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Elgar encyclopedia of international economic law

Author: Thomas Cottier; Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
Publisher: Cheltenham, Glos, UK : Edward Elgar Publishing, [2017]
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The Encyclopedia is the definitive reference work on international economic law. This comprehensive resource helps redefine the field by presenting international economic law in its broadest, real-world context. Organized thematically rather than alphabetically, the subject is split into four principal sections: the foundations and architecture of international economic law, its principles, its main regulatory  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Encyclopedias
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Elgar encyclopedia of international economic law.
Cheltenham, UK : Edward Elgar Publishing, [2017]
(DLC) 2017939835
(OCoLC)987684951
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Thomas Cottier; Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
ISBN: 9781784713546 1784713546
OCLC Number: 1013715189
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: Part I: Foundations and architecture --
1.1 Subject matter of international economic law / Jeffrey L Dunoff --
1.2 Relationship of international economic law to other areas of public international law / Pierre-Marie Dupuy --
1.3 Relationship of international economic law to private international law / Jorun Baumgartner --
1.4 Relationship of international economic law to domestic law / Christian Tietje --
B. Foundational concepts --
1.5 Rule of law in international economic relations / Andrew Lang --
1.6 Harnessing globalization and enhancing welfare / Jumoke Oduwole --
1.7 Combating protectionism and state failures / Todd Weiler --
1.8 Maintaining sovereignty and policy space / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer --
1.9 Fostering development / Frank J Garcia --
C. Historical perspective --
1.10 Mercantilism / Craig VanGrasstek --
I.11 Sovereignty / Craig VanGrasstek --
1.12 Bilateralism in international economic law / Meredith Kolsky Lewis --
1.13 Multilateralism in international economic law / Meredith Kolsky Lewis --
1.14 Plurilateralism in international economic law / Meredith Kolsky Lewis --
1.15 Towards mega-regionalism in international economic law / Peter-Tobias Stoll --
1.16 Globalization and multi-level governance / Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann --
D. Sources of law --
1.17 General principles of law in international economic law / Georges Abi-Saab --
1.18 Customary international law in international economic law / Patrick Dumberry --
1.19 Role of courts in international economic law / Eric de Brabandere --
1.20 Treaties and treaty interpretation in international economic law / Isabelle Van Damme --
1.21 Soft law in international economic law / Chris Brummer --
1.22 Networking and informal cooperation in international economic law / Jan Wouters --
1.23 Role of empirical research in international economic law / Anne Van Aaken --
E. Regulatory approaches --
1.24 The shift to non-tariff barriers and product regulation / Thomas Cottier and Jonas Baumann --
1.25 Minimum standards / Thomas Cottier and Jonas Baumann --
1.26 Harmonization / Thomas Cottier and Brigitta Imeli --
1.27 Equivalence and mutual recognition / Thomas Cottier and Brigitta Imeli --
1.28 Regulatory cooperation and concertation --
the example of TTIP negotiations / Thomas Cottier --
Part I Section II: Architecture --
1.29 Leadership and policy making in international economic law / Diane A Desierto --
1.30 The legal relationship of international organizations / Marina Foltea --
A. General, trade and investment related institutions --
1.31 World Trade Organization (WTO) / Gabrielle Marceau --
1.32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) / Kendra Magraw --
1.33 International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) / Stanimir A Alexandrov --
1.34 Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency(MIGA) / Julian M Powell --
1.35 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) / David Gaukrodger --
1.36 Group of Twenty (G-20) / Peter I Hajnal --
B. Monetary institutions --
1.37 International Monetary Fund (IMF) / Ben Thirkell-White --
1.38 Central banks / Gavin Bingham --
1.39 Bank of International Settlements (BIS) / Pierre Panchaud --
1.40 International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) / Johnny Chang Kuan-Chun --
1.41 International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) / Christoph B Bühler --
1.42 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) / Riccardo Sansonetti --
1.43 Financial Stability Board (FSB) / Eva Hüpkes --
1.44 Group of Seven (G-7)/ Group of Eight (G-8) / Peter I Hajnal --
1.45 Business Twenty (B-20) / Kathrin Betz --
C. International tax institutions --
1.46 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Tax policy networks / Allison Christians889 --
1.47 UN Tax Committee / Allison Christians --
1.48 EU Taxation and Customs Union Directorate-General / Allison Christians --
1.49 Group of 20 (role in tax) / Allison Christians --
1.50 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Commission on Taxation / Allison Christians --
1.51 International Fiscal Association (IFA) / Allison Christians --
D. Development institutions --
1.52 World Bank Group (WBG) / Mark S Ellis --
1.53 Regional Development Banks (IDB) / Suresh Nanwani --
1.54 International Trade Center (ITC) / Stephen Browne --
1.55 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer --
E. Intellectual property institutions --
1.56 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) / Holger Hestermeyer --
1.57 The European Patent Organization (EPO) / Felix Addor --
F. Energy institutions --
1.58 Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) / Kaj Hobér --
