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Emigrants in chains : a social history of forced emigration to the Americas of felons, destitute children, political and religious non-conformists, vagabonds, beggars and other undesirables, 1607-1776

Author: Peter Wilson Coldham
Publisher: Baltimore, Md. : Genealogical Pub. Co., [1992] ©1992
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
The forced emigration of convicts, destitute persons and children, "undesirables", and non-conformists from England to the Americas.
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Genre/Form: History
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Coldham, Peter Wilson.
Emigrants in chains.
Baltimore, Md. : Genealogical Pub. Co., ©1992
(OCoLC)556083039
Online version:
Coldham, Peter Wilson.
Emigrants in chains.
Baltimore, Md. : Genealogical Pub. Co., ©1992
(OCoLC)632076436
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Peter Wilson Coldham
ISBN: 9780806313290 0806313293 9780806317786 0806317787 0080633293 9780080633299
OCLC Number: 25363957
Description: 188 pages ; 24 cm
Contents: Ch. I. The Convicts and Their Background --
Poverty and crime encouraged by legislation --
The growth of villainy and criminal gangs --
Environmental and economic inducements to law-breaking --
Ch. II. The Prisons --
Contemporary descriptions of London and provincial prisons --
Punishments inflicted --
Exactions of prison keepers --
The power of money to relieve punishment --
Ch. III. The Dispensers of Justice --
The development of criminal justice systems --
The power of judges --
The prevalence of political corruption and venality --
Humanitarian reliefs --
Ch. IV. The State Monopoly Early Days --
State-administered schemes for transporting pardoned felons to the colonies --
The extension of such schemes to vagrant children, beggars, drunks and political and religious misfits --
Private enterprise and the practice of spiriting --
The American colonies begin to protest --
The collapse of the early system of transportation --
Ch. V. The Age of the Contractors --
New law on criminal transportation of 1718 --
Appointment of contractors for the Transports --
Reactions of the colonies --
Free trade in convicts from 1772 --
The official end of the trade and introduction of the Hulk Act in 1776 --
Some dismal experiments after the Peace of 1783 --
Ch. VI. Transportation as a Business --
The official contractors, their commercial and maritime affairs --
Difficulties at home, at sea and in the plantations --
Profits and losses --
A contractor's summary of his activities --
Ch. VII. The Scottish Experiment --
Widespread practice of kidnapping in the Scottish Highlands --
The complicity of civic authorities --
Exposure of the illicit trade in plantation servants --
Poverty the cause of a tidal wave of Scottish emigration --
Government alarm --
Ch. VIII. His Majesty's Seven-Year Passengers --
Conditions of shipboard life for transported felons --
Personal reminiscences --
Brutality of captains and crews --
Shipboard security measures --
Dangers to women at sea --
Ch. IX. The New Immigrants --
Accounts of living conditions for transported "Servants" --
The preparation and sale of human cargoes --
Escapes and punishments --
Monied exiles, impostors and cheats --
Ch. X. Some Thumbnail Sketches --
Biographies and autobiographies of transported felons --
Their experiences in the American colonies --
Their life and times in England --
Ch. XI. The Twilight Years --
Objections to the Hulk Act --
Frustrated attempts to revive the transportation trade --
American and British reflections on the effects of criminal transportation --
App. I. Pardons on Condition of Transportation --
App. II. Summary List of Principal Gaol Delivery and Assize Records --
App. III. An Act... for the More Effectual Transportation of Felons --
App. IV. Specimens of Legal Documents --
App. V. Convict Ships Contracted from London to the American Colonies 1716-1775 --
App. VI. Convict Ships Contracted by Assize and Quarter Session Courts --
App. VII. Convicts Pardoned for Transportation 1660-1699 (graph) --
App. VIII. Convicts Pardoned for Transportation 1700-1775 (graph) --
App. IX. Benjamin Franklin on the Subject of Transportation.
Responsibility: Peter Wilson Coldham.

Abstract:

The forced emigration of convicts, destitute persons and children, "undesirables", and non-conformists from England to the Americas.

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