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|ISBN:||0071198768 9780071198769 0072476907 9780072476903 007282574X 9780072825749|
|Description:||xi, 218 p. ; 22 cm.|
|Contents:||Preface About the Fourth Edition CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS MORALITY? The Problem of Definition First Example: Baby Theresa Second Example: Jodie and Mary Third Example: Tracy Latimer Reason and Impartiality The Minimum Conception of Morality CHAPTER 2: THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM How Different Societies Have Different Moral Codes Cultural Relativism The Cultural Differences Argument The Consequences of Taking Cultural Relativism Seriously Why There is Less Disagreement than it Seems How All Cultures Have Some Values in Common Judging a Cultural Practice to be Undesirable What Can be Learned from Cultural Relativism CHAPTER 3: SUBJECTIVISM IN ETHICS The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism The Evolution of the Theory The First Stage: Simple Subjectivism The Second Stage: Emotivism Are There Any Moral Facts? Are There Proofs in Ethics? The Question of Homosexuality CHAPTER 4: DOES MORALITY DEPEND ON RELIGION? The Presumed Connection Between Morality and Religion The Divine Command Theory The Theory of Natural Law Religion and Particular Moral Issues CHAPTER 5: PSYCHOLOLOGICAL EGOISM Is Unselfishness Possible? The Strategy of Reinterpreting Motives Two Arguments in Favor of Psychological Egoism Clearing Away Some Confusions The Deepest Error in Psychological Egoism CHAPTER 6: ETHICAL EGOISM Is There a Duty to Help Starving People? Three Arguments in Favor of Ethical Egoism Three Arguments Against Ethical Egoism CHAPTER 7: THE UTILITARIAN APPROACH The Revolution in Ethics First Example: Euthanasia Second Example: Nonhuman Animals CHAPTER 8: THE DEBATE OVER UTILITARIANISM The Classical Version of the Theory Is Happiness the Only Thing That Matters? Are Consequences All That Matter? Should We be Equally Concerned for Everyone? The Defense of Utilitarianism CHAPTER 9: ARE THERE ANY ABSOLUTE MORAL RULES? Harry Truman and Elizabeth Anscombe The Categorical Imperative Absolute Rules and the Duty Not to Lie Conflicts Between Rules Another Look at Kant's Basic Idea CHAPTER 10: KANT AND RESPECT FOR PERSONS The Idea of Human Dignity Retribution and Utility in the Theory of Punishment Kant's Retributivism CHAPTER 11: THE IDEA OF A SOCIAL CONTRACT Hobbes's Argument The Prisoner's Dilemma Some Advantages of the Social Contract Theory of Morals The Problem of Civil Disobedience CHAPTER 12: FEMINISM AND THE ETHICS OF CARE Do Women and Men Think Differently About Ethics? Implications for Moral Judgment Implications for Ethical Theory CHAPTER 13: THE ETHICS OF VIRTUE The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action The Virtues Some Advantages of Virtue Ethics The Problem of Incompleteness CHAPTER 14: WHAT WOULD A SATISFACTORY MORAL THEORY BE LIKE? Morality Without Hubris Treating People as They Deserve and Other Motives Multiple-Strategies Utilitarianism The Moral Community Justice and Fairness Conclusion Suggestions for Further Reading Notes on Sources Index|