1.59 International Energy Agency (IEA) / Yulia Selivanova --
G. Standard-setting organizations --
1.60 International Standards Organization (ISO) / Olia Kanevskaia --
1.61 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / Olia Kanevskaia --
1.62 International Telecommunications Union (ITU) / Olia Kanevskaia --
H. Institutions related to international economic law --
1.63 International Labour Organization (ILO) / François Maupain and Marialaura Fino --
1.64 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO) / Xuan Li --
1.65 World Health Organization (WHO) / Benn D McGrady --
1.66 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / Julian M Powell --
1.67 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) / Stephan Hobe --
Part II --
Principles --
Part II Section I --
Non-discrimination in trade of goods and services / A. Most-Favoured Nation Treatment (MFN) --
2.1 The principle of most favoured nation treatment / Armand de Mestral --
2.2 Unconditional MFN / William J Davey --
2.3 Conditional MFN / William J Davey --
2.4 Regional integration and preferential trade / Thomas Cottier and Lothar Ehring --
2.5 Special and differential treatment / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser --
2.6 Enabling clause / Christian Häberli --
2.7 Graduation / Arthur E Appleton --
2.8 Implied departures from MFN and differential treatment / Thomas Cottier --
B. National treatment --
2.9 Different functions in goods and services / Nicolas F Diebold --
2.10 Comparability in international economic law / Nicolas F Diebold --
2.11 Comparability in IEL: goods / Kateryna Holzer --
2.12 Comparability in IEL: Services / Nicolas F Diebold --
2.13 Process and Production Methods (PPMs) / Kateryna Holzer --
2.14 Less Favourable Treatment / Lothar Ehring --
2.15 Standard of Review / Petros C Mavroidis --
Part II Section II Non-Discrimination on Foreign Direct investment --
2.16 Most-favoured nation treatment in investment law / Piero Bernardini --
2.17 National treatment in investment law / Andrea K Bjorklund --
Part II Section III --
Minimum standards in investment law --
2.18 Non-arbitrariness / Federico Ortino --
2.19 Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) / Martins Paparinskis --
2.20 Full protection and security / J Anthony VanDuzer --
Part II Section IV --
Transparency and good governance --
A. Transparency --
2.21 State transparency / Stephan W Schill and Felix Boos --
2.22 Transparency in international institutions / Luis Miguel Hinojosa Martínez --
2.23 Transparency in dispute settlement / Maxi C Scherer and Dimitrij Euler --
B. Good governance --
2.24 Democracy and minority rights / Philippe Coppens --
2.25 Corruption / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer --
Part II Section V Protecting domestic policy space --
2.26 Balancing a diversity of interests / Jonathan Gass --
2.27 Implementing domestic law / Amelia Porges --
A. Recognised policies protecting domestic policy space --
2.28 Public morals / Robert Howse --
2.29 Environmental protection / Lorenzo Cotula --
2.30 Public health / Lawrence O Gostin --
2.31 Culture / Valentina Vadi --
2.32 Human rights / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer --
2.33 Labour protection / Drusilla Brown --
2.34 Financial stability / Nina Reiser --
2.35 National security / Henri Culot --
2.36 Development / Celine Tan --
B. Specific exemptions in trade law protecting domestic policy space --
2.37 Article XX GATT, Art XIV GATS / Peter Van den Bossche --
2.38 Safeguards / Yong-Shik Lee --
2.39 Waivers / Isabel Feichtner --
2.40 Derogations and exceptions in other WTO instruments / Marie Wilke --
E. Specific exceptions in investment law protecting domestic policy space --
2.41 Specific exceptions in investment law protecting policy space / Jarrod Hepburn --
Part II Section VI Adjudication and enforcement --
A. The role of the domestic courts --
2.42 Direct effect of international agreements / Matthias Oesch --
2.43 Fork-in-the-road provisions / August Reinisch --
B. Basic principles of international dispute settlement --
2.44 Pacta sunt servanda / Freya Baetens --
2.45 State responsibility / Freya Baetens --
2.46 Choice of international forum / Rodrigo Polanco --
C. International court of justice --
2.47 International court of justice / Robert Kolb --
D. WTO Dispute settlement understanding --
2.48 DSU: Jurisdiction and procedures / Daniel C Crosby --
2.49 DSU: appeals / Daniel C Crosby --
2.50 DSU: Implementation stage procedures / Valerie Hughes --
2.51 DSU: remedies / Valerie Hughes --
E. Investment arbitration fora --
2.52 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) / Brooks W Daly and Judith Levine --
2.53 ICC International Court of Arbitration / Galina Zukova --
2.54 Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC) / Joel Dahlquist Cullborg --
2.55 London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) / Baiju S Vasani --
2.56 Ad hoc investment arbitration / Ucheora Onwuamaegbu --
F. Procedural aspects --
2.57Jurisdiction in international arbitration / Jan Paulsson --
2.58 Admissibility in international arbitration / Veijo Heiskanen --
2.59 Working procedures in international arbitration / Jonathan Gass --
2.60 Implementation and enforcement in international arbitration / Stephan Wilske and Chloë Edworthy --
2.61 International arbitrator ethics / Catherine A Rogers --
G. Resistance to arbitration --
2.62 Resistance to arbitration / Lise Johnson --
H. Other forms of enforcement --
2.63 Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TRPM) / Mathias Kende --
2.64 Investor-state conflict management / Roberto Echandi and Mariana Hernandez Crespo Gonstead --
Part II Section VII Economic sanctions --
2.65 UN Security Council Resolutions in international economic law / Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Euijin Jung --
