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Encyclopedia of food microbiology

Author: Carl A Batt; Mary Lou Tortorello
Publisher: Amsterdam : Academic Press, Elsevier, Ltd., 2014. ©2014
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : 2nd editionView all editions and formats

Highlights advances in areas such as genomics and food safety to bring users on microorganisms in foods. This book covers topics such as DNA sequencing and E coli. It is designed to allow disparate  Read more...


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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Carl A Batt; Mary Lou Tortorello
ISBN: 9780123847331 0123847338
OCLC Number: 881482027
Language Note: Text in English.
Notes: "April 2014."
Description: 1 online resource (2955 pages) : illustrations
Contents: Editor-in-ChiefEditorEditorial Advisory BoardHow to Use the Encyclopedia ContentsCross-referencesIndexForewordNotes on the Subject IndexArticle Titles A Acetobacter AbstractCharacteristics of the Genus AcetobacterMethods of DetectionIdentificationImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingAcinetobacter AbstractIntroductionThe GenusAcinetobacter SpeciesEcologyMethods of Detection and Enumeration of Acinetobacters in FoodsIdentification at the Genus Level and Metabolic CharacteristicsIdentification at the Genomic Species LevelEpidemiological TypingAcinetobacters in FoodsAcinetobacters in Water and SoilAcinetobacters in the Clinical EnvironmentBiotechnological ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingAdenylate Kinase AbstractGeneral Introduction of Adenylate KinaseAK as the Detection Target in ATP Bioluminescence AssayApplication of AK in ATP Regeneration for Ultrasensitive Bioluminescence AssayConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingAEROMONAS | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the Genus AeromonasClinical RelevanceMolecular versus Phenotypic IdentificationEpidemiologyVirulence FactorsVirulence Genes and Complete GenomesDetection of Virulence in Food IsolatesPreservation and ControlSee alsoFurther ReadingAEROMONAS | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques AbstractGlossaryDetection by CulturingNonselective Approach to CulturingEnrichment TechniquesMost Probable Numbers TechniqueIdentification of AeromonasMolecular MethodsOther MethodsFuture PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingAlcaligenes AbstractIntroductionBiotechnological Applications of AlcaligenesRelevance to the Food IndustryFood MicrobiologyDetection MethodsGenomicsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingAlicyclobacillus AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of Alicyclobacillus GenusAlicyclobacillus SpeciesSpoilage of Foods by AlicyclobacillusOccurrence of Alicyclobacillus in Raw Materials, Ingredients, and Final ProductsInactivation of Alicyclobacillus in FoodsDetection and Quantification of AlicyclobacillusFinal RemarksSee alsoFurther ReadingAlternaria AbstractIntroductionTaxonomySecondary Metabolites Production by AlternariaEcophysiologyOccurrence of Alternaria and Alternaria Mycotoxins in FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingArcobacter AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusIsolation ProtocolsImportance of Arcobacter in Livestock and FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingArthrobacter AbstractGeneral CharacteristicsEcologyCulture MediaMetabolism and EnzymesGenetics and BacteriophagesRole in FoodsVegetablesMeat, Eggs, and FishMilk and CheeseMiscellaneous Biotechnological PotentialitiesBiodegradation of Agrochemicals and PollutantsInvolvement in Clinical SpecimensSee alsoFurther ReadingASPERGILLUS | Introduction AbstractIntroductionAspergillus flavusAspergillus oryzaeConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingASPERGILLUS | Aspergillus flavus AbstractBiology and Habitat of A. flavusDiversity in A. flavus PopulationsEvolution of A. flavusMethods for Detection of A. flavus in Foods and FeedsEconomic Significance of A. flavusConclusionSee alsoReferencesFurther ReadingASPERGILLUS | Aspergillus oryzae AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesImportance in the Food IndustryMethod for Detection and Identification of A. oryzaeMolecular Characterization of Nonaflatoxigenicity of A. oryzaeSee alsoFurther ReadingATP Bioluminescence: Application in Meat Industry IntroductionThe ATP Bioluminescence ReactionSee alsoFurther ReadingAureobasidium AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusMethod of DetectionImportance of Aureobasidium as Spoiler for Food IndustryHealth Impact of Aureobasidium in FoodSee alsoFurther ReadingB BACILLUS | Introduction AbstractIntroductionTaxonomyGeneticsGrowth and SurvivalMetabolismSignificance in Food SpoilageFoodborne DiseaseInsect ControlProbioticsEnzyme ProductionSee alsoFurther ReadingBACILLUS | Bacillus anthracis AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesDetectionRegulationsImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingBACILLUS | Bacillus cereus AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesMethods of DetectionGenomicsRegulationsImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingBACILLUS | Geobacillus stearothermophilus (Formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesMethods of DetectionRegulationsImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerFurther ReadingBACILLUS | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques AbstractSpecies - ScopeChoice of TestsTest ProceduresAdvantages and Limitations of MethodsCollaborative Evaluations and ValidationsSee alsoAppendix: FormulationsFurther ReadingBACILLUS | Detection of Toxins AbstractIntroductionFoodborne IllnessBacillus cereus Diarrheal SyndromeBacillus cereus Emetic SyndromeFactors Affecting Emetic Toxin FormationOther B. cereus ToxinsToxins of Other Bacillus SpeciesDetection of B. cereus ToxinsSee alsoFurther ReadingBACTERIA | The Bacterial Cell IntroductionTypes of MorphologyConclusionsSee alsoFurther ReadingBACTERIA | Bacterial Endospores AbstractProblems and Advantages of Bacterial Spores in the Food IndustryEndospore Formation and StructureDormancy and Longevity of EndosporesHeat Resistance of EndosporesResistance to Other StressesSpore GerminationControl of Spore-Forming Bacteria and Spores in FoodConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBACTERIA | Classification of the Bacteria: Traditional AbstractPhenotypic AnalysisMicrobial SpeciesClassification and NomenclatureDescription of New SpeciesBergey's Manual and The ProkaryotesSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesBACTERIA | Classification of the Bacteria - Phylogenetic Approach AbstractIntroductionRibosomal RNAs, Housekeeping Genes, and GenomesSequence Determination, Sequence Alignment, Treeing Methods, and DatabasesThe Limited Significance of Genes Sequences for Taxonomic DelineationsLinks with `Traditional' BacteriologyNew Approaches for Delineating Taxonomic RanksSee alsoFurther ReadingBACTERIOCINS | Potential in Food Preservation AbstractIntroductionBioprotection or BiopreservationMicrobial Defense SystemBacteriocinsClassificationMode of ActionGram-Positive BacteriocinsGram-Negative BacteriocinsBacteriocins from ArchaeaNisinBacteriocins and Potential for Food PreservationApplication in Dairy FoodsApplication in Poultry and Muscle FoodsApplication in SeafoodApplication in Other Foods and BeveragesAdvantages of Bacteriocins as Food AdditivesLimitations of Bacteriocins as Food AdditivesConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBACTERIA | Nisin AbstractIntroductionHistoryStructure and BiosynthesisSolubility and StabilityApplicationsAntagonistic FactorsSee alsoFurther ReadingBacteriophage-Based Techniques for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens AbstractIntroductionBacteriophage CharacteristicsApplications of Bacteriophages for the Identification of Bacterial PathogensConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBacteroides and Prevotella AbstractClassification, Cultivation, and GenomicsDominant Bacteroidetes Found in the Human Large IntestineChanges in Bacteroidetes Populations in Humans with Diet, Obesity, and Life StageFermentative MetabolismFactors Likely to Influence Survival of Bacteroides and Prevotella in the GutMetabolism of Food Components and Host-Derived ProductsBacteriocins, Phages, and Gene TransferBacteroides Interactions with Host CellsBacteroidetes in Health and DiseaseImportance in AgricultureConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBeer AbstractIntroductionBeer-Brewing ProcessesConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBifidobacterium AbstractIntroductionHistorical PerspectiveEnumeration and Isolation MethodsIntestinal EcologyPrebioticsProbiotics and Implied Health Benefits of BifidobacteriaBifid-Amended Foods and BeveragesSee alsoReferencesRelevant WebsitesFurther ReadingBIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Introduction AbstractIntroductionSee alsoFurther ReadingBIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms, and Escherichia Coli AbstractIntroductionPrinciples and Types of Commercially Available TestsConclusionSee alsoReferencesBIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Food-Poisoning Microorganisms AbstractIntroductionPhenotypic Identification MethodsGenotypic Methods Identification MethodsRange of Food ApplicationsConclusionSee alsoReferencesBIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Food Spoilage Flora AbstractBiochemical Diagnostic MarkersFungal Metabolite ProfilingImmunological TechniquesEvaluation of Commercial Techniques and TestsMolecular TechniquesElectrophoretic KaryotypingRFLP and DNA Amplification TechniquesCritical Evaluation of TechniquesMolecular over BiochemicalAdvantages and Limitations of Biochemical over Other TechniquesSee alsoFurther ReadingBIOCHEMICAL AND MODERN IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES | Microfloras of Fermented Foods AbstractIntroductionMicrobial Composition of Fermented FoodsImportance of Microorganisms in Fermented FoodsParameters for the Study of Fermented FoodsPhenotypic IdentificationBiochemical IdentificationModern or Molecular IdentificationCulture-Dependent and Culture-Independent TechniquesSee alsoFurther ReadingBiofilms AbstractBiofilm FormationExtracellular Polymeric SubstancesPhysiological Status of Attached BacteriaReducing Biofilm BuildupCleaning and DisinfectionBiofilm Detection in Food-Processing PlantsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBiophysical Techniques for Enhancing Microbiological Analysis Basic ConceptsParticle Motion in Inhomogeneous AC Electric Fields: DielectrophoresisParticle Motion in Rotating Electric Fields: ElectrorotationParticle Motion in Traveling Wave Electric FieldsConclusionsSee alsoFurther ReadingBiosensors - Scope in Microbiological Analysis AbstractIntroductionBiosensor IntroductionBiosensor DefinitionsCaveatsAssessment of the Future Use of BiosensorsSee alsoFurther ReadingBotrytis AbstractIntroductionTaxonomy, Evolutionary Relationships, Genetic CharacteristicsCultureIdentificationDetection and AssessmentPathogenicityPositive Relationship in Wine ProductionControlSee alsoFurther ReadingBovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) AbstractIntroductionBSE-Related DiseasesDiagnosisSee alsoFurther ReadingBREAD | Bread from Wheat Flour AbstractBreadBread Ingredients and Their FunctionsFlourYeastBread-Making TechnologySee alsoFurther ReadingBREAD | Sourdough Bread AbstractIntroductionHistoryContemporary Use of Sourdough and Pattern of ConsumptionRaw Materials and Methods of ProductionTraditional Sourdough FermentationMicrobiologyBiochemistry of Sourdough FermentationTechnological Effects of Sourdough Fermentation on Bread QualitySourdough Starter CulturesRelated Cereal FermentationsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingBrettanomyces AbstractGeneral CharactersPhysiological PropertiesGenomic AnalysisEcological DistributionImplications in Fermented Food and BeveragesMethods of DetectionInteractions with Other MicroorganismsSee alsoFurther ReadingBrevibacterium AbstractIntroductionTaxonomy and General CharacteristicsBrevibacterium and CheeseFurther ReadingBrochothrix AbstractIntroductionBrochothrix thermosphacta CharacteristicsComparison of Brochothrix SpeciesIsolation and EnumerationAlternative Rapid Detection of BrochothrixInternational Guideline for Brochothrix EnumerationImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingBRUCELLA | Characteristics AbstractBrucella SpeciesMorphology and PhysiologyEpidemiology of the DiseaseBrucellae in FoodsRoutes of Human InfectionPathogenicity and SymptomatologyDetection MethodsTreatment of DiseaseDisease Control and PreventionSee alsoFurther ReadingBRUCELLA | Problems with Dairy Products AbstractFactors Affecting Survival and Growth in Milk ProductsEradication and Control of Brucella in FoodsBrucellosis in HumansSee alsoFurther ReadingByssochlamys AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusMethods of DetectionImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingC CAMPYLOBACTER | Introduction AbstractIntroductionGuillain-Barre SyndromeReactive Arthritides (Reactive Arthritis and Reiter's Syndrome)TaxonomyGeneral PhysiologyEcologySpecies Other than C. jejuni and C. coliPathogenicityTyping of Campylobacter spp.Methods of ControlViable but Nonculturable FormsSee alsoFurther ReadingCAMPYLOBACTER | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques AbstractIntroductionCampylobacter GastroenteritisSources of InfectionDetection of CampylobacteriaMethods of Generating Microaerobic AtmosphereSelective MediaMembrane Filtration MethodEnrichment MediaDetection of ArcobactersMicroaerobic Atmosphere for Enrichment of Thermophilic CampylobactersIsolation of Thermophilic Campylobacters from FoodsIsolation of Less Common CampylobacteriaConfirmation and SpeciationRapid Detection MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingCAMPYLOBACTER | Detection by Latex Agglutination Techniques AbstractIntroductionBrief Principles and Types of Commercial TestsDetailed Protocols of Tests and Their Points of Application in the Cultural Techniques for CampylobacterRegulations, Guidelines, and DirectivesDetection LimitsAdvantages and Limitations of Latex Agglutination Tests and Other TechniquesSee alsoFurther ReadingCANDIDA | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the Genus CandidaPhysiological PropertiesHabitatsPathogenic Yeasts of the Genus CandidaMethods of Isolation and IdentificationImportance to the Food IndustryFood SpoilingSee alsoFurther ReadingCANDIDA | Yarrowia lipolytica (Candida lipolytica) AbstractAcknowledgmentsGeneral CharacteristicsMethods for Identification in FoodsIsolation from Meat ProductsIsolation from Dairy ProductsInvolvement in Spoilage of FoodsConversion of Fats, Oils, and HydrocarbonsProduction of Enzymes, Organic Acids, and LipidsProduction of Specialty ChemicalsSee alsoFurther ReadingCarnobacterium AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of the Genus and Related SpeciesIsolation, Enumeration, and IdentificationImportance of the Genus and Individual Species in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingCHEESE | Cheese in the Marketplace AbstractIntroductionDefinition and Classification of Natural CheeseFundamentals of Cheese ManufacturePopular Cheese GroupsCheese CompositionProcess Cheese ProductsConsumer Attributes of CheeseSee alsoReferencesCHEESE | Microbiology of Cheesemaking and Maturation AbstractIntroductionTypical Composition of Cheese MilkMicrobiological Quality of MilkPrinciples of CheesemakingStarter Bacteria, Starter Adjuncts, and Nonstarter Lactic Acid Bacteria in CheeseMicrobiological Changes during CheesemakingMicrobiological Changes during Cheese MaturationDefects of Bacterial and Fungal OriginSee alsoFurther ReadingCHEESE | Microflora of White-Brined Cheeses AbstractIntroductionMicrobiological Quality of White CheeseComposition of Cheese in Relation to Starter Culture ActivityContaminants in White-Brined CheesesMicrobial Defects in White-Brined CheesesSee alsoFurther ReadingCHEESE | Mold-Ripened Varieties AbstractIntroductionDiversity and History of Mold-Ripened CheesesManufacture of Mold-Ripened CheesesMicrobial FloraFungal GrowthFungal MetabolismControl of RipeningSpoilage and Defects in Mold-Ripened CheesesSee alsoFurther ReadingCHEESE | Role of Specific Groups of Bacteria AbstractPropionibacteriumMetabolic Activity during Eye FormationBrevibacterium linensAction of Brevibacterium during the Maturation of Smear-Coated CheesesSee alsoFurther ReadingCHEESE | Smear-Ripened Cheeses AbstractManufactureMicrobiologyDefined CulturesSource of the BacteriaFlavor DevelopmentColor Development on CheesePathogensControl of ListeriaFurther ReadingCHILLED STORAGE OF FOODS | Principles AbstractIntroductionRefrigerated FoodsMicrobiology of Refrigerated FoodsMicroorganisms and Growth TemperaturesEffect of Chilled Temperature on MicroorganismsGood Chilled Storage PracticesSee alsoFurther ReadingCHILLED STORAGE OF FOODS | Food Packaging with Antimicrobial Properties AbstractIntroductionPackaging Containing Essential OilsPackaging Containing Organic AcidsPackaging Containing BacteriocinsNanocomposite Systems as Food PackagingFuture Trend of Antimicrobial PackagingSee alsoFurther ReadingCider (Cyder; Hard Cider) AbstractIntroductionCider ProductionThe Microbiology of Apple Juice and CiderSome Special Fermentation and Other ProcessesBiochemical Changes during CidermakingSee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Introduction AbstractIntroductionSelected Clostridial SpeciesRecommended Methods of Detection and Enumeration in FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium acetobutylicum AbstractIntroductionDescription of the SpeciesEnrichment and IsolationHistory of the ABE Fermentation IndustryThe Industrial Fermentation ProcessPhysiology of the ABE FermentationRecent Progress in ABE ResearchSee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium botulinum AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of C. botulinumControl of C. botulinum in FoodsClinical Features of BotulismProperties and Detection of BoNTBotulinum Toxin as a PharmaceuticalSee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium perfringens AbstractClostridium perfringens Food PoisoningCharacteristics of C. perfringensClassificationClinical Features of DiseaseMechanism of IntoxicationDetection and EnumerationEnterotoxin DetectionRegulations to Control C. perfringens HazardSee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Clostridium tyrobutyricum AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesDetection MethodsMPN ProceduresAntibody and DNA-Based Detection MethodsImportance in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Detection of Enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens AbstractGlossaryClostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and C. perfringens Food PoisoningImportance of C. perfringens Food PoisoningIdentification of C. perfringens Food PoisoningC. perfringens Enterotoxin AssaysCounterimmunoelectrophoresisLatex Agglutination TestsEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent AssaysDetection of Enterotoxigenic C. perfringensAdvantages and Limitations of the CPE Detection MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingCLOSTRIDIUM | Detection of Neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum AbstractIntroductionSee alsoFurther ReadingCocoa and Coffee Fermentations AbstractIntroductionCocoaNature of the CropCacao FruitHarvestingFermentationProcedures of FermentationMicroflora Active in Cocoa FermentationOther Microorganisms Present During Fermentation and DryingEffect of Fermentation on Product QualityFlavor-Developing CompoundsDryingCoffeeNature of the CropCoffee FruitHarvestingFermentationProcedure of Coffee Mucilage RemovalBiochemistry of Coffee FermentationSee alsoFurther ReadingCold Atmospheric Gas Plasmas AbstractThe Nature of Gas Plasmas and Cold Gas PlasmasThe Biological Effects of Gas PlasmasGas Plasmas in the Food IndustryFuture ProspectsSee alsoFurther ReadingConfectionery Products - Cakes and Pastries AbstractWhat Are Cakes and Pastries?Effects of BakingEffects of Postbake OperationFactors Affecting Microbial GrowthFoodborne Disease and Incidence of PathogensSpoilagePreservation MethodsMicrobial SpecificationsSee alsoFurther ReadingCorynebacterium glutamicum AbstractAcknowledgmentHistoryTaxonomyGenomeProteomeMetabolic Pathway for Glutamate Production by C. glutamicumAnaplerotic Pathways in C. glutamicumMetabolic Flux Distribution during Glutamate SynthesisLeakage Model for Glutamate Efflux by C. glutamicumLysine Production Pathway in C. glutamicumIndustrial Application of C. glutamicumConclusionSee alsoReferencesCosts, Benefits, and Economic Issues AbstractCostsBenefitsSee alsoFurther ReadingCoxiella burnetii AbstractIntroductionHistory of C. burnetii DiscoveryCultivation and Isolation of C. burnetiiBiology of C. burnetiiEpidemiology of Q FeverClinical Manifestations of Q FeverSerological Tests for DiagnosisConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingCronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of the SpeciesDetection MethodsImportance to the Food Industry and ConsumerConclusion and Future StudiesSee alsoFurther ReadingCryptosporidium AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusSpecies in the GenusLife CycleInfectivity and In Vitro CultureDetection and IdentificationFoodborne TransmissionMethods of Detection in Food, Water, and Other LiquidsNucleic Acid-Based Methods for Detection and IdentificationDetermination of ViabilityImportance to the Food and Water IndustriesControl and DisinfectionImportance to the ConsumerRegulationsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesCulture Collections AbstractIntroductionThe Mission, Scope, and Content of Culture CollectionsDeposit, Access to, and Distribution of StrainsPreservation and Long-term StorageThe Impact of Legislation on the Handling, Storage, and Distribution of OrganismsManagement and Operational StandardsNetworking Collections: Improving Access to Strains and Addressing Common ChallengesSee alsoFurther ReadingCyclospora AbstractCharacteristics of the Genus and Relevant SpeciesMethods of Detection in FoodsImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingD Debaryomyces AbstractCharacteristics of the Genus and Relevant SpeciesPhysiological and Biochemical PropertiesSignificance in FoodsPathogenic BehaviorEnumeration, Detection, and IdentificationSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant websitesDirect Epifluorescent Filter Techniques (DEFT) Principles of the TestEquipmentProceduresMicrocolony CountDirect Viable Count (DVC)Alternative DEFT StainsViability StainsAb-DEFT and Immunomagnetic SeparationAutomated MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingDried Foods AbstractDried FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingE ECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Effects of pH AbstractThe Concept of pH and Its Relevance in Food ProductsEffect of pH on Food MicroorganismspH HomeostasisEffect of pH According to the Physiological StateUse of pH as a Microbial Control ToolModeling of pH and Weak Acids Incidence on Microbial GrowthSee alsoFurther ReadingECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Available Water AbstractIntroductionConcept of Water Activity and Available WaterFactors Affecting Water ActivityLevels in Typical FoodsGeneral Responses of Bacteria, Yeasts, and Mycelial FungiEffect of Water Activity on Intracellular Structures and Chemical Composition of CellsCompatible SolutesSummarySee alsoFurther ReadingECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Redox Potential AbstractAcknowledgmentsIntroductionThe Concept of Redox PotentialRedox Potential Determination in Biological SystemsRedox and Microbial GrowthRedox Potentials in FoodsApplications of Redox Potential in Food MicrobiologyBacterial Redox HomeostasisSee alsoFurther ReadingECOLOGY OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI IN FOODS | Influence of Temperature AbstractIntroductionMicrobial Ecology of Foods: Evolution of Specific MicrobiotaEffect of Temperature on Microbial GrowthInterpretation of the Effect of Temperature on Microbial GrowthEffects of Temperature on MetabolismSummarySee alsoFurther ReadingEGGS | Microbiology of Fresh Eggs AbstractStructure and Composition of Fresh EggsAntimicrobial Defense SystemsContamination of Eggs with SalmonellaeImplications for Human HealthReducing Infection of Flocks and the Risks in StorageSee alsoFurther ReadingEGGS | Microbiology of Egg Products AbstractEffects of Processing on MicroorganismsPasteurization of Liquid EggDried EggsGlucose RemovalProduct InnovationProcessed Egg ProductsSee alsoFurther ReadingELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Introduction AbstractImpedance, Conductance, and CapacitanceIndirect ImpedimetryConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Food Spoilage Flora and Total Viable Count AbstractNonspecific Impedance Technique: TVCEstimation of Food Spoilage MicroorganismsSee alsoFurther ReadingELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Lactics and Other Bacteria AbstractRange of Food ApplicationsElectrical MediaTechniques and ProtocolsInterpretation and Presentation of ResultsAdvantages and Limitations of Electrical TechniquesRecent Development of ETSee alsoFurther ReadingEnrichment AbstractIntroductionPrimary Enrichment (Pre-enrichment)Secondary Enrichment (Selective Enrichment)Universal Selective Enrichment BrothConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingEnrichment Serology: An Enhanced Cultural Technique for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens AbstractIntroductionOriginal Enrichment Serology MethodCommercial ES MethodsConclusionSee alsoReferencesELECTRICAL TECHNIQUES | Enterobacter AbstractIntroductionNomenclaturePhysiological DescriptionEnvironmental NichesClinical ImplicationsDetectionControlConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingENTEROBACTERIACEAE, COLIFORMS AND E. COLI | Introduction AbstractEnterobacteriaceaeSee alsoFurther ReadingENTEROBACTERIACEAE, COLIFORMS AND E. COLI | Classical and Modern Methods for Detection and Enumeration AbstractIntroductionDefinitionsClassical MethodsMost Probable NumberMembrane Filtration MethodsHydrophobic Grid Membrane FilterPresence-Absence with Enrichment StepPetrifilmFluorogenic and Chromogenic MediaRapid Automated Method (Growth-Based Methods)Molecular MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingEnterococcus AbstractIntroductionTaxonomy and PhysiologyHabitatEcology in FoodsFunctional Properties of Enterococci in FoodsEnterococci: Health IssuesConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingEnzyme Immunoassays: Overview AbstractImmunoassayComponents of ImmunoassayImmunoreactionMethods of ImmunoassayEnzyme ImmunoassayApplication of ImmunoassaysImmunoassay in FoodAdvantages and Disadvantages of ELISA for GMO TestingModifications of Standard ImmunoassayCurrent Advances in the Field of ImmunoassayRadioimmunoprecipitation AssayOptoelectronic Immunosensor-Based AssaysApplication of Computer-Assisted Molecular Modeling in ImmunoassaySee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Escherichia coli AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesSerologyVirulenceToxinsOther ToxinsGenomicsFoodborne IllnessDetection of E. coliUse of E. coli as a Fecal IndicatorSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Pathogenic E. coli (Introduction) AbstractIntroductionIntestinal Pathogenic E. coliExtraintestinal Pathogenic E. coliIsolation and Identification of Pathogenic E. coli in FoodSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Detection of Enterotoxins of E. coli AbstractETEC Enterotoxins: Genetics and EpidemiologyDiagnosticsSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteroaggregative E. coli AbstractOverviewVirulence FactorsGenomicsEAEC: Pathogen in Search of a DiseaseOutlookSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), Including Non-O157 AbstractIntroductionPathogenicitySymptoms of InfectionEHEC SerogroupsDetectionSourcesEHEC Carriage in CattleEHEC and the EnvironmentEHEC in FoodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli: Introduction and Detection by Classical Cultural and Molecular Techniques AbstractThe PathogenPathogenesisEIEC in FoodsDetection of EIEC from FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Enteropathogenic E. coli AbstractAcknowledgmentIntroductionClinic and PathologyAdherenceTranslocationGenomicsDiarrhea MechanismsDiagnosisEpidemiologyAtypical EPECTransmission and ReservoirsFood SafetyOutlookSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI | Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) AbstractAcknowledgmentsEscherichia coliVirulence GroupsETECETEC InfectionETEC DiarrheaThe EnterotoxinsLTSTsPreventionTreatmentVaccineRecent Outbreaks of ETECBioassaysSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | E. coli O157:H7 AbstractHistory and OriginsClinical FeaturesSources of E. coli InfectionSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | Escherichia coli O157 and Other Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli: Detection by Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Assays AbstractIntroductionDetection and Isolation of E. coli O157 and Non-O157 STEC Using IMS TechnologyConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingESCHERICHIA COLI 0157 | Detection by Latex Agglutination Techniques AbstractGeneral PrinciplesProceduresAdvantages and LimitationsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant websitesF FERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Basic Considerations AbstractIntroductionTypes of FermentationFactors Influencing FermentationsSubmerged FermentationsSolid-State FermentationsSafe Fermentation PracticeSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Control of Fermentation Conditions AbstractIntroductionControl SystemsMeasuring EquipmentBiomass ConcentrationBiosensorsIndirect MeasurementNeural NetworksControl SystemsSolid-State FermentationsSubmerged FermentationsFuture PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Media for Industrial Fermentations AbstractIntroductionSources of Utilizable CarbonSources of Utilizable NitrogenSources of Inorganic IonsSources of Growth FactorsDesign and Preparation of Food Fermentation MediaInocula PreparationSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Amino Acids AbstractAcknowledgmentsIntroductionProduction of L-glutamic AcidProduction of L-lysineProduction of L-threonineProduction of L-isoleucineProduction of Aromatic Amino AcidsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Colors and Flavors AbstractColors from FermentationFlavors from BiotechnologySee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Oils and Fatty Acids AbstractIntroductionLipidsCommercial Oils and FatsOleaginous MicroorganismsBiochemistry of OleaginicityMetabolic PathwayPatterns of Lipid Accumulation in FermentationsSubstrates for Oleaginous FermentationFatty Acids, Soap Stocks, and OilsOther SubstratesMicrobial Production SystemsFermentation Media for Lipid BiosynthesisFermentative Production ProcessesFactors Influencing Lipid BiosynthesisGrowth RateSubstrate ConcentrationGrowth SubstrateTemperatureOxygenpH and SalinityGenetic EngineeringMetabolic EngineeringOther FactorsRecovery and PurificationOil ExtractionOil RefiningCommercial ImportanceSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Some Organic Acids (Citric, Gluconic, Lactic, and Propionic) AbstractCitric AcidGluconic AcidLactic AcidOther Organic Acids Produced by FermentationSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Production of Xanthan Gum AbstractIntroductionStructurePropertiesApplicationsMicrobial Production of Xanthan GumEconomicsSome Important Manufacturers of Xanthan GumSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsiteFERMENTATION (INDUSTRIAL) | Recovery of Metabolites AbstractIntroductionDisintegration of Microbial CellsRecovery of MetabolitesSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED FOODS | Origins and Applications AbstractIntroductionHistory, Development, and Uses of Fermented FoodsBenefits and Importance of Fermented FoodsApplications of FermentationSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED FOODS | Beverages from Sorghum and Millet AbstractIntroductionRaw MaterialsStorageMilletsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED FOODS | Fermentations of East and Southeast Asia AbstractIntroductionAlcohol FermentationVegetable, Fruit, and Cereal FermentationFermented CondimentFermentation of Fish and Marine ProductsMeat FermentationFermented MilkOther Fermented FoodSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED FOODS | Traditional Fish Fermentation Technology and Recent Developments AbstractIntroductionBasics of Fermented FishImportant Fermented Fish Products and Developmental ScenarioBeneficial Factors Associated with FermentationConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED FOODS | Fermented Meat Products and the Role of Starter Cultures AbstractIntroductionEcology of FermentationFunctional Properties of Bacterial Starter CulturesSafety of Bacteria Involved in Meat FermentationSee alsoFurther ReadingsFERMENTED FOODS | Fermented Vegetable Products AbstractIntroductionMicrobiota of Raw Vegetables and FruitsFermentation of Vegetable ProductsMain Fermented Vegetable ProductsLactic Acid Fermentation of Vegetable JuicesInnovative Vegetable-Based Fermented ProductsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED MILKS | Range of Products AbstractIntroductionClassification of Fermented MilksMesophilic Lactic FermentationsThermophilic Lactic FermentationsMilks Fermented with Selected Intestinal BacteriaYeast-Lactic FermentationsMold-Lactic FermentationsDerived ProductsAims and Benefits of Fermented MilksSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED MILKS | Northern European Fermented Milks AbstractIntroductionMicroorganisms in Northern European Fermented MilksMetabolism of Mesophilic Starter Cultures in MilkFermented Milk ProductsRopy Fermented Milk ProductsDrained Fermented Milk ProductsSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED MILKS | Products of Eastern Europe and Asia AbstractIntroductionKefirKoumissTarhanaSee alsoFurther ReadingFERMENTED MILKS | Fermented Milks and Yogurt AbstractIntroductionDefinition, Characteristics, and LegislationHistoryYogurt ManufactureRecent Developments in Yogurt-Related ProductsConclusion and OutlookSee alsoFurther ReadingFISH | Catching and Handling AbstractAnatomy and Physiology of FishComposition of Body TissuesMicrobiology of FishFlora of Newly Caught FishRole of Handling on Bacterial SpoilageHigh-Pressure ProcessingSee alsoFurther ReadingFISH | Spoilage of Fish AbstractIntroductionRole of Autolysis, Lipid Oxidation, and MicroorganismsFish as Substrate for Microbial Growth and MetabolismSpoilage of Different Types of Fish ProductsSee alsoFurther ReadingFlavobacterium spp. - Characteristics, Occurrence, and Toxicity AbstractCharacteristics of Flavobacterium SpeciesOccurrenceToxicitySee alsoReferencesFlow Cytometry AbstractIntroductionHistory of Flow Cytometry and Microbiological ApplicationsAdvantages of Flow Cytometry as a Whole-Cell TechniqueFlow Cytometric AnalysisData Analysis, Formatting, and ReportingMultiparameter AnalysisEnumeration of CellsCell SortingFluorescent StainsNonspecific Fluorescent StainsCell-Specific Fluorescent StainsChallengesSelected Applications of Flow Cytometry in Food MicrobiologyCommercially Available InstrumentsNext-Generation and Specialized InstrumentationConclusion and Future PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingFood Poisoning Outbreaks AbstractIntroductionEpidemiology and ControlInvestigation of Foodborne DiseaseReporting of Foodborne DiseaseSee alsoFurther ReadingFood Safety Objective AbstractFood Safety Objective ConceptFSO TerminologyRisk AnalysisConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFREEZING OF FOODS | Damage to Microbial Cells AbstractEffect of Freezing on the Microbial Environment Provided by FoodsInjury of Microorganisms by Freezing and ThawingCryoprotectantsEffects of Freezing on Microorganisms in FoodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFREEZING OF FOODS | Growth and Survival of Microorganisms AbstractTemperature and Microbial GrowthPrefreezing Operations and Microbial GrowthEffect of Freezing on Microbial GrowthSee alsoFurther ReadingFRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Introduction AbstractIntroductionOverview of Fruits and Vegetables Disease OutbreaksMain Sources of Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables by Foodborne PathogensMechanisms of Fruits and Vegetables Contamination by Foodborne PathogensSurvival and Growth of Pathogens in Fruits and VegetablesControl of Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables by Foodborne PathogensSee alsoFurther ReadingFRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Advances in Processing Technologies to Preserve and Enhance the Safety of Fresh and Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables AbstractIntroductionChemical TreatmentsCold PlasmaIrradiationUltraviolet LightModified Atmosphere PackagingConclusionAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingFRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Fruit and Vegetable Juices AbstractMicroorganisms Associated to the Contamination of Fruit and Vegetables JuicesContamination of Vegetable Beverages by MicroorganismsSee alsoReferencesFurther ReadingFRUITS AND VEGETABLES | Sprouts AbstractIntroductionSproutsInterventions during the Sprouting ProcessPostharvest Treatments for Matured SproutsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | Overview of Classification of the Fungi Features Used to Define a True FungusFeatures Used in ClassificationPhylum ChytridiomycotaPhylum ZygomycotaPhylum AscomycotaPhylum BasidiomycotaMitosporic FungiConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | The Fungal Hypha AbstractAcknowledgementIntroductionThe Fungal CellSpecial Vegetative StructuresSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsiteFUNGI | Classification of the Basidiomycota AbstractGeneral Considerations in the Classification of LifeTaxonomy, Systematics, and Classification of BasidiomycetesClassification and the Origins of Fungi (Basidiomycetes)Classification of Basidiomycota as a Phylum in Kingdom FungiClassification of BasidiomycetesSee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | Classification of the Deuteromycetes AbstractDefining Features of the `Class'Organizational Framework for Mitosporic FungiGenera Involved in Food MicrobiologySee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | Classification of the Eukaryotic Ascomycetes AbstractIntroductionDefining Features of the AscomycetesGeneral Features of AscomycetesBasis for Division of AscomycetesCommercial Importance of AscomycetesSee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | Classification of the Hemiascomycetes AbstractConidium OntogenySaccharomycetalesDipodascalesEcological ImportanceKloeckeraDebaryomycesHansenulaImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | Classification of the Peronosporomycetes AbstractIntroductionClass DiagnosisFeatures of the Class: Commercial ImportanceBiochemistryGeneral Morphology: Characters Used in TaxonomyCharacteristics of the Subclasses and the More Important OrdersConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingFUNGI | Classification of Zygomycetes: Reappraisal as Coherent Class Based on a Comparison between Traditional versus Molecular Systematics AbstractNomenclatural ConsiderationsMorphological Considerations: Which Structures Exhibit Phylogenetic Relevance?An Ordinal Structure of the Zygomycota: Historical Outline of Its RevisionReferencesFurther ReadingFUNGI | Foodborne Fungi: Estimation by Cultural Techniques AbstractThe Challenge of Quantifying Fungal GrowthEnumeration TechniquesChoosing a Suitable MediumTechniques for Heat-Resistant FungiTechniques for YeastsMedia FormulationsSee alsoFurther ReadingFusarium AbstractCharacteristicsMethods of DetectionMethods of IdentificationRegulationsSee alsoFurther ReadingG Genetic Engineering AbstractHistoryBasic ToolsFood-Grade Recombinant BacteriaMicrobial ProductsFurther ReadingGeotrichum AbstractIntroductionImportance of Geotrichium in the Food IndustryMethods of Detection and EnumerationPathogenicitySee alsoFurther ReadingGiardia duodenalis AbstractIntroductionWaterborne and Foodborne TransmissionWaterborne GiardiasisFoodborne GiardiasisInactivation of Giardia Cysts in Water and FoodConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingGluconobacter AbstractCharacteristics of the Genus GluconobacterMethods of DetectionImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingGood Manufacturing Practice AbstractIntroductionHuman ResourcesFinance and InvestmentFacilitiesMaterials and Food IngredientsManufacturing ControlLaboratory ControlDocumentationTransportationNew Product DevelopmentProduct Information and Consumer AwarenessLegislation and GMPFuture DevelopmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingH Hafnia, The Genus AbstractIntroductionTaxonomyIsolation and IdentificationEpidemiologyPathogenicityClinical Significance in HumansImportance in FoodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingHansenula: Biology and Applications AbstractThe Genus Hansenula: Taxonomy and MorphologyHansenula Species Causing Human DiseasesHansenula Species Involved in Food ProductionHansenula polymorpha: A Model Organism for Fundamental StudiesHansenula polymorpha in Applied Research and ProductionSee alsoReferencesHAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | The Overall Concept AbstractIntroductionThe History of the HACCP SystemHazard AnalysisCritical Control PointsMonitoringVerification and DocumentationThe Role of HACCPSee alsoFurther ReadingHAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Critical Control Points AbstractDetermination of Critical Control PointsSee alsoFurther ReadingHAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Establishment of Performance Criteria AbstractIntroductionPrerequisite ProgramsImplementation Steps of HACCP: Critical LimitsMicrobial Criteria and Microbial SamplingRisk-Based Food Safety Management: Process Criteria and Product CriteriaSources of InformationSee alsoFurther ReadingHAZARD APPRAISAL AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) | Involvement of Regulatory Bodies AbstractIntroductionHazard Appraisal in the Context of Risk AnalysisHazards of Concern in FoodsThe Regulatory Bodies' Role in Hazard AppraisalSee alsoFurther ReadingHEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Action of Microwaves AbstractIntroductionEM WavesMicrowave versus Conventional HeatingInteraction with FoodThe Microwave OvenMicrowave Heating QuantificationMicrowave PhenomenaMicrowaves and MicrobiologySee alsoFurther ReadingHEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Principles of Canning AbstractAcknowledgmentIntroductionMicrobiological ViewpointCanned Food ProductionConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingHEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Principles of Pasteurization AbstractHistorical OriginsBasic Aims of PasteurizationThermal Death of MicroorganismsModern Pasteurization ProcessesEstimating the Lethality of a Pasteurization ProcessSee alsoFurther ReadingHEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Spoilage Problems Associated with Canning AbstractIntroductionThe Canning ProcessSpoilage of Canned FoodsQuality Assurance of Canned FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingHEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Synergy Between Treatments AbstractIntroductionPossible Combinations of TreatmentsEvidence of Combination EffectsEffects on MicroorganismsPossible ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingHEAT TREATMENT OF FOODS | Ultra-High-Temperature Treatments AbstractIntroductionReview of Kinetic ParametersContinuous Processing OptionsSafety and Spoilage ConsiderationsControlling the ProcessSee alsoFurther ReadingHelicobacter AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of the Genus HelicobacterMethods to Test for H. PyloriRoutes of TransmissionPresence in FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingHelminths AbstractIntroductionNematodesCestodesTrematodesPrevention and Cure of Infection with Foodborne Helminth ParasitesSee alsoFurther ReadingHigh-Pressure Treatment of Foods AbstractIntroductionNature of the ProcessApplications in the Food IndustryEffect on Microbial CellsIntrinsic and Extrinsic Factors Affecting SensitivitySee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesHistory of Food Microbiology (A Brief) AbstractMethodsToxinsMicrobiological ControlTreatmentsSummarySee alsoFurther ReadingHurdle Technology AbstractIntroductionThe Principles of Hurdle TechnologyMultitarget Preservation Using Hurdle TechnologyApplications of Hurdle TechnologyLimitations to Hurdle TechnologyThe Future for Hurdle TechnologySee alsoFurther ReadingHydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter Techniques AbstractIntroductionPrinciples of HGMFCounting Colonies on HGMFEnsuring Validity of MPNCalculating MPN per GramPrecision of MPNHistory of HGMFApplications of HGMF to Food MicrobiologyCulture-Based ApplicationsColiform and E. coli CountYeast and Mold CountSalmonellaImmunological and Colony Hybridization ApplicationsOther Possible ApplicationsAdvantages and Limitations of HGMFSee alsoFurther ReadingI Ice Cream: Microbiology AbstractRaw Materials: Major Components and AdditivesProduction ProcessMicrobial Changes During StorageIce Cream and Foodborne DiseasesSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Introduction AbstractWhy Identification?Types of Microorganisms to be Identified in FoodIdentification Approaches in Food MicrobiologyBiochemical IdentificationMolecular IdentificationStrain TypingCulture-Independent IdentificationSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Chromogenic Agars AbstractIntroductionSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Culture-Independent Techniques AbstractRecent Trends in Food MicrobiologyThe Culture-Independent MethodsApplications in Food MicrobiologyHigh-Throughput Sequencing and MetagenomicsFuture PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Fingerprinting: Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis for Subtyping of Foodborne Pathogens AbstractIntroductionRestriction Fragment-Length AnalysisTechnical Overview of Pulsed-Field Gel ElectrophoresisContour-Clamped Homogenous Electric FieldBasic PrinciplesReproducibility and StandardizationDocumentation of Data and Interpretation PFGE PatternsRelevance in Foodborne Disease Investigations and SurveillanceSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Fingerprinting: Restriction Fragment-Length Polymorphism AbstractOverviewGenetic Basis of RFLPRFLP Fingerprinting of Chromosomal DNARFLP Fingerprinting of Chromosomal DNA with Probe HybridizationRFLP of PCR-AmpliconsApplications for RFLP FingerprintingConclusion and Future PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Bacteria RiboPrint (TM): A Realistic Strategy to Address Microbiological Issues outside of the Research Laboratory AbstractIntroductionManual RibotypingAutomated RibotypingConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Application of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms-Based Typing for DNA Fingerprinting of Foodborne Bacteria AbstractIntroductionHybridization-Based SNP TypingPrimer Extension-Based SNP TypingOther Types of AssaysExamples of SNP-Typing Applications in Food MicrobiologyConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Identification Methods and DNA Fingerprinting: Whole Genome Sequencing AbstractIntroductionMicrobial Functions FingerprintingStrain FingerprintingSpecies FingerprintingGenome In Silico Reconstruction from Metagenomic DataConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Multilocus Sequence Typing of Food Microorganisms AbstractDesign of an MLST SchemeIsolate CollectionHousekeeping Gene SelectionOligonucleotide DesignIsolate Characterization Using MLSTMLST DatabasesAdvantages and Limitations of MLST Typing SchemesPopulation StudiesMLST in Food MicrobiologyFoodborne PathogensBacteria Involved in Food FermentationSaccharomyces cerevisiaeSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | DNA Hybridization and DNA Microarrays for Detection and Identification of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens AbstractIntroductionPrinciple of Microarrays and HybridizationFabrication and Types of MicroarraysPrinted MicroarraysSuspension Bead ArraysIn Situ Synthesized Oligonucleotide MicroarraysExperimental ProcedureApplications of DNA Microarray for the Detection of Foodborne PathogensApplications of DNA Microarrays for Gene Expression Studies in Foodborne BacteriaSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Immunoassay AbstractIntroductionTypes and Uses of Immunoassays for Microbial DetectionConclusionDisclaimerSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Identification of Clinical Microorganisms with MALDI-TOF-MS in a Microbiology Laboratory AbstractIntroductionMALDI-TOF-MSIdentification by MALDI-TOF-MS in the Routine Medical Microbiology LaboratoryOutlook and DevelopmentSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis AbstractIntroductionMLEE Principle and MethodologyContribution of MLEE in Population Genetics and Epidemiology of MicroorganismsIdentification and Strain Typing of Pathogens by MLEEPresent Scenario of MLEE in the Molecular EraConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingIDENTIFICATION METHODS | Real-Time PCR AbstractIntroductionReal-Time PCR Detection StrategiesPrinciples of qPCR-Based Quantitative DetectionDiagnostic Real-Time PCR ParametersImplementation of Real-Time PCR in Food Microbiology DiagnosticsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingImmunomagnetic Particle-Based Techniques: Overview AbstractIntroductionPrinciples of Immunomagnetic Separation SystemsTypes of Magnetizable ParticlesImmobilization of Antibodies and Types of IMSBlocking Proteins and Antibody ImmobilizationMagnetic Particle ConcentratorsFactors Affecting the Performance of Immunomagnetic Separation SystemsIncubation During IMSWashing During IMSPrinciples of Combination Techniques for Foodborne PathogensFood Sample PreparationWater Sample PreparationDetection MethodsAdvantages and LimitationsFuture PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingIndicator Organisms AbstractIntroductionTarget and Role of Indicator MicroorganismsIndicator Microorganisms for Food QualityIndicator Microorganisms for Food SafetyMost Commonly Used Indicator Organisms in FoodsOther IndicatorsIndicator Microorganisms Used in Microbiological LaboratoriesSurrogate MicroorganismsSee alsoFurther ReadingInjured and Stressed Cells AbstractIntroductionInjury of MicroorganismsReferencesFurther ReadingIntermediate Moisture Foods AbstractPrinciples Behind Formulation of IM FoodsTraditional and Commercial IM FoodsAdvantages of IM FoodsProcessing Technologies of IM FoodsThe FutureSee alsoFurther ReadingInternational Control of Microbiology AbstractIntroductionEnforcement and Control Agencies and Their RoleStandardizationFuture DevelopmentSee alsoFurther ReadingK Klebsiella AbstractBackgroundDefinition and General Physiological Properties of Klebsiella spp.Isolation and IdentificationDescription of the DiseasesOccurrence of Klebsiella in Humans, Foods, Waters, and EnvironmentsRole in Foodborne OutbreaksSelected Virulence Factors of KlebsiellaOther Virulence FactorsIndustrial Importance of KlebsiellaeAntimicrobial ResistanceAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingKluyveromyces AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesBiotechnological Importance of KluyveromycesSee alsoFurther ReadingL Laboratory Design AbstractIntroductionDesign Objectives for the Food Microbiology LaboratoryDesign DocumentationLaboratory LayoutEssential Services and EquipmentOther Types of EquipmentManagement OrganizationPersonnel RequirementsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingLaboratory Management Systems: Accreditation Schemes AbstractIntroductionAccreditation Standards and LegislationBenefits and Drawbacks of Laboratory AccreditationImplementation of Laboratory Management SystemsSee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOBACILLUS | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesGenomicsImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus acidophilus AbstractIntroductionTaxonomyMetabolism and ProductsIdentification and DifferentiationGenomicsGrowth and Culture ConditionsProbiotic Capacity of LactobacilliSelection CriteriaConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus brevis AbstractTaxonomyMethods of Detection and Enumeration of L. brevis in FoodsCulture Maintenance and ConservationImportance in the Food IndustryImportance for the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus AbstractTaxonomyMethods of Detection and Enumeration of L. bulgaricus in FoodsCulture Maintenance and ConservationImportance in the Food IndustryImportance for the ConsumerConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOBACILLUS | Lactobacillus casei AbstractGeneral Characteristics of the SpeciesMetabolism and EnzymesGenetics and BacteriophagesApplication in Food FermentationsFood SpoilageProbioticsSee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOCOCCUS | Introduction AbstractCharacteristicsGenomicsImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingLACTOCOCCUS | Lactococcus lactis Subspecies lactis and cremoris AbstractIntroductionGeneral InformationEcological ConsiderationsHealth, Disease, and SafetyTaxonomy, Genetic, Genomic, Transcryptomic, and ProteomicMetabolism of Lc. lactisGrowth Conditions in Milk, Culture MediaRoles of Lc. lactis in TechnologyConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingLasers: Inactivation Techniques AbstractIntroductionApplicationsLaser CharacteristicsProtocols, Methodologies, and ResultsScanning Laser BeamsLaser Inactivation and Substrate MaterialEffect of Environmental Parameters on Laser InactivationLaser and Combined TreatmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingLeuconostocaceae Family AbstractIntroductionTaxonomy of the LeuconostocaceaeLeuconostocaceae in their Natural EnvironmentDetection and Enumeration of Leuconostocaceae in Beverages and FoodsImportance of Leuconostocaceae in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingLISTERIA | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesGenomeMethods of DetectionRegulationsImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingLISTERIA | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques AbstractIntroductionDetection of L. monocytogenes by Cultural MethodsImplementation of Detection and Enumeration of L. monocytogenes in FoodSee alsoFurther ReadingLISTERIA | Detection by Colorimetric DNA Hybridization AbstractIntroductionPrinciple of the DNAH Assays for the Genus Listeria and for L. monocytogenesProtocols for the DNAH Detection of Listeria Species or L. monocytogenes and Point of Application in the Cultural TechniquesAdvantages and Limitations of the Colorimetric DNA Hybridization Method Compared with other TechniquesValidated ResultsSummaryAcknowledgmentSee alsoFurther ReadingLISTERIA | Detection by Commercial Immunomagnetic Particle-Based Assays and by Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays AbstractIntroductionMethods