenth graders -- Illicit drug use among adolescents, 1975-2009 -- Drug use among college students and young adults -- Patterns of alcohol use -- Patterns of tobacco use -- Drug attitudes and drug use -- Patterns of illicit drug use in adults aged twenty-six and older -- Understanding present-day drug use in the United States -- Why some individuals use drugs and others don't -- Specific risk factors -- Specific protective factors -- Club drugs -- Nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers -- Nonmedical use of prescription stimulant medications -- Nonmedical use of over-the-counter cough-and-cold medications -- Why drugs? -- 2. Drug-taking behavior: the personal and social concerns -- Drug toxicity -- Acute toxicity in the news: drug-related deaths -- Understanding does-response curves -- The DAWN reports -- Emergencies related to illicit drugs -- Drug-related deaths -- Judging drug toxicity from drug-related deaths -- Demographics and trends -- From acute toxicity to chronic toxicity -- Behavioral tolerance and drug overdose -- Understanding behavioral tolerance through conditioning -- Physical and psychological dependence -- Psychiatric definitions -- Drug abuse in pregnancy -- Drug abuse and HIV infection -- Effects of psychoactive drugs on pregnant women and newborns -- Drugs, violence, and crime -- Pharmacological violence -- Economically compulsive violence -- Systemic violence -- Governmental policy, regulation, and laws -- Efforts to regulate drugs, 1900-1970 --Harry J. Anslinger: America's first Drug Czar -- Rethinking the approach toward drug regulation, 1970-present -- Enforcement of drug laws on a global scale -- Harm reduction as a National Drug-abuse Policy -- Should we legalize drugs? -- 3. How drugs work in the bod and on the mind -- How drugs enter the body -- Oral administration -- Injection -- Inhalation -- Absorption through the skin or membranes -- How drugs exit the body -- Ways to take drugs: routes of administration -- Factors determining the behavioral impact of drugs -- Timing -- Drug interactions -- Understanding drug interactions -- Cross-tolerance and cross-dependence -- Adverse effects of drugs-drug and food-drug combinations -- Introducing the nervous system -- The peripheral nervous system -- Sympathetic and parasympathetic responses -- The central nervous system -- Understanding the brain -- The hindbrain -- The midbrain -- The forebrain -- Understanding drugs and brain functioning -- Understanding the biochemistry of psychoactive drugs -- Introducing neurons -- Synaptic communication -- The major neurotransmitters in brief: the big seven -- Physiological aspects of drug-taking behavior -- Endorphins in our lives: a psychosocial perspective -- The blood-brain barrier -- Biochemical processes underlying drug tolerance -- Understanding cross-tolerance and cross-dependence -- Physiological factors in psychological dependence -- Drug craving and the insula of the brain -- Psychological factors in drug-taking behavior -- Expectation effects -- Drug research procedures -- Nora D. Volkow: imaging the face of addiction in the brain."@en ;
    schema:description "pt. VI: Prevention and treatment -- 16. Substance-abuse prevention -- Levels of intervention in substance-abuse prevention -- Understanding levels of intervention in substance-abuse prevention programs -- Strategies for substance-abuse prevention -- Resilience and primary prevention efforts -- Measuring success in a substance-abuse prevention program -- A matter of public health -- The Public Health Model and the analogy of infectious disease control -- Dr. A. Thomas McLellan: reframing National Drug Policy -- Lessons from the past: prevention approaches that have failed -- Reducing the availability of drugs -- Punitive measures -- Scare tactics and negative education -- Objective information approaches -- Magic bullets and promotional campaigns -- Self-esteem enhancement and affective education -- Hope and promise: components of effective school-based prevention programs -- Peer-refusal skills -- Anxiety and stress reduction -- Social skills and personal decision making -- An example of an effective school-based prevention program -- Peer-refusal skills: ten ways to make it easier to say no -- Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) -- Understanding primary prevention and education -- Community-based prevention programs -- Alternative-behavior programming -- The influence of media -- Family systems in primary and secondary prevention -- Special role models in substance-abuse prevention -- Parental communication in substance-abuse prevention -- The triple threat: stress, boredom and spending money -- Multicultural issues in primary and secondary prevention -- Prevention approaches in Latino communities -- Prevention approaches in African American communities -- Substance-abuse prevention in the workplace -- The economic costs of substance abuse in the workplace -- Drug testing in the workplace -- The impact of drug-free workplace policies -- Substance-abuse prevention and the college student -- Changing the culture of alcohol and other drug use in college -- Substance-abuse prevention on college campuses -- Alcohol 101 on college campuses -- Substance-abuse prevention information -- Should we DARE or shouldn't we? -- 17. Substance-abuse treatment: strategies for change -- Designing effective substance-abuse treatment programs -- the biopsychosocial model for substance-abuse treatment -- Intervention through incarceration and other punitive measures -- Substance-abuse treatment and law enforcement -- Penalties for crack versus penalties for powder cocaine: correcting an injustice -- Prison-alternative treatment programs -- Prison-based treatment programs -- Monsignor William O'Brien: founder of Daytop Village -- Substance-abuse treatment in the workplace -- The personal journey to treatment and recovery -- Rehabilitation and the stages of change -- Understanding the stages of change in substance-abuse treatment -- The impact of family systems on treatment and recovery -- Family dynamics in drug abuse -- Coping with a child's abuse of alcohol or other drugs: what parents should or should not do -- Enabling behaviors as obstacles to rehabilitation -- Survival roles and coping mechanisms -- Resistance at the beginning, support along the way -- Finding the right substance-abuse treatment program -- Judging the quality of the treatment facility -- Principles to maximize the chances of successful treatment -- Needing versus receiving substance-abuse treatment."@en ;
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