2.66 Targeted sanctions in international economic law / Marcos Tourinho --
2.67 Unilateral sanctions in international economic law / Henri Culot --
2.68 Reconciling trade sanctions and awards in commercial arbitration / Shaheeza Lalani and Mansur Pour Rafsendjani --
Part III --
Main regulatory areas --
A. Market access: customs regulation --
3.1 Harmonised system and schedules of concession / Davide Rovetta --
3.2 Modes of multilateral tariff negotiations / Claudio Dordi --
3.3 Impact of free trade agreements and customs unions / Claudio Dordi --
3.4 The international law of customs: customs valuation / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta --
3.5 The international law of customs: Rules of Origin (RoO) / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta --
3.6 The international law of customs: trade facilitation / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta --
3.7 The international law of customs: preshipment inspection / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta --
3.8 Taxation and border tax adjustment / Claudio Dordi --
B. Market access: quantitative restrictions in goods and services --
3.9 Quotas and import licensing / Ilaria Espa --
3.10 Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and Orderly Marketing Arrangements (OMAs) / Meredith Kolsky Lewis --
3.11 Export restrictions / Ilaria Espa --
3.12 Quantitative restrictions in services / Panagiotis Delimatsis --
3.13 Counterfeiting and piracy / Bryan Mercurio --
3.14 Exhaustion of rights and parallel importation in intellectual property / Jayashree Watal --
3.15 The impact of preferential trade agreements / Frederick M Abbott --
3.16 Investment barriers-to-entry / Wolfgang Alschner --
C Trade remedies and countervailing duties --
3.17 Rules on safeguard measures / Fernando Piérola and Nathalie Diaz --
3.18 Rules on anti-dumping measures / James D Nedumpara --
3.19 Rules on subsidies / Luca Rubini --
3.20 Anti-dumping and preferential trade agreements / Gary Horlick and Margaret J Spicer --
Part III Section II Domestic regulation (behind the borders) --
A. Impact of domestic regulation on trade in goods, services and on investment --
3.21 Rules relating to goods / Thomas Cottier --
3.22 Rules on domestic regulation relating to services / Panagiotis Delimatsis --
3.23 Rules relating to intellectual property / Thomas Cottier --
3.24 Rules relating to investment / Peter Muchlinski --
3.25 The impact of labour standards / Franziska Humbert --
B. Harmonization, equivalence and mutual recognition --
3.26 Regulatory barriers to trade: regulations and standards / Arthur E Appleton --
3.27 Regulatory barriers to trade: private standards / Philipp Aerni --
3.28 Sanitary and phytosanitary measures / Joanne Scott and Lukasz Gruszczynski --
3.29 Impact of preferential trade agreements on regulation and standards / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser --
3.30 Harmonization and mutual recognition in services: GATS (Article VII) / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser --
Part III Section III Trades in services and specific sectors A. WTO commitments --
3.31 Trade in services in the WTO --
General Rules / Panagiotis Delimatsis --
3.32 Trade in services in the WTO --
Specific commitments / Panagiotis Delimatsis --
B. Preferential trade in services agreements --
3.33 Trade in services: preferential trade agreements / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser --
3.34 The Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) / Pierre Sauvé --
C. Specific sectors --
3.35 Business services / Dale Honeck --
3.36 Communication services / Mira Burri --
3.37 Distribution services / Joscelyn Magdeleine --
3.38 Educational services / Antoni Verger and Xavier Bonal --
3.39 Environmental services / Mireille Cossy --
3.40 Energy services / Olga Nartova --
3.41 Financial services / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer --
3.42 Health services / Anna Lanoszka --
3.43 Recreation, cultural and sporting services / Véronique Guèvremont --
3.44 Air transport services / Antonia Carzaniga --
3.45 Maritime transport services / Antonia Carzaniga --
3.46 Land transport services / Antonia Carzaniga --
Part III Section IV Government procurement --
A. The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) --
3.47 Thresholds and non-discrimination under the GPA / Mintewab Gebre Woldesenbet --
3.48 Procedures under the GPA / Robert D Anderson and Caroline Mller --
3.49 The 2012 revision of the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) / Marc Steiner --
B. Government procurement in preferential trade agreements --
3.50 Government procurement in preferential trade agreements / Maria Anna Corvaglia --
Part III Section V Sectorial Agreements --
3.51 The WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) / Christian Häberli --
3.52 The decision on LLDCs and food importing developing countries (NFIDC) / Christian Häberli --
3.53 The agreement on trade in civil aircraft / Luca Rubini --
Part III Section VI Competition law and policy --
3.54 Relationship of competition law to trade and investment rules / Robert T Anderson and Anna Caroline Muller --
3.55 Protection of unfair competition and of consumers / Thomas Cottier --
3.56 Anti-trust rules / Marek Martyniszyn --
3.57 Anti-trust rules in domestic jurisdiction / Thomas Cottier --
3.58 International Competition Network (ICN) / Mitsuo Matsushita --
3.59 The role of the WTO in competition policy / Mitsuo Matsushita --
3.60 Impact of preferential trade agreements on competition law and policy / Robert D Anderson and Anna Caroline Mller --
3.61 The role of the OECD in competition policy / Robert D Anderson and Nivedita Sen --
3.62 The role of UNCTAD in competition law and policy / Marek Martyniszyn --
3.63 Anti-trust, human rights and development / Marek Martyniszyn --
Part III Section VII Labour Mobility --