of DetectionImmunosensors for Listeria DetectionFuture TrendsAcknowledgmentSee alsoFurther ReadingLISTERIA | Listeria monocytogenes AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesVirulenceOccurrence in FoodFoodborne IllnessDetection of L. monocytogenesSerologyOther Typing MethodsGenomicsSee alsoFurther ReadingLISTERIA | Listeria monocytogenes - Detection by Chemiluminescent DNA Hybridization AbstractPrinciple of the Gen-Probe Assay for L. monocytogenesProtocol for the Detection of L. monocytogenes and Point of Application in the Cultural TechniquesAdvantages and Limitations of the Chemiluminescent Probe Compared with Other TechniquesResults and Reported Data on Collaborative Evaluations and ValidationsSee alsoFurther ReadingM MEAT AND POULTRY | Curing of Meat AbstractIntroductionHistorical BackgroundCuring Reaction in MeatsMechanism of Action against MicroorganismsProcessing MethodsNaturally Cured ProductsPreservation of Cured Meat ProductsShelf-StableCured Meat and Human HealthSee alsoFurther ReadingMEAT AND POULTRY | Spoilage of Cooked Meat and Meat Products AbstractIntroductionHeat Processed MeatProcessed MeatsPackaged Meat ProductsChemical SpoilageSee alsoFurther ReadingMEAT AND POULTRY | Spoilage of Meat AbstractIntroductionSpecial Problems Associated with MeatFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Lipid Metabolism AbstractLipids in Fungi and BacteriaMajor Lipid ClassesBiochemical Mechanisms of UptakeTransformations Within the CellIncorporation of Fatty Acids into Triglycerides and other Intracellular StructuresSee alsoFurther ReadingMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Metabolism of Minerals and Vitamins AbstractIntroductionUptake of Minerals by BacteriaMechanisms for Incorporation of Minerals into EnzymesHeavy-Metal Efflux Systems and MetallothioneinBiosynthesis and Uptake of VitaminsSee alsoFurther ReadingMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Nitrogen Metabolism AbstractIntroductionInorganic Nitrogen MetabolismAmino Acid MetabolismNucleotide MetabolismSee alsoFurther ReadingMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Production of Secondary Metabolites of Bacteria AbstractIntroductionThe Effect of Secondary Metabolites on Food Products and Foodborne IllnessBeneficial Effects of Bacterial Secondary MetabolitesAssembly of NRP MoleculesType I Polyketide SynthasesType II Polyketide SynthaseType III Polyketide SynthaseShikimate Pathwayss-Lactam Ring Synthetic PathwaysConclusionDisclaimerAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Production of Secondary Metabolites - Fungi AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of Secondary MetabolitesMetabolic Pathway for Secondary MetabolitesTransformation within CellsAntibioticsPenicillinsSynthetic Pathway and Regulation of Penicillin FormationIndustrial Production of PenicillinCephalosporinsSynthetic Pathway of Cephalosporins in FungiIndustrial Production of CephalosporinsFusidic AcidBiosynthetic Pathway of Fusidic AcidApplications of Fusidic AcidGriseofulvinBiosynthesis of GriseofulvinCommercial ProductionApplications of GriseofulvinPleuromutilin (Tiamulin)Production of PleuromutilinApplications of PleuromutilinOther Secondary MetabolitesFungal Secondary Metabolites in Fermented FoodsMeat ProductsProduction of Secondary Metabolites in Meat ProductsCheesesSecondary Metabolites in CheeseSecondary Metabolites in Soy SauceSee alsoFurther ReadingMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Release of Energy (Aerobic) AbstractIntroductionTransport into the CellActive Transport: Symport of SugarsGroup Translocation: PTSEMP PathwayED PathwayPentose-Phosphate (PP) and Pentose-Phosphoketolase PathwaysPentose-Phosphoketolase PathwayGlycolytic Pathways in ArchaeaEnergy Balance and Distribution of the Glucose-Degrading PathwaysOxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl-Coenzyme AThe Citric Acid CycleOther Substrates as Sources for Metabolic ActivitySee alsoFurther ReadingMETABOLIC PATHWAYS | Release of Energy (Anaerobic) AbstractMetabolism and MicroorganismsBacterial Growth during FermentationSubstrates Utilized by Bacteria and FungiMechanisms of UptakePathways Involved in CatabolismThe Monophosphate ShuntED PathwayAnaerobic RespirationFermentationSites of Activity (Mitochondria and Membrane)See alsoFurther ReadingMethanogens AbstractDiversity and TaxonomyMethanogenic BioreactorsMethanogenesis in the Gastrointestinal Tract of AnimalsGenomic Studies for MethanogensSee alsoFurther ReadingMicrobial Risk Analysis AbstractIntroductionComponents of Microbial Risk AnalysisThe Role of Food Safety Metrics in the Context of Risk AnalysisSee alsoFurther ReadingMicrobiological Reference Materials AbstractIntroductionAvailability of (C)RMsPreparation of RMsRoutine Use of RMsUse of CRMsSome Statistical Aspects of the Use of RMsSee alsoFurther ReadingMicrobiology of Sous-vide Products AbstractIntroductionProcessing of Sous-vide FoodsPhysicochemical Characteristics of Sous-vide FoodsBacteria in Sous-vide FoodsRecommendations and RegulationsFuture DevelopmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingMicrococcus AbstractTaxonomic Status of Micrococcus and MicrococcaceaeMain Habitats and PathogenicityDetection, Enumeration, and Identification MethodsOccurrence of Micrococcus and Micrococcaceae in FoodsApplications of Micrococcus and Micrococcaceae in FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | The Natural Microflora of Humans AbstractIntroductionProgression of Gut Microbiota Signatures from Infants to AgingLifestyle and Environmental Factors Influencing the Pattern of Gut MicrobiotaGut Microbiota at Genomic and Proteomic LevelsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Biology of Bifidobacteria AbstractIntroductionRole of Bifidobacteria in the IntestineColonization of the Intestine, Causes of Depletion, and Possible EffectsGrowth-Promoting FactorsHealth-Promoting PotentialsIntestinal Bifidobacterial Counts and Dietary SupplementationAvailable ProductsCharacterization/Survival of Bifidobacteria in Dairy ProductsSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Biology of Lactobacillus acidophilus AbstractIntroductionLactobacilli Colonization in the Gastrointestinal TractRole of L. acidophilus in the IntestineMucosal InteractionCauses of Depletion and Possible EffectsAdvantages of Dietary SupplementationDiarrheaLactose DigestionCholesterol ReductionCancer SuppressionConstipationImmune System StimulationAvailable Products and Survival until ConsumptionSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Biology of the Enterococcus spp. AbstractIntroductionRole of Enterococci in the Human Intestinal Indigenous MicrobiotaFunctional Properties of EnterococciPathogenetic and Toxicogenic Activities of EnterococciUse of Enterococci in the Food IndustryConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROFLORA OF THE INTESTINE | Detection and Enumeration of Probiotic Cultures AbstractIntroductionTraditional Approaches for Detection and Enumeration of ProbioticsCulture-Dependent Traditional Approaches for Detection and Enumeration of ProbioticsCharacterization by Microscopic AnalysisCharacterization by Biochemical AnalysisModern Approaches for Detection of ProbioticsAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesMICROSCOPY | Atomic Force Microscopy AbstractIntroductionPrinciples of AFMAtomic Force Microscopic Imaging in Food MicrobiologyMeasuring Forces of Interaction in Food MicrobiologyFuture ProspectsSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROSCOPY | Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy AbstractA Brief HistoryWhy Use CLSM in the Field of Food Microbiology?Principle of CLSMStaining and Mounting the SampleCLSM Multimodal Image AcquisitionRelated CLSM TechniquesSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROSCOPY | Light Microscopy AbstractIntroductionPrinciples of Light MicroscopyCytological Light MicroscopyConclusionsSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROSCOPY | Scanning Electron Microscopy AbstractAcknowledgmentScanning Electron MicroscopeSample PreparationMounting the SpecimenCryo-SEMVariable Pressure SEMSputter CoatingImagingDetectorsMagnification, Resolution, and Scale BarsX-Ray Elemental Analysis by SEMSerial Block-Face Scanning Electron MicroscopyConclusionDisclaimerSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROSCOPY | Sensing Microscopy AbstractIntroductionChemical-Imaging Sensor (pH-Sensing Microscope)ApplicationObservation of MicroorganismsSee alsoFurther ReadingMICROSCOPY | Transmission Electron Microscopy AbstractAcknowledgmentsTransmission Electron MicroscopeHow the TEM WorksInstrument AlignmentMethods and Techniques in TEMUltramicrotomyNegative StainImmuno-EMElectron CryomicroscopySingle-Particle AnalysisCryoelectron TomographyConclusionDisclaimerSee alsoFurther ReadingMILK AND MILK PRODUCTS | Microbiology of Liquid Milk AbstractIntroductionSources of ContaminationBacteriological Standards for Raw and Pasteurized MilkCollection and Storage of Raw MilkMicrobiology of Pasteurized MilkOther Methods for Controlling Microorganisms in Raw MilkSee alsoFurther ReadingMILK AND MILK PRODUCTS | Microbiology of Cream and Butter AbstractCreamButterMicrobiological Standards for Cream and ButterSee alsoFurther ReadingMILK AND MILK PRODUCTS | Microbiology of Dried Milk Products AbstractManufacturing ProcessesRaw MilkMilk ProcessingSkim Milk PowderEnvironmental ContaminationProcess MonitoringSuggested StandardsSee alsoFurther ReadingMINIMAL METHODS OF PROCESSING | Manothermosonication AbstractIntroductionHistory of ManothermosonicationBasic PrinciplesEffects of Ultrasonic Waves on Microbial CellsHurdle Preservation Involving MTSEnzyme InactivationIndustrial Applications of MTSSee alsoFurther ReadingMINIMAL METHODS OF PROCESSING | Potential Use of Phages and Lysins AbstractThe Nature of Phages for PathogensCharacteristics of the PhagesPhages ReplicationProblems of Employing Phages for Control of Pathogens in FoodNature of Lysins and Their ProductionPotential for Commercial Use of Lysins, Including Production In Vitro and Related ProblemsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant websitesMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | An Introduction to Molecular Biology (Omics) in Food Microbiology AbstractIntroductionGenome Sequencing; Genomics454 PyrosequencingIllumina/Solexa SequencingThe SOLiD Sequencing ApproachIon-Torrent (Semiconductor) SequencingNanopore SequencingGenomewide Transcript AnalysisProteomics AnalysisMetabolism MetabolomicsBioinformatics and OutlookSee alsoFurther ReadingMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Genomics AbstractIntroductionA Brief History of Bacterial Genome Sequencing and TechnologiesGenomics of Lactic Acid BacteriaLactobacillus GenomicsGene Annotation: Approaches and ChallengesProspects and ConclusionAnnex 1: Interpretation of a Genome AtlasAnnex 2: Visualization of Whole Genome Alignments to Assess Overall Sequence and Organizational Similarity.See alsoFurther ReadingMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Metabolomics AbstractIntroductionMethodologyCurrent TrendsApplications in Food MicrobiologyConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Microbiome AbstractIntroductionThe Composition of the MicrobiomeMethods Used to Study the MicrobiomeThe Biological Function of the MicrobiomeThe Microbiome and DiseasesThe Microbiome as a Therapy TargetSee alsoFurther ReadingMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Proteomics AbstractIntroductionProteomics Technologies for the Identification and Quantification of ProteinsProteomics of Lactic Acid BacteriaProbioticsBacterial Secretome and Proteomics of Biofilm FormationProteomics of YeastsMetabolic EngineeringMetaproteomicsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Transcriptomics AbstractIntroductionTranscriptomics of Foodborne PathogensTranscriptomics of Spoilage MicroorganismsTranscriptomics of Food-Grade MicroorganismsMethods Employed in TranscriptomicsChallengesAdvances in Food TranscriptomicsFurther ReadingMOLECULAR BIOLOGY | Molecular Biology in Microbiological Analysis AbstractIntroductionMicrobiological Analysis of FoodsNucleic Acid-Based TestsDirect Hybridization AssaysAmplification-Based MethodsPolymerase Chain ReactionApplication of PCR in Food SamplesFuture DevelopmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingMonascus-Fermented Products AbstractIntroductionRed Mold RiceSecondary Metabolites of RMRApplications of Monascus-Fermented Products on Iatrical PreventionSee alsoFurther ReadingMoraxellaceae AbstractIntroductionMoraxellaAcinetobacterPsychrobacterSee alsoFurther ReadingMucor AbstractIntroductionImportance of Mucor in the Food IndustryMethods of Detection and EnumerationPathogenicitySee alsoFurther ReadingMycobacterium AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusTuberculosis in BirdsTuberculosis in Ruminants, Swine, and HorsesTuberculosis in ElephantsGovernment RegulationsMycobacteria Species of Public Health ImportanceHabitatIsolation of the AgentIdentification of the Agent - Methods of DetectionZiehl-Neelsen StainColonial MorphologyGrowth Rate and Pigment ProductionDifferential Characteristics of Commonly Isolated MycobacteriaSee alsoFurther ReadingMYCOTOXINS | Classification AbstractWhat Is a Mycotoxin?The ToxinsThe Mycotoxin-Producing MoldsContamination of Foods by MycotoxinsToxicity and Biological Effects of MycotoxinsMycotoxins of Greatest Concern and Their Effects on Animal and Human HealthMycotoxins of Lesser ConcernSee alsoFurther ReadingMYCOTOXINS | Detection and Analysis by Classical Techniques AbstractIntroductionDescription of Analytical MethodsAcknowledgmentsSee alsoReferencesMYCOTOXINS | Immunological Techniques for Detection and Analysis AbstractMycotoxinsImportant Mycotoxins in FoodMycotoxin AssayUse of Immunoaffinity ColumnsImmunological Methods for Detection and Analysis of MycotoxinsRadioimmunoassaysImmunoradiometric AssaysEnzyme-Linked