A. 3.64 A legacy of fragmentation in migration, trade and investment law / Idil Atak and François Crépeau --
3.65 International fora on cooperation in migration / Elisa Fornalé --
B. Mode 4 commitments --
3.66 Mode 4 commitments in GATS / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser --
3.67 Mode 4 commitments in PTAs / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser --
3.68 Readmission and cooperation agreements / Rosa Maria Losada --
Part III Section VI I Tax law as an issue of international economic law --
3.69 The importance of tax in international economic law / Allison Christians --
3.70 National sovereignty and taxation / Wolfgang Schön --
3.71 Jurisdiction and impact of national treatment / Giedre Lideikyte-Huber --
3.72 Tax evasion and mutual assistance/ Lynne Oats and Angharad Miller --
Part III Section IX The protection of property --
A. Property rights --
3.73 Property rights, legal security and development / Thomas Cottier --
B. Intellectual property protection --
3.74 Goals, principles and minimum standards of protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) / Frederick M Abbott --
3.75 The impact of preferential trade agreements on IPR protection / Bryan Mercurio --
3.76 Relation of IPRS to trade, investment and anti-trust rules / Beatriz Conde Gallego and Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan --
3.77 Fair use and compulsory licensing / Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan --
3.78 Specific concerns of developing countries in intellectual property rights / Carlos M Correa --
3.79 Toward ceilings and graduation of IP obligations / Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan --
C. Investment protection --
3.80 Coverage in investment protection / Andrew Mitchell and Jacky Mandelbaum --
3.81 Right to use and direct expropriation / Noah Rubins --
3.82 Indirect expropriation / Diego Brian Gosis --
Part III Section X Monetary and financial regulation --
A. Law and economics in monetary affairs --
3.83 Allocation of powers and jurisdiction in monetary law / Rosa Maria Lastra --
3.84 The role of law in monetary policies / Rosa Maria Lastra --
B. Monetary policies and international economic law --
3.85 The role of the International monetary fund / R Michael Gadbaw --
3.86 The role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in monetary affairs / R Michael Gadbaw --
C. Financial regulation --
3.87 International standards / Eva Hpkes --
3.88 Banking core principles / Xavier-Yves Zanota --
3.89 Insurance core principles / Rekha Oleschak-Pillai --
3.90 Standards for market actors / Rashid Bahar --
Part IV : Cross-cutting challenges --
Part IV Section I Integrating domestic and international economic law --
4.1 Multi-level governance and public goods / Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann --
4.2 The role of vertically shared principles / Thomas Cottier --
4.3 The role of lawyers, courts and legal education / Thomas Cottier --
4.4 Graduation of rights and obligations in future agreements: towards progressive regulation / Thomas Cottier --
Part IV Section II International economic law and the private sector --
4.5 Corporations' responsibility in international law / Karin Buhmann --
4.6 Corporate codes of conduct / Karin Buhmann --
4.7 Role of lobbies and associations / Cristián Rodriguez Chiffelle and Nicole Graugnard --
4.8 Delegated regulations: normalization / Simon Brinsmead --
Part IV Section III Global value chains --
4.9 Linking goods and services in the value chain / Marina Foltea --
4.10 Regulatory implications and challenges of global value chains / Marina Foltea --
Part IV Section IV Combating poverty --
4.11 Aid for trade initiative / Jean-Jacques Hallaert --
4.12 Technology transfer / Jeffery Atik --
4.13 IMF facilities / Annamaria Viterbo --
4.14 Microfinance / Beatriz Armendáriz --
4.15 Debt relief / Karen Halverson Cross --
4.16 Sovereign debt / Giuseppe Bianco --
4.17 Stimulating the private sector / Philippe Aerni --
Part IV Section V International economic law and sustainable development --
4.18 The principles of precaution and sustainability / Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and Makane Mbengue --
4.19 The role of environmental processes and production methods / Kateryna Holzer --
4.20 Climate change mitigation and renewable energy / Tetyana Payosova --
4.21 Soil as a common concern: toward disciplines on sustainable land management / Thomas Cottier and Elisabeth Brgi --
4.22 Environmental taxes / Alice Pirlot --
4.23 New disciplines on energy law / Ilaria Espa --
4.24 Trade, environment and the law of the sea / Judith Wehrli --
4.25 Integrating trade, investment and climate change / Rodrigo Polanco --
Part IV Section VI International economic law and human rights --
4.26 Property rights beyond foreign direct investment / Thomas Cottier and Elisabeth Brgi --
4.27 Land grabbing, human rights and land registration protection / Tomas Cottier and Elisabeth Brgi --
4.28 Right to water / Mariel Dimsey --
4.29 Trade in bulk water / Fitzgerald Temmerman --
4.30 Right to water: trade in virtual water and product standards / Fitzgerald Temmerman --
4.31 Right to electricity / Karolis Gudas --
4.32 Right to health / Tania Voon --
4.33 Right to access to medicines / Frederick M Abbott --
4.34 Right to adequate food / Bernard O'Connor --
4.35 Rights of women / Barnali Choudhury --
4.36 Rights of persons with disabilities / Caroline Hess-Klein --
4.37 Rights of indigenous peoples / Marie Wilke --
Index.
Responsibility: edited by Thomas Cottier, Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer, with Jonas Baumann, Brigitta Imeli, Julian Powell and Rebecca Gilgen.

Abstract:

The Encyclopedia is the definitive reference work on international economic law. Thus, the concepts and rules of trade, investment, finance and international tax law are found alongside entries  Read more...

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    schema:description "Part III Section VII Labour Mobility -- A. 3.64 A legacy of fragmentation in migration, trade and investment law / Idil Atak and François Crépeau -- 3.65 International fora on cooperation in migration / Elisa Fornalé -- B. Mode 4 commitments -- 3.66 Mode 4 commitments in GATS / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser -- 3.67 Mode 4 commitments in PTAs / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser -- 3.68 Readmission and cooperation agreements / Rosa Maria Losada -- Part III Section VI I Tax law as an issue of international economic law -- 3.69 The importance of tax in international economic law / Allison Christians -- 3.70 National sovereignty and taxation / Wolfgang Schön -- 3.71 Jurisdiction and impact of national treatment / Giedre Lideikyte-Huber -- 3.72 Tax evasion and mutual assistance/ Lynne Oats and Angharad Miller -- Part III Section IX The protection of property -- A. Property rights -- 3.73 Property rights, legal security and development / Thomas Cottier -- B. Intellectual property protection -- 3.74 Goals, principles and minimum standards of protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) / Frederick M Abbott -- 3.75 The impact of preferential trade agreements on IPR protection / Bryan Mercurio -- 3.76 Relation of IPRS to trade, investment and anti-trust rules / Beatriz Conde Gallego and Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan -- 3.77 Fair use and compulsory licensing / Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan -- 3.78 Specific concerns of developing countries in intellectual property rights / Carlos M Correa -- 3.79 Toward ceilings and graduation of IP obligations / Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan -- C. Investment protection -- 3.80 Coverage in investment protection / Andrew Mitchell and Jacky Mandelbaum -- 3.81 Right to use and direct expropriation / Noah Rubins -- 3.82 Indirect expropriation / Diego Brian Gosis -- Part III Section X Monetary and financial regulation -- A. Law and economics in monetary affairs -- 3.83 Allocation of powers and jurisdiction in monetary law / Rosa Maria Lastra -- 3.84 The role of law in monetary policies / Rosa Maria Lastra -- B. Monetary policies and international economic law -- 3.85 The role of the International monetary fund / R Michael Gadbaw -- 3.86 The role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in monetary affairs / R Michael Gadbaw -- C. Financial regulation -- 3.87 International standards / Eva Hpkes -- 3.88 Banking core principles / Xavier-Yves Zanota -- 3.89 Insurance core principles / Rekha Oleschak-Pillai -- 3.90 Standards for market actors / Rashid Bahar --"@en ;
    schema:description "Part III -- Main regulatory areas -- A. Market access: customs regulation -- 3.1 Harmonised system and schedules of concession / Davide Rovetta -- 3.2 Modes of multilateral tariff negotiations / Claudio Dordi -- 3.3 Impact of free trade agreements and customs unions / Claudio Dordi -- 3.4 The international law of customs: customs valuation / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta -- 3.5 The international law of customs: Rules of Origin (RoO) / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta -- 3.6 The international law of customs: trade facilitation / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta -- 3.7 The international law of customs: preshipment inspection / Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta -- 3.8 Taxation and border tax adjustment / Claudio Dordi -- B. Market access: quantitative restrictions in goods and services -- 3.9 Quotas and import licensing / Ilaria Espa -- 3.10 Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and Orderly Marketing Arrangements (OMAs) / Meredith Kolsky Lewis -- 3.11 Export restrictions / Ilaria Espa -- 3.12 Quantitative restrictions in services / Panagiotis Delimatsis -- 3.13 Counterfeiting and piracy / Bryan Mercurio -- 3.14 Exhaustion of rights and parallel importation in intellectual property / Jayashree Watal -- 3.15 The impact of preferential trade agreements / Frederick M Abbott -- 3.16 Investment barriers-to-entry / Wolfgang Alschner -- C Trade remedies and countervailing duties -- 3.17 Rules on safeguard measures / Fernando Piérola and Nathalie Diaz -- 3.18 Rules on anti-dumping measures / James D Nedumpara -- 3.19 Rules on subsidies / Luca Rubini -- 3.20 Anti-dumping and preferential trade agreements / Gary Horlick and Margaret J Spicer -- Part III Section II Domestic regulation (behind the borders) -- A. Impact of domestic regulation on trade in goods, services and on investment -- 3.21 Rules relating to goods / Thomas Cottier -- 3.22 Rules on domestic regulation relating to services / Panagiotis Delimatsis -- 3.23 Rules relating to intellectual property / Thomas Cottier -- 3.24 Rules relating to investment / Peter Muchlinski -- 3.25 The impact of labour standards / Franziska Humbert -- B. Harmonization, equivalence and mutual recognition -- 3.26 Regulatory barriers to trade: regulations and standards / Arthur E Appleton -- 3.27 Regulatory barriers to trade: private standards / Philipp Aerni -- 3.28 Sanitary and phytosanitary measures / Joanne Scott and Lukasz Gruszczynski -- 3.29 Impact of preferential trade agreements on regulation and standards / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser -- 3.30 Harmonization and mutual recognition in services: GATS (Article VII) / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser -- Part III Section III Trades in services and specific sectors A. WTO commitments -- 3.31 Trade in services in the WTO -- General Rules / Panagiotis Delimatsis -- 3.32 Trade in services in the WTO -- Specific commitments / Panagiotis Delimatsis -- B. Preferential trade in services agreements -- 3.33 Trade in services: preferential trade agreements / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser -- 3.34 The Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) / Pierre