Immunoassays for MycotoxinsDirect Competitive ELISAIndirect Competitive ELISANoncompetitive ELISAEnzyme-Linked-Immuno-Magnetic-Electrochemical-array (ELIME)Lateral Flow DevicesSurface Plasmon Resonance ImmunobiosensorsFiber-Optic ImmunosensorFluorescent PolarizationOther MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingMYCOTOXINS | Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Food AbstractIntroductionMycotoxins - Their Role and ImportanceFactors Determining Biosynthesis of MycotoxinsSources of MycotoxinsDivision of MycotoxinsMethods to Prevent Mycotoxin FormationSee alsoReferencesMYCOTOXINS | Toxicology AbstractIntroductionAspergillus ToxinsFusarium ToxinsPenicillium ToxinsAlternaria ToxinsCombined Effects of MycotoxinsSee alsoFurther ReadingN Nanotechnology AbstractIntroductionProperties of NanoparticlesNanotechnology in Food Safety, Food Processing and Packaging, and Targeted DeliveryFood and Agriculture SafetyFood Processing and PackagingVitamins and Phytochemicals Delivery (Nanoencapsulation Technology for Better Absorption, Stability, or Targeted Delivery)Application of Nanotechnology in Other Areas of Food MicrobiologyOther Relevant Uses of NanotechnologyHealth ConcernsNanomaterial Waste and Its Effect on Plant GrowthNanotechnology OversightConclusionAcknowledgmentsDisclaimerSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesNATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | Canada AbstractIntroductionMicrobiological StandardsMicrobiological GuidelinesHealth Canada's Compendium of Analytical MethodsHealth Canada GuidelinesCanadian Food Inspection AgencyProcessed Eggs RegulationsEgg RegulationsDairy Products RegulationsProcessed Products RegulationsFresh Fruit and Vegetable RegulationsMeat Inspection RegulationsFish Inspection Act and Fish Inspection RegulationsPower of RecallThe Canadian Shellfish Sanitation ProgramAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingNATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | European Union AbstractIntroductionFood Safety CriteriaProcess Hygiene CriteriaRules for SamplingSee alsoFurther ReadingNATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | Japan AbstractFood Safety Basic LawFood Sanitation LawEnforcement Order and Enforcement Regulation of the Food Sanitation LawMicrobiological StandardsTest MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingNATIONAL LEGISLATION, GUIDELINES & STANDARDS GOVERNING MICROBIOLOGY | US AbstractUS Governmental OrganizationUS Department of AgricultureUS Department of Health and Human ServicesSummarySee alsoFurther ReadingNATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Antimicrobial Compounds in Plants AbstractIntroductionRange of Antimicrobial Compounds in PlantsReduction of Spoilage by Antimicrobial CompoundsResponse of Plants to InfectionRole of Microbe-Associated Molecular PatternsPhytoalexin BiosynthesisMode of Action of PhytoalexinsDetoxification of PhytoalexinsSee alsoFurther ReadingNATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Lactoperoxidase and Lactoferrin AbstractIntroductionThe Lactoperoxidase SystemAntimicrobial Effect of the LP SystemEffects of the LP System on Milk ComponentsLactoferrinAntimicrobial Effects of LFAntiviral and Antiprotozoan Effects of LactoferrinEffect of LF on Dairy ProductsSee alsoFurther ReadingNATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Lysozyme and Other Proteins in Eggs AbstractOccurrenceStructurePropertiesMode of ActionImportance in Avian EggsImportance in Food and Pharmaceutical ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingNATURAL ANTI-MICROBIAL SYSTEMS | Preservative Effects During Storage AbstractIntroductionAn Ecological Concept of Food PreservationAntimicrobial Systems Naturally Present in FoodsYeastsKiller ToxinsEthanolAntimicrobial Compounds Produced by PlantsChelating AgentsEnzymesBacteriophagesFuture DevelopmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Cold Plasma for Bioefficient Food Processing AbstractIntroductionDefinition of PlasmaPlasma SourcesGeneral Aspects of Inactivation MechanismsInactivation of Microorganisms Attached to Model SystemsInactivation of Microorganisms Attached to Food MatricesSee alsoFurther ReadingNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Irradiation AbstractIntroductionThe Irradiation Process Dose and DosimetryIrradiation EquipmentSpecial Benefits of Food IrradiationApplications of Ionizing Radiation in the Food IndustryRadiation Levels for Control of Foodborne MicroorganismsEffects of Radiation on Selected Food ComponentsEffects of Radiation on Food-Packaging MaterialsAntimicrobial Mechanism of ActionFactors Affecting Inactivation of Microorganisms by IrradiationMicrobial Repair of Damage from IrradiationSee alsoFurther ReadingNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Microwave AbstractIntroductionElectromagnetic RadiationMicrowavePrinciples of Microwave RadiationThermal Effects of MicrowavesNonthermal Effects of MicrowaveUse of Microwave as Nonthermal ProcessingSee alsoFurther ReadingNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Pulsed Electric Field AbstractIntroductionTechnological Aspects of the Pulsed Electric FieldMechanisms of Microbial Inactivation by the Pulsed Electric FieldFactors Affecting Microbial Inactivation by Pulsed Electric FieldsKinetics of Microbial Inactivation by Pulsed Electric FieldMicrobial Inactivation by Combined Processes Including Pulsed Electric FieldsIndustrial Application Based on Microbial Inactivation by Pulsed Electric FieldSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Pulsed UV Light AbstractIntroductionPulsed UV Light Generation and Emission SpectrumPulsed UV Light DevicesProcessing ParametersMechanism of Microbial InactivationInactivation KineticsFactors Determining the Efficacy of PUV TreatmentsPotential Applications of PUV Technology and Main LimitationsSee alsoFurther ReadingNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Steam Vacuuming AbstractIntroductionThe Meat-Processing IndustryMeat ContaminationMeat SanitationSteam Vacuuming as a Carcass Intervention MethodSteam-Vacuuming EquipmentConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingNON-THERMAL PROCESSING | Ultrasonication AbstractIntroductionMechanisms of Action in the Sound FieldStimulation of Living CellsUltrasound Pretreatment in Analytical MicrobiologyInactivation of MicroorganismsConclusion and Future TrendsSee alsoFurther ReadingNucleic Acid-Based Assays: Overview AbstractIntroductionGene ProbesAmplification of Target SequencesOther Amplification ReactionsSee alsoFurther ReadingP PACKAGING | Active Food Packaging AbstractIntroductionActive Packaging TechniquesConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingPACKAGING | Controlled Atmosphere AbstractIntroductionHistory of CA and MAGases Used for CA and MA PackagingApplications of CA Packaging and StorageFresh Fruits and VegetablesSee alsoFurther ReadingPACKAGING | Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Foods AbstractIntroductionGases Used in MAPMAP ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingPackaging of Foods AbstractPreservation Requirements of Common Food CategoriesPackage Materials and StructuresSee alsoFurther ReadingPantoea AbstractTaxonomy and Systematics of Pantoea spp.Sources of Pantoea spp.Phenotypic Description, Identification, and Detection of Pantoea spp.Pantoea as Part of the Microbiota in Food FermentationUse of Pantoea as Microbial Temperature IndicatorExopolysaccharide Production by P. agglomeransUse of Pantoea spp. to Control Plant Infections and to Improve Plant Health and GrowthBiocontrol with P. agglomeransBiosafety Assessment of Pantoea Biocontrol PreparationRisk of InfectionRisk of Allergy and Environmental RisksFurther ReadingPCR Applications in Food Microbiology AbstractPolymerase Chain Reaction - The MethodSample Preparation, a Prerequisite to Reliable PCR Detection of Pathogens in the Food LaboratoryPCR Is Currently an Accepted Method in the Food Microbiology LaboratoryValidated PCR Methods for Foodborne PathogensApplication of PCR in Food Microbiology - ExamplesConclusion and PerspectivesSee alsoFurther ReadingPediococcus AbstractIntroductionGeneral Characteristics and PhysiologyMetabolismNutritionGenomicsPediocinsGenetic ModificationBacteriophageMethods of Detection and EnumerationBacteriological MediaDNA-Based Methods of IdentificationImmunological-Based Methods of IdentificationSome Practical ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingPENICILLIUM | Penicillium and Talaromyces:: Introduction AbstractTaxonomyTeleomorphs (Sexual States)The Sexual State in Penicillium SpeciesTalaromycesEnumeration and IsolationPhysiologyPenicillium Species Important in FoodsTalaromyces Species Important in FoodsMycotoxinsSee alsoFurther ReadingPENICILLIUM | Penicillium/Penicillia in Food Production AbstractIntroductionFermented Meat SausagesPork Ham and Faroan Lamb MeatWhite-Fermented CheesesBlue-Fermented CheesesFlavors of PenicilliumFeatures of Some Penicillia That Are Used as Real or Can Be Potential Starter CulturesSee alsoFurther ReadingPetrifilm - A Simplified Cultural Technique AbstractAvailable Commercial ProductsRange of Food Product ApplicationsGeneral Method and ProceduresProcedures Specified in Regulations, Guidelines, and DirectivesAdvantages and LimitationsInterpretation and Presentation of ResultsAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingPhycotoxins AbstractIntroductionToxins Produced by Dinoflagellates and DiatomsSaxitoxins GroupOkadaic Acid GroupBrevetoxin GroupCiguatera Toxin GroupDomoic Acid GroupAzaspiracid GroupPalytoxin GroupOthersToxins Produced by CyanobacteriaToxins of Bacterial Origin Associated with AlgaeTetrodotoxinControlling Phycotoxin PoisoningSee alsoFurther ReadingPHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROFLORAS | Centrifugation AbstractIntroductionPrinciple of CentrifugationOperating ParametersApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingPHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROFLORAS | Filtration AbstractIntroductionPrinciples of FiltrationFactors Affecting Filtration Processes PerformanceMaterials and Systems for Food UsesApplications in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingPichia pastoris AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesHistoryAdvantages of Using P. pastorisThe Pichia Expression SystemPichia Strains and PlasmidsConstruction of Recombinant StrainsProtein ExpressionPosttranslational Modification of Expressed ProteinsImportance to the Food IndustryConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingPlesiomonas AbstractIntroductionTaxonomy and HabitatsClinical FeaturesPathogenicity and Virulence FactorsPlesiomonas in FoodControlDetection and Identification of P. shigelloidesSee alsoFurther ReadingPolymer Technologies for the Control of Bacterial Adhesion - From Fundamental to Applied Science and Technology AbstractIntroductionSAMs as Model Systems for Bacterial Adhesion ResearchParameters Influencing Bacterial AdhesionNonfouling and Antimicrobial SurfacesConclusionSee alsoReferencesPredictive Microbiology and Food Safety AbstractIntroductionPast and PresentTheory and Philosophy of Mathematical ModelingModel TypesModel PerformanceExisting Technology and the FutureSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Classification and Properties AbstractIntroductionThe Need for PreservativesProperties of PreservativesClassificationAntimicrobial PropertiesUsesToxicology and Regulatory StatusSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Benzoic Acid AbstractIntroductionFoods to Which Benzoic Acid May Be AddedBehavior of Benzoic Acid in FoodAntimicrobial Action of Benzoic AcidImportance of Species and Strain ToleranceInteraction with Other Preservative TreatmentsDietary Exposure, Metabolism, and ToxicologyConcernsSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Hydroxybenzoic Acid AbstractRange of Foods to Which Parabens May be AddedBehavior and Antimicrobial Action of Different Forms in FoodsMetabolism and Toxicology of ParabensAssay Techniques for ParabensSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Natamycin AbstractIntroductionHistoryStructure and PropertiesToxicology and LegislationNatamycin as a Cheese PreservativeNatamycin for Fermented SausagesNatamycin as a Yogurt PreservativeNatamycin Control of Yeast Spoilage in WineNatamycin to Control Spoilage of Fruit JuicesPotential ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Nitrites and Nitrates AbstractFoods to Which Nitrates and Nitrites May Be AddedRegulation of Nitrate and Nitrite AdditionBehavior of Nitrites in FoodAntimicrobial Action of NitriteMechanism of Action of NitriteImportance of Species and Strain ToleranceToxicologyInteraction of Nitrite with Other PreservativesTransformation of Nitrite to NitrosaminesConsumer Concern about AminesConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Propionic Acid AbstractIntroductionFoods Permitted to Contain Propionic AcidBehavior of Propionic Acid in FoodAntimicrobial Action of Propionic AcidMetabolism and Toxicology of PropionatesSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Sorbic Acid AbstractIntroductionMethods of DetectionBehavior of Sorbate in FoodFoods to Which Sorbic Acid or Sorbate May Be AddedAntimicrobial Action of Sorbic AcidImportance of Species-Strain ToleranceInteraction with Other Preservative TreatmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Permitted Preservatives - Sulfur Dioxide AbstractIntroductionSulfur CompoundsSalts of Sulfurous AcidLiquid Sulfur DioxideRange of Foods to Which Sulfites May Be AddedAntimicrobial Action of Sulfur DioxideFactors Influencing Antimicrobial ActionBehavior of Sulfur Dioxide in FoodsInhibition of Enzymic DiscolorationInhibition of Nonenzymic BrowningAntioxidant PropertiesReducing and Bleaching ActionsLosses from Binding to Food ConstituentsImportance of Species and Strain ToleranceToxic Effects in HumansConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives - Oils and Spices AbstractIntroductionRange of Extracted Oils and Spices AvailableMode of Action on Microbial CellsIn Vitro and In Situ StudiesFactors Affecting Antimicrobial ActionRecent Developments in the Application of EO in Food IndustriesReferencesPRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives - Organic Acids AbstractIntroductionOrganic Acid-Based Acidification of FoodsToxicityBehavior of Various Organic Acids in FoodsEffect of Organic Acids on Microbial CellsEffects of Organic Acids on Microbial Populations and SpoilageSublethal Effects, Species-Strain Variability, and Interaction with Other FactorsSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives - Sodium Chloride AbstractIntroductionNaCl Suppression of GrowthMechanisms of NaCl Suppression of GrowthSalt ToleranceMechanisms of Salt ToleranceNaCl Effects on Heat ResistanceEffect of NaCl on SporesSalt-Induced Microbial SelectionDirect Preservation by SaltSummarySee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives - Vegetable Oils AbstractIntroductionVegetable Oil PreservativesExamples of Vegetable Oil PreservativesOils from Vegetables as Possible PreservativesMajor Component of Vegetable Oil That Makes It a Self-PreservativeSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Traditional Preservatives - Wood Smoke AbstractIntroductionRange of Smoked FoodsAfrican Smoked FishActive Antimicrobial Constituents of Wood SmokeEffect of Deposition on Microbial Cells and MicrofloraLikely Preservative Effect of SmokingPossible Risks to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingPrions AbstractIntroductionThe Molecular Mechanism of Prion DiseasesPrion Diseases and Other ProteinopathiesThe History of Prion DiseasesThe Host Range of Different Prion DiseasesPrion Diseases Relevant for Food HygieneTSE PathogenesisInactivation of TSE AgentsConsumer Protection Measures Based on Our Actual Knowledge on Prion DiseasesDiagnostic MethodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingProbiotic Bacteria: Detection and Estimation in Fermented and Nonfermented Dairy Products AbstractIntroductionMicroflora of Probiotic ProductsSee alsoFurther ReadingPRESERVATIVES | Overall Approach to Hygienic Processing AbstractIntroductionMicrobial RisksHygiene ManagementPersonal HygieneHygienic Design of Plant and EquipmentHygienic PracticesSee alsoFurther ReadingPROCESS HYGIENE | Designing for Hygienic Operation AbstractNature of the Product and Scale of OperationEquipment, Vats, Pipework, and Other Plant ItemsCritical Points of High Contamination RiskRisk from the EnvironmentBuildingAirWaterSoilPersonnelSee alsoReferenceFurther ReadingPROCESS HYGIENE | Hygiene in the Catering Industry AbstractSanitization of Fresh-Cut ProduceQuality Changes in Fresh-Cut Produce during DistributionSee alsoFurther ReadingPROCESS HYGIENE | Involvement of Regulatory and Advisory Bodies AbstractGeneral IntroductionInternational LevelEuropeThe United StatesAustralia and New ZealandCanadaScandinaviaJapanChinaSee alsoFurther ReadingPROCESS HYGIENE | Modern Systems of Plant Cleaning AbstractClean-in-PlaceThe Cleaning ProblemCIP System Design GuidelinesCIP ChemicalsTypical Cleaning SequenceSystem Configuration and LayoutAutomationValidation of Cleaning OperationsCIP in the Biopharmaceutical IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingPROCESS HYGIENE | Risk and Control of Airborne Contamination AbstractIntroductionPresence, Transport, and Sedimentation of MicroorganismsQuantification of Contamination with Airborne MicroorganismsMethods to Determine the Concentration of Microorganisms in AirSlit SamplerAndersen Perforated Disc SamplerImpingerFiltrationCentrifugationReduction of Airborne Microbial ContaminationInactivation by HeatInactivation by Ultraviolet LightInactivation Using Chemical AgentsRemoval of Particles from AirPrevention of RecontaminationValidation, Assurance, and Maintenance of Air FiltersConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingPROCESS HYGIENE | Disinfectant Testing AbstractIntroductionTesting Protocols for Chemical Agents Used in Environmental Contamination ControlTesting Protocols for Hand SanitizersTesting Protocols for Food RinsesContemporary Issues in Disinfectant TestingSee alsoReferencesPROCESS HYGIENE | Types of Sterilant AbstractIntroductionBasic DefinitionsHow Sanitizers Exert Their Germicidal ActivityHow Bacteria Build up Resistance to SanitizersSee alsoReferencesFurther ReadingProficiency Testing Schemes - A European Perspective AbstractIntroductionWhy Are PT Schemes Necessary?Who Organizes and Accredits PT Schemes?What Range of Tests Is Included in PT Schemes?Sample Preparation, Distribution, Analysis, and AssessmentData AnalysesInterpretation and Reporting of ResultsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingPropionibacterium AbstractTaxonomic ApproachEcological NicheEnumeration and Culture ProceduresUse of Propionibacteria in IndustryGenetic Improvement of PropionibacteriaSee alsoFurther ReadingProteus AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusHabitatProteus and FoodSusceptibility to Physical and Chemical AgentsPathogenicity and VirulenceDetection and Isolation of ProteusIdentificationSee alsoFurther ReadingPSEUDOMONAS | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusPseudomonas in Foods and Food Production EnvironmentsMethods of DetectionImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingPSEUDOMONAS | Burkholderia gladioli pathovar cocovenenans AbstractAcknowledgmentsCharacteristics of the OrganismToxinsSignificance in FoodsControlIsolation and DetectionSee alsoReferenceFurther ReadingPSEUDOMONAS | Pseudomonas aeruginosa AbstractIntroductionBiological Characteristics of P. aeruginosaRecommended Methods for Detection and Enumeration of Pseudomonas and Procedures Specified in International GuidelinesMedical Aspects of P. aeruginosaRelevance of P. aeruginosa in the Food SectorIndustrial Aspects and Bioremediation Properties of P. aeruginosaPseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm and Quorum SensingPseudomonas aeruginosa and BacteriocinsMultidrug-Resistant P. aeruginosa: A Public Health Issue WorldwideReferencesPsychrobacter AbstractIntroductionTaxonomyDetection and Enumeration in FoodsApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingR Rapid Methods for Food Hygiene Inspection AbstractIntroductionFood Hygiene InspectionTraining of Inspection StaffHygiene MonitoringMicrobiological Examination of FoodsMethodological RequirementsRapid MethodsClassical Cultural MethodsBiochemically Based Enumeration MethodsMicroscopic-Based Enumeration MethodsImmunoassaysBacteriophage-Based Detection MethodsMicroscopically Based Detection MethodsMolecular-Based Detection MethodsBiosensorsSelection Criteria for Alternative Rapid MethodsValidation of MethodsConclusionsSee alsoFurther ReadingResistance to Processes AbstractIntroductionInnate Resistance to ProcessingMicrobial Physiology and Resistance to ProcessingDormancy of Processing ResistanceHow Do Foodborne Microorganisms Develop Resistance to Processing?See alsoFurther ReadingRhizopus AbstractIntroductionGeneral Characteristics of RhizopusMetabolism and MetabolitesUtilization of Complex Substrates and Enzyme ProductionCultivationGenetic Analysis and ManipulationConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingRhodotorula AbstractThe Genus RhodotorulaPathogenicityThe Association of Rhodotorula with FoodsThe Occurrence of Rhodotorula in Foods and BeveragesRhodotorula in Specific Types of Food ProductsIndustrial Applications of Rhodotorula SpeciesSee alsoFurther ReadingS SACCHAROMYCES | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusIdentification of Saccharomyces SpeciesMolecular Methods to Differentiate SpeciesRandom Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain ReactionDetection, Isolation, and CultivationImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingSACCHAROMYCES | Brewer's Yeast AbstractBrewer's Yeast StrainsWort FermentationWort Sugar UptakeWort Nitrogen MetabolismOxygen and Yeast LipidsFlavor ProductsYeast Flocculation PropertiesSee alsoFurther ReadingSACCHAROMYCES | Saccharomyces cerevisiae AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesPhysiological and Biochemical PropertiesImportance to the Food IndustryProduction of Fermented Foods and BeveragesSpoilage of Foods and BeveragesProcessing of Food WasteSource of Food Ingredients and Processing AidsMethods of Detection and Identification in FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingSACCHAROMYCES | Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sake Yeast) AbstractTaxonomy and CharacteristicsImportance of Sake Yeast in the Sake IndustryDetection of Contaminating Yeast in MoromiBreeding of Sake YeastRecent Progress in Understanding the Molecular Biology of Sake YeastSee alsoFurther ReadingSALMONELLA | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of SalmonellaTaxonomic ConsiderationsPhysiologyVirulence FactorsPathogenesisSignificance to the Food IndustryConcepts in DetectionSee alsoFurther ReadingSALMONELLA | Detection by Classical Cultural Techniques AbstractIntroductionDetection of Salmonella in FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesSALMONELLA | Detection by Immunoassays AbstractAntigenic Makeup of SalmonellaEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent AssayEnzyme-Linked Fluorescent AssayLateral Flow Immunoassay (LIA)Latex Agglutination AssaySee alsoFurther ReadingSALMONELLA | Salmonella Enteritidis AbstractCharacteristics of SpeciesMethods for Detection in FoodsConventional MethodsRapid MethodsImportance in the Food IndustryOverall Economic ImpactContamination of Raw FoodsContamination of Nonpoultry Raw and Processed FoodsImportance to the ConsumerPurchasingSee alsoFurther ReadingSALMONELLA | Salmonella typhi AbstractClassificationIntroductionCharacteristicsPathogenesis and DiseaseImportance in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingSampling Plans on Microbiological Criteria AbstractIntroductionSampling and Sample PreparationSampling PlansFurther ReadingSanitization AbstractWhat is Sanitization?Type of Food-Contact SurfacesType of Microorganisms on Food SurfacesType of Soiling on Food-Contact SurfacesSanitization ProcessesIrradiationHeatResistance to SanitizersSee alsoFurther ReadingSchizosaccharomyces AbstractTaxonomy, Morphology, and Physiology of Schizosaccharomyces spp.Physiological and Biochemical PropertiesSignificance in Foods and BeveragesSee alsoFurther ReadingSerratia AbstractCharacterization of the GenusMethods of DetectionImportance of GenusSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesSHELLFISH (MOLLUSCS AND CRUSTACEA) | Characteristics of the Groups AbstractMollusksCrustaceaSee alsoReferencesSHELLFISH (MOLLUSCS AND CRUSTACEA) | Shellfish Contamination and Spoilage AbstractMicrobial and Chemical ContaminationsManagement and MitigationPHP for VirusesOyster Quality and Shelf LifeFuture Challenges and PerspectivesDisclaimerSee alsoReferencesFurther ReadingShewanella AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of the Food Spoilage ShewanellaBiochemical and Physiological AttributesApplicationsClinical RelevanceTolerance of Conditions in FoodsMethods of Detection and Enumeration in FoodsImportance of Shewanella Species in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingShigella: Introduction and Detection by Classical Cultural and Molecular Techniques AbstractThe PathogenPathogenesisShigella in FoodsDetection of Shigella from FoodsImpact on Industry and the ConsumerSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesSINGLE CELL PROTEIN | Mycelial Fungi AbstractIntroductionSignificance of Single-Cell ProteinChoice of Mycelial Fungi in BiotechnologyTexture and Flavor of MycoproteinCommercial Exploitation of Mycelial FungiFeatures of Commercial Exploitation of FungiGrowth Rates of FungiComposition of Fungi and Nutritional ValuesSCP Production MethodRNA Reduction ProcessesRecovery of Biomass from Culture BrothsDryingGeneral Product Specifications for SCP as Human FoodDigestibility (D)Biological Value (BV)Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)Preservation of MycoproteinCommercial Production of Mycelial ProteinTechnical Development of Mycoprotein and QuornCommercial Production of Mycoprotein Food ProductsCharacteristics of Mycoprotein ProductsMineral and Vitamin CompositionSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsiteSINGLE CELL PROTEIN | The Algae AbstractDescriptionOrganismsProductionNutritional Value and Human ConsumptionToxicological ProblemsSee alsoFurther ReadingSINGLE CELL PROTEIN | Yeasts and Bacteria AbstractDescriptionHistorical Developments and Implementation of SCP ProductionSuitable Organisms and SubstratesProduction ProcessesNutritional ValueToxicological AspectsCell Disruption and Protein IsolationUtilization for Human FoodProspectsSee alsoFurther ReadingSPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Microbial Spoilage of Eggs and Egg Products AbstractEggshell SpoilageEgg Product SpoilageSee alsoFurther ReadingSPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Microbial Milk Spoilage AbstractCharacteristics of Milk SpoilageMain Species Involved in Spoilage of MilkEnzymatic Activities Involved in Milk SpoilageAnalytical Methods Used to Detect or Predict Milk SpoilageSee alsoFurther ReadingSPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Seafood AbstractMicrobiota of SeafoodComponents of Seafood That Support Microbial GrowthSubstrate Conversion to Spoilage CompoundsChemical Changes under Reduced Oxygen ConditionsBiogenic AminesSee alsoFurther ReadingSPOILAGE OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS | Spoilage of Plant Products: Cereals and Cereal Flours AbstractIntroductionSpoilage before HarvestSpoilage during StorageSpoilage of Flours and Cereal-Based ProductsControl of Spoilage from Farm to TableFurther ReadingSPOILAGE PROBLEMS | Problems Caused