Sauvé -- C. Specific sectors -- 3.35 Business services / Dale Honeck -- 3.36 Communication services / Mira Burri -- 3.37 Distribution services / Joscelyn Magdeleine -- 3.38 Educational services / Antoni Verger and Xavier Bonal -- 3.39 Environmental services / Mireille Cossy -- 3.40 Energy services / Olga Nartova -- 3.41 Financial services / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer -- 3.42 Health services / Anna Lanoszka -- 3.43 Recreation, cultural and sporting services / Véronique Guèvremont -- 3.44 Air transport services / Antonia Carzaniga -- 3.45 Maritime transport services / Antonia Carzaniga -- 3.46 Land transport services / Antonia Carzaniga -- Part III Section IV Government procurement -- A. The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) -- 3.47 Thresholds and non-discrimination under the GPA / Mintewab Gebre Woldesenbet -- 3.48 Procedures under the GPA / Robert D Anderson and Caroline Mller -- 3.49 The 2012 revision of the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) / Marc Steiner -- B. Government procurement in preferential trade agreements -- 3.50 Government procurement in preferential trade agreements / Maria Anna Corvaglia -- Part III Section V Sectorial Agreements -- 3.51 The WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) / Christian Häberli -- 3.52 The decision on LLDCs and food importing developing countries (NFIDC) / Christian Häberli -- 3.53 The agreement on trade in civil aircraft / Luca Rubini -- Part III Section VI Competition law and policy -- 3.54 Relationship of competition law to trade and investment rules / Robert T Anderson and Anna Caroline Muller -- 3.55 Protection of unfair competition and of consumers / Thomas Cottier -- 3.56 Anti-trust rules / Marek Martyniszyn -- 3.57 Anti-trust rules in domestic jurisdiction / Thomas Cottier -- 3.58 International Competition Network (ICN) / Mitsuo Matsushita -- 3.59 The role of the WTO in competition policy / Mitsuo Matsushita -- 3.60 Impact of preferential trade agreements on competition law and policy / Robert D Anderson and Anna Caroline Mller -- 3.61 The role of the OECD in competition policy / Robert D Anderson and Nivedita Sen -- 3.62 The role of UNCTAD in competition law and policy / Marek Martyniszyn -- 3.63 Anti-trust, human rights and development / Marek Martyniszyn --"@en ;
    schema:description "The Encyclopedia is the definitive reference work on international economic law. This comprehensive resource helps redefine the field by presenting international economic law in its broadest, real-world context. Organized thematically rather than alphabetically, the subject is split into four principal sections: the foundations and architecture of international economic law, its principles, its main regulatory areas, and the future challenges that it faces. Comprising over 250 entries written by leading scholars and practitioners, traditional international economic law subject matter is supplemented by coverage of newly developing areas. Thus, the concepts and rules of trade, investment, finance and international tax law are found alongside entries discussing the relationship of international economic law with environmental protection, social standards, development, and human rights. The concise entries present an accessible and condensed overview of each topic within its legal context. Contributors offer insight into how institutions interact with each other and other legal systems, in addition to providing individual overviews of their history, structure, principles and procedures. Selected references follow each entry, suggesting directions for further detailed exploration of the topic. This Encyclopedia is an invaluable resource for both practitioners and academics. It acts as a handy reference to all areas of international economic law, and provides the ideal starting point for any research journey. Key features: valuable reference tool for scholars, students and practitioners; organised thematically, covering newly developing areas of international economic law; concise, structured entries from the top experts in the field; selected references for further study."@en ;
    schema:description "Part II -- Principles -- Part II Section I -- Non-discrimination in trade of goods and services / A. Most-Favoured Nation Treatment (MFN) -- 2.1 The principle of most favoured nation treatment / Armand de Mestral -- 2.2 Unconditional MFN / William J Davey -- 2.3 Conditional MFN / William J Davey -- 2.4 Regional integration and preferential trade / Thomas Cottier and Lothar Ehring -- 2.5 Special and differential treatment / Charlotte Sieber-Gasser -- 2.6 Enabling clause / Christian Häberli -- 2.7 Graduation / Arthur E Appleton -- 2.8 Implied departures from MFN and differential treatment / Thomas Cottier -- B. National treatment -- 2.9 Different functions in goods and services / Nicolas F Diebold -- 2.10 Comparability in international economic law / Nicolas F Diebold -- 2.11 Comparability in IEL: goods / Kateryna Holzer -- 2.12 Comparability in IEL: Services / Nicolas F Diebold -- 2.13 Process and Production Methods (PPMs) / Kateryna Holzer -- 2.14 Less Favourable Treatment / Lothar Ehring -- 2.15 Standard of Review / Petros C Mavroidis -- Part II Section II Non-Discrimination on Foreign Direct investment -- 2.16 Most-favoured nation treatment in investment law / Piero Bernardini -- 2.17 National treatment in investment law / Andrea K Bjorklund -- Part II Section III -- Minimum standards in investment law -- 2.18 Non-arbitrariness / Federico Ortino -- 2.19 Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET) / Martins Paparinskis -- 2.20 Full protection and security / J Anthony VanDuzer -- Part II Section IV -- Transparency and good governance -- A. Transparency -- 2.21 State transparency / Stephan W Schill and Felix Boos -- 2.22 Transparency in international institutions / Luis Miguel Hinojosa Martínez -- 2.23 Transparency in dispute settlement / Maxi C Scherer and Dimitrij Euler -- B. Good governance -- 2.24 Democracy and minority rights / Philippe Coppens -- 2.25 Corruption / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer -- Part II Section V Protecting domestic policy space -- 2.26 Balancing a diversity of interests / Jonathan Gass -- 2.27 Implementing domestic law / Amelia Porges -- A. Recognised policies protecting domestic policy space -- 2.28 Public morals / Robert Howse -- 2.29 Environmental protection / Lorenzo Cotula -- 2.30 Public health / Lawrence O Gostin -- 2.31 Culture / Valentina Vadi -- 2.32 Human rights / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer -- 2.33 Labour protection / Drusilla Brown -- 2.34 Financial stability / Nina Reiser -- 2.35 National security / Henri Culot -- 2.36 Development / Celine Tan -- B. Specific exemptions in trade law protecting domestic policy space -- 2.37 Article XX GATT, Art XIV GATS / Peter Van den Bossche -- 2.38 Safeguards / Yong-Shik Lee -- 2.39 Waivers / Isabel Feichtner -- 2.40 Derogations and exceptions in other WTO instruments / Marie Wilke -- E. Specific exceptions in investment law protecting domestic policy space -- 2.41 Specific exceptions in investment law protecting policy space / Jarrod Hepburn -- Part II Section VI Adjudication and enforcement -- A. The role of the domestic courts -- 2.42 Direct effect of international agreements / Matthias Oesch -- 2.43 Fork-in-the-road provisions / August Reinisch -- B. Basic principles of international dispute settlement -- 2.44 Pacta sunt servanda / Freya Baetens -- 2.45 State responsibility / Freya Baetens -- 2.46 Choice of international forum / Rodrigo Polanco -- C. International court of justice -- 2.47 International court of justice / Robert Kolb -- D. WTO Dispute settlement understanding -- 2.48 DSU: Jurisdiction and procedures / Daniel C Crosby -- 2.49 DSU: appeals / Daniel C Crosby -- 2.50 DSU: Implementation stage procedures / Valerie Hughes -- 2.51 DSU: remedies / Valerie Hughes -- E. Investment arbitration fora -- 2.52 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) / Brooks W Daly and Judith Levine -- 2.53 ICC International Court of Arbitration / Galina Zukova -- 2.54 Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC) / Joel Dahlquist Cullborg -- 2.55 London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA) / Baiju S Vasani -- 2.56 Ad hoc investment arbitration / Ucheora Onwuamaegbu -- F. Procedural aspects -- 2.57Jurisdiction in international arbitration / Jan Paulsson -- 2.58 Admissibility in international arbitration / Veijo Heiskanen -- 2.59 Working procedures in international arbitration / Jonathan Gass -- 2.60 Implementation and enforcement in international arbitration / Stephan Wilske and Chloë Edworthy -- 2.61 International arbitrator ethics / Catherine A Rogers -- G. Resistance to arbitration -- 2.62 Resistance to arbitration / Lise Johnson -- H. Other forms of enforcement -- 2.63 Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TRPM) / Mathias Kende -- 2.64 Investor-state conflict management / Roberto Echandi and Mariana Hernandez Crespo Gonstead -- Part II Section VII Economic sanctions -- 2.65 UN Security Council Resolutions in international economic law / Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Euijin Jung -- 2.66 Targeted sanctions in international economic law / Marcos Tourinho -- 2.67 Unilateral sanctions in international economic law / Henri Culot -- 2.68 Reconciling trade sanctions and awards in commercial arbitration / Shaheeza Lalani and Mansur Pour Rafsendjani --"@en ;
    schema:description "Part IV : Cross-cutting challenges -- Part IV Section I Integrating domestic and international economic law -- 4.1 Multi-level governance and public goods / Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann -- 4.2 The role of vertically shared principles / Thomas Cottier -- 4.3 The role of lawyers, courts and legal education / Thomas Cottier -- 4.4 Graduation of rights and obligations in future agreements: towards progressive regulation / Thomas Cottier -- Part IV Section II International economic law and the private sector -- 4.5 Corporations' responsibility in international law / Karin Buhmann -- 4.6 Corporate codes of conduct / Karin Buhmann -- 4.7 Role of lobbies and associations / Cristián Rodriguez Chiffelle and Nicole Graugnard -- 4.8 Delegated regulations: normalization / Simon Brinsmead -- Part IV Section III Global value chains -- 4.9 Linking goods and services in the value chain / Marina Foltea -- 4.10 Regulatory implications and challenges of global value chains / Marina Foltea -- Part IV Section IV Combating poverty -- 4.11 Aid for trade initiative / Jean-Jacques Hallaert -- 4.12 Technology transfer / Jeffery Atik -- 4.13 IMF facilities / Annamaria Viterbo -- 4.14 Microfinance / Beatriz Armendáriz -- 4.15 Debt relief / Karen Halverson Cross -- 4.16 Sovereign debt / Giuseppe Bianco -- 4.17 Stimulating the private sector / Philippe Aerni -- Part IV Section V International economic law and sustainable development -- 4.18 The principles of precaution and sustainability / Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and Makane Mbengue -- 4.19 The role of environmental processes and production methods / Kateryna Holzer -- 4.20 Climate change mitigation and renewable energy / Tetyana Payosova -- 4.21 Soil as a common concern: toward disciplines on sustainable land management / Thomas Cottier and Elisabeth Brgi -- 4.22 Environmental taxes / Alice Pirlot -- 4.23 New disciplines on energy law / Ilaria Espa -- 4.24 Trade, environment and the law of the sea / Judith Wehrli -- 4.25 Integrating trade, investment and climate change / Rodrigo Polanco -- Part IV Section VI International economic law and human rights -- 4.26 Property rights beyond foreign direct investment / Thomas Cottier and Elisabeth Brgi -- 4.27 Land grabbing, human rights and land registration protection / Tomas Cottier and Elisabeth Brgi -- 4.28 Right to water / Mariel Dimsey -- 4.29 Trade in bulk water / Fitzgerald Temmerman -- 4.30 Right to water: trade in virtual water and product standards / Fitzgerald Temmerman -- 4.31 Right to electricity / Karolis Gudas -- 4.32 Right to health / Tania Voon -- 4.33 Right to access to medicines / Frederick M Abbott -- 4.34 Right to adequate food / Bernard O'Connor -- 4.35 Rights of women / Barnali Choudhury -- 4.36 Rights of persons with disabilities / Caroline Hess-Klein -- 4.37 Rights of indigenous peoples / Marie Wilke -- Index."@en ;
    schema:description "Part I: Foundations and architecture -- 1.1 Subject matter of international economic law / Jeffrey L Dunoff -- 1.2 Relationship of international economic law to other areas of public international law / Pierre-Marie Dupuy -- 1.3 Relationship of international economic law to private international law / Jorun Baumgartner -- 1.4 Relationship of international economic law to domestic law / Christian Tietje -- B. Foundational concepts -- 1.5 Rule of law in international economic relations / Andrew Lang -- 1.6 Harnessing globalization and enhancing welfare / Jumoke Oduwole -- 1.7 Combating protectionism and state failures / Todd Weiler -- 1.8 Maintaining sovereignty and policy space / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer -- 1.9 Fostering development / Frank J Garcia -- C. Historical perspective -- 1.10 Mercantilism / Craig VanGrasstek -- I.11 Sovereignty / Craig VanGrasstek -- 1.12 Bilateralism in international economic law / Meredith Kolsky Lewis -- 1.13 Multilateralism in international economic law / Meredith Kolsky Lewis -- 1.14 Plurilateralism in international economic law / Meredith Kolsky Lewis -- 1.15 Towards mega-regionalism in international economic law / Peter-Tobias Stoll -- 1.16 Globalization and multi-level governance / Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann -- D. Sources of law -- 1.17 General principles of law in international economic law / Georges Abi-Saab -- 1.18 Customary international law in international economic law / Patrick Dumberry -- 1.19 Role of courts in international economic law / Eric de Brabandere -- 1.20 Treaties and treaty interpretation in international economic law / Isabelle Van Damme -- 1.21 Soft law in international economic law / Chris Brummer -- 1.22 Networking and informal cooperation in international economic law / Jan Wouters -- 1.23 Role of empirical research in international economic law / Anne Van Aaken -- E. Regulatory approaches -- 1.24 The shift to non-tariff barriers and product regulation / Thomas Cottier and Jonas Baumann -- 1.25 Minimum standards / Thomas Cottier and Jonas Baumann -- 1.26 Harmonization / Thomas Cottier and Brigitta Imeli -- 1.27 Equivalence and mutual recognition / Thomas Cottier and Brigitta Imeli -- 1.28 Regulatory cooperation and concertation -- the example of TTIP negotiations / Thomas Cottier -- Part I Section II: Architecture -- 1.29 Leadership and policy making in international economic law / Diane A Desierto -- 1.30 The legal relationship of international organizations / Marina Foltea -- A. General, trade and investment related institutions -- 1.31 World Trade Organization (WTO) / Gabrielle Marceau -- 1.32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) / Kendra Magraw -- 1.33 International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) / Stanimir A Alexandrov -- 1.34 Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency(MIGA) / Julian M Powell -- 1.35 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) / David Gaukrodger -- 1.36 Group of Twenty (G-20) / Peter I Hajnal -- B. Monetary institutions -- 1.37 International Monetary Fund (IMF) / Ben Thirkell-White -- 1.38 Central banks / Gavin Bingham -- 1.39 Bank of International Settlements (BIS) / Pierre Panchaud -- 1.40 International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) / Johnny Chang Kuan-Chun -- 1.41 International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) / Christoph B Bühler -- 1.42 Financial Action Task Force (FATF) / Riccardo Sansonetti -- 1.43 Financial Stability Board (FSB) / Eva Hüpkes -- 1.44 Group of Seven (G-7)/ Group of Eight (G-8) / Peter I Hajnal -- 1.45 Business Twenty (B-20) / Kathrin Betz -- C. International tax institutions -- 1.46 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Tax policy networks / Allison Christians889 -- 1.47 UN Tax Committee / Allison Christians -- 1.48 EU Taxation and Customs Union Directorate-General / Allison Christians -- 1.49 Group of 20 (role in tax) / Allison Christians -- 1.50 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Commission on Taxation / Allison Christians -- 1.51 International Fiscal Association (IFA) / Allison Christians -- D. Development institutions -- 1.52 World Bank Group (WBG) / Mark S Ellis -- 1.53 Regional Development Banks (IDB) / Suresh Nanwani -- 1.54 International Trade Center (ITC) / Stephen Browne -- 1.55 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) / Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer -- E. Intellectual property institutions -- 1.56 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) / Holger Hestermeyer -- 1.57 The European Patent Organization (EPO) / Felix Addor -- F. Energy institutions -- 1.58 Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) / Kaj Hobér -- 1.59 International Energy Agency (IEA) / Yulia Selivanova -- G. Standard-setting organizations -- 1.60 International Standards Organization (ISO) / Olia Kanevskaia -- 1.61 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) / Olia Kanevskaia -- 1.62 International Telecommunications Union (ITU) / Olia Kanevskaia -- H. Institutions related to international economic law -- 1.63 International Labour Organization (ILO) / François Maupain and Marialaura Fino -- 1.64 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO) / Xuan Li -- 1.65 World Health Organization (WHO) / Benn D McGrady -- 1.66 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / Julian M Powell -- 1.67 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) / Stephan Hobe --"@en ;
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