by Bacteria AbstractIntroductionMeat SpoilageBacterial Spoilage of Milk and Milk ProductsSpoilage of Fruits and VegetablesSpoilage of Wines and BeerSpoilage in Commercial Fermentation FacilitiesSpoilage of Cereal Products and Bakery GoodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingSPOILAGE PROBLEMS | Problems Caused by Fungi AbstractIntroductionSpoilage of Living Plant-Derived FoodsSpoilage of Fresh FruitsVegetablesSpoilage of Fresh Dairy Foods and Nondairy SpreadsSpoilage of Stored and Processed FoodsSpoilage of Dried FoodsSpoilage of Low-Water-Activity, High-Sugar FoodsSpoilage of Salted FoodsSpoilage of Intermediate-Moisture Processed MeatsFungal Spoilage of CheeseFungal Spoilage of Heat-Processed Acid FoodsFungal Spoilage of Preserved Liquid FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingSTAPHYLOCOCCUS | Introduction AbstractStaphylococcal Food PoisoningStaphylococcal EnterotoxinsIsolation and DetectionSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesSTAPHYLOCOCCUS | Detection by Cultural and Modern Techniques AbstractIntroductionTaxonomyConditions Leading to an SFP OutbreakSources of Enterotoxin-Producing StaphylococciDetection Methods for S. aureusConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingSTAPHYLOCOCCUS | Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins AbstractTypes and General Properties of the Staphylococcal EnterotoxinsFood Implicated and Major OutbreaksBioassaysMolecular MethodsMass Spectrometry-Based MethodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingSTAPHYLOCOCCUS | Staphylococcus aureus AbstractCharacteristics of the SpeciesToxins and Adhesion MoleculesResistance to AntibioticsMethods of Detection and Enumeration of S. aureus in FoodsProcedures Specified in National and International Regulations or GuidelinesStaphylococcus aureus Secreting SEs in the Food IndustryImportance of LA-MRSA Emergence for Human HealthSee alsoFurther ReadingSTARTER CULTURES | Employed in Cheesemaking AbstractPrimary CulturesSecondary CulturesBacteriocinsExopolysaccharide ProductionProteolysisLactate ProductionDiacetyl, Acetate, and CO2 ProductionAcetaldehydePlasmids and GeneticsProduction of Bulk CulturesBacteriophageControl of PhageRole of Starter Cultures in Cheese RipeningSee alsoFurther ReadingSTARTER CULTURES | Importance of Selected Genera AbstractIntroductionBacteria Used as StartersOther BacteriaFungi Used as StartersFunctions of Starters in Food FermentationsSee alsoFurther ReadingSTARTER CULTURES | Molds Employed in Food Processing AbstractIntroductionPhysiological Characteristics of MoldsIndustrial Importance of MoldsUse of Molds in Cheese-MakingApplication of Molds in the Manufacture of Oriental FoodsSee alsoFurther ReadingSTARTER CULTURES | Uses in the Food Industry AbstractFermented FoodsInoculationPerformance Properties of Food CulturesMicroorganisms Used as Food CulturesRegulatory Environment for Microbial Food CulturesSources of Microbial Food CulturesSee alsoFurther ReadingSTREPTOCOCCUS | Introduction AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusHabitats and TaxonomyIsolation and CultivationStreptococci in FoodsHuman DiseasesSee alsoFurther ReadingSTREPTOCOCCUS | Streptococcus thermophilus AbstractIntroductionGeneral PropertiesEcology of S. thermophilusMethods for Cultivation and Enumeration of S. thermophilusCarbohydrate Metabolism by S. thermophilusPathways for Sugar MetabolismProtein MetabolismUse of S. thermophilus in the Production of Dairy FoodsProduction of Exopolysaccharides by S. thermophilusBacteriophages and S. thermophilusGenomics of S. thermophilusSee alsoFurther ReadingStreptomyces AbstractCharacteristics of the GenusThermophilic StreptomycesIsolation of StreptomycesPigment Production in StreptomycesSpore Formation in StreptomycesChromosomes and Plasmids of StreptomycesPhages of StreptomycesSigma Factors in StreptomycesPlant Diseases Caused by StreptomycesStreptomyces Associated with Humans and AnimalsStreptomyces as Source of Antibiotics, Antitumor, and Insecticidal CompoundsStreptomyces as a Biocontrol AgentProgrammed Cell Death in the Developmental Cycle of StreptomycesSpoilage of Food by StreptomycesSee alsoFurther ReadingT THERMAL PROCESSES | Commercial Sterility (Retort) AbstractIntroductionMicrobial Inactivation KineticIn-Package Thermal ProcessCalculating Microbial Inactivation - Weibull KineticOptimizationRetortsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingTHERMAL PROCESSES | Pasteurization AbstractIntroduction to Food Pasteurization and Historical AspectsHeat TransferMicrobial Kinetics of Pasteurization ProcessFood Product Quality EvaluationDesigning Pasteurization ProcessesSee alsoReferencesFurther ReadingTorulopsis AbstractCharacterization of Torulopsis YeastsRegulation and Methods of DetectionImportance to the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingTotal Counts: Microscopy AbstractThe Direct Microscopic Clump CountEnumeration of Microorganisms Using Counting ChambersDirect Epifluorescence Filter TechniqueDigital Image AnalysisSee alsoFurther ReadingTOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Metabolic Activity Tests AbstractDye Reduction TestsAdenosine Triphosphate AssayCatalase TestElectrical Impedance TestMicrocalorimetryRadiometryPyruvate EstimationNitrogen Reduction and Glucose Dissimilation TestSee alsoFurther ReadingTOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Microscopy AbstractDye ExclusionDirect Viable CountDye Uptake and Enzyme ActivityTwo-Fluorochrome StainingMicrocolony Epifluorescence Microscopy, Antibody-MEM, and Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization-MEMMicroautoradiographySee alsoFurther ReadingTOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Most Probable Number (MPN) AbstractIntroductionRange of Media for Aerobic CountsRecent DevelopmentsUser Interpretation of ResultsSee alsoFurther ReadingTOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Pour Plate Technique AbstractPour Plate MethodPreparation of Culture MediumFormulas of Buffers and DiluentsPreparation of Sample for Dilution and Pour PlateSample DilutionPour Plate ProcedureCounting Pour PlatesFurther ReadingTOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Specific Techniques AbstractIntroductionAerobic Plate Count Method3M (TM) Petrifilm (TM) Plate MethodSpiral Plate Method3M (TM) Redigel (TM) Test MethodSimPlate Total Plate Count MethodHydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter MethodPlate Loop Count MethodDrop-Plate MethodTEMPO (R) TVC Automated Total Vial CountFuture of TVC DeterminationSee alsoFurther ReadingTOTAL VIABLE COUNTS | Spread Plate Technique AbstractPreparing Spread PlatesSpread Plate ProcedureCounting, Computing, and Reporting Spread Plate CountsFurther ReadingTrichinella AbstractIntroductionBiologyClassification and DistributionHuman TrichinellosisPrevalence in Animals and HumansEpidemiologyLegislation and ControlSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesTrichoderma AbstractIntroductionCharacteristicsEnzymesSecondary MetabolitesGreen Mold of MushroomsTrichoderma in Biocontrol of Plant Fungal PathogensMedical UsesConclusionSee alsoReferencesTrichothecium AbstractIntroductionClassification of TrichotheciumCharacteristic FeaturesRelatedness to Other SpeciesPhytopathogenic PotentialMycotoxins Produced by TrichotheciumDetection of TrichothecenesToxicityOther Metabolites of T. roseumBiocontrolBiotechnological ApplicationsSee alsoFurther ReadingRelevant WebsitesU Ultrasonic Imaging - Nondestructive Methods to Detect Sterility of Aseptic Packages AbstractAcknowledgmentsIntroductionPotential Nondestructive Sterility Test MethodsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingUltrasonic Standing Waves: Inactivation of Foodborne Microorganisms Using Power Ultrasound AbstractIntroductionPower UltrasoundInactivation of MicroorganismsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingUltraviolet Light AbstractNature of the EmissionSources for Industrial UseBiological EffectsPractical ApplicationsInduced Effects in Fresh ProduceHazards and Adverse EffectsSee alsoFurther ReadingV Vagococcus AbstractIntroductionDescription of the GenusCharacterization of the SpeciesImportance of the Genus in Animal and Human Diseases: Importance for the Food Industry and Potential Hazard for the ConsumerSuggested Laboratory Procedures for Isolation and IdentificationSee alsoFurther ReadingVerotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Detection by Commercial Enzyme Immunoassays AbstractIntroductionSafety ConsiderationsCommercial ImmunoassaysSample Preparation and EnrichmentManual Immunoassays ProtocolAutomated Immunoassay ProtocolAdvantages and Limitation of Commercial ImmunoassaysAppendix 1 Manufacturer WebsitesSee alsoFurther ReadingViable but Nonculturable AbstractIntroductionFactors Inducing the VBNC StateEnvironmental Significance of VBNC CellsMethods for Detection of VBNC CellsConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingVIBRIO | Introduction, Including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Other Vibrio Species AbstractIntroductionVibrio parahaemolyticusVibrio vulnificusVibrio cholerae Non-O1Other Vibrio SpeciesSee alsoFurther ReadingVIBRIO | Standard Cultural Methods and Molecular Detection Techniques in Foods AbstractIntroductionCulture-Based Isolation and DetectionMolecular Detection MethodsSee alsoFurther ReadingVIBRIO | Vibrio cholerae AbstractIntroductionV. cholerae IdentityEpidemiology of V. cholerae InfectionThe Seventh Pandemic El Tor BiotypeV. cholerae PathogenicityTransmission and Disease SeverityDiagnosis, Treatment, and Control of V. cholerae InfectionAntibiotic Resistance of V. choleraeConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingVinegar AbstractIntroductionIndustrial OutputThe Production ProcessAlcoholic FermentationAcetic Acid BacteriaThe Acetification ProcessPostfermentation ProcessingUses of VinegarSee alsoFurther ReadingVIRUSES | Introduction AbstractAcknowledgementHistory of VirologyViruses Transmitted via Food and the EnvironmentAssessment of Risk from VirusesFecal-Oral Transmission of Viruses and Public HealthControlSummaryFurther ReadingVIRUSES | Detection AbstractSample SizeRelease of Viruses from the FoodstuffRemoval of Food SubstancesConcentration of VirusesNucleic Acid ExtractionDetection AssayThe Issue of InfectivityQuality ControlsFuture Developments and RequirementsSee alsoFurther ReadingVIRUSES | Foodborne Viruses AbstractAcknowledgmentsIntroduction to Human Enteric VirusesFoodborne Viruses of Epidemiological SignificanceOther Viruses with Potential for Foodborne TransmissionBarriers to the Study of Human Enteric VirusesFoodborne Transmission of Human Enteric VirusesRole of Environmental Persistence in Foodborne Viral DiseaseFoodborne Viral Disease OutbreaksFoodborne Viral Disease Outbreak SurveillanceDetection of Viruses in FoodConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingVIRUSES | Hepatitis Viruses Transmitted by Food, Water, and Environment AbstractIntroductionHepatitis A VirusHepatitis E VirusSee alsoFurther ReadingVIRUSES | Norovirus AbstractIntroductionStructure, Genetics, and BiologyImmunitySurrogatesClinical DiseaseFoodborne DiseaseControl and PreventionSee alsoFurther ReadingW Water Activity AbstractMinimum Water Activity Values for Growth of MicroorganismsImportance of Water Activity in FoodsConsequences of Lowering the Water ActivityMethods of Measuring Water ActivityRole of HumectantsSee alsoFurther ReadingWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT | Modern Microbiological Techniques AbstractIntroductionDetection, Identification, and Quantification of MicroorganismsMolecular MethodsDNA MicroarrayConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT | Routine Techniques for Monitoring Bacterial and Viral Contaminants AbstractGlobal Population Trends and Water DemandsImportance of Water Quality and Public HealthWater Quality and Food SafetyMicrobial Pathogens and Fecal Indicator OrganismsWater SamplingInternational and National Water Quality StandardsMicrobial Detection MethodsMonitoring of Bacterial ContaminantsMonitoring of Viral Contaminants (Enterovirus and Norovirus)Monitoring of Protozoa Contaminants (Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.)Concluding RemarksSee alsoFurther ReadingWATERBORNE PARASITES | Detection of Food- and Waterborne Parasites: Conventional Methods and Recent Developments AbstractIntroductionFood- and Waterborne Parasites of Medical ImportanceDetection MatricesConventional Detection MethodsModern Detection MethodsEmerging TechniquesConclusionSee alsoFurther ReadingWATERBORNE PARASITES | Entamoeba AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of the OrganismPathogenesisClinical ManifestationsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention and Importance in the Food IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingWINES | Microbiology of Winemaking AbstractIntroductionWinemakingMicroflora Involved in WinemakingRole of YeastsYeast Starter CulturesRole of LABBiotechnological Developments of Wine YeastMicrobial Spoilage of WineSee alsoFurther ReadingWINES | Production of Special Wines AbstractIntroductionSweet White WinesPort WineSherrySparkling WinesYeast in Winemaking FermentationsSee alsoFurther ReadingWINES | Malolactic Fermentation AbstractIntroductionMalolactic FermentationMicroflora Involved in Malolactic FermentationConsequences of Malolactic FermentationSummarySee alsoFurther ReadingWINES | Wine Spoilage Yeasts and Bacteria AbstractIntroductionDescription of the Main Spoilage by Yeast and BacteriaControl of Microbial Populations in WinesMicrobiological MonitoringSee alsoFurther ReadingX Xanthomonas AbstractGeneral IntroductionTaxonomyXanthomonas campestrisMorphological FeaturesXanthomonadinsBiochemical FeaturesIndustrial Application: Xanthan GumXanthomonas as Food SpoilerPathogenicityMolecular Basis of PathogenicityGenetic DiversityStress Adaptability: Programmed Cell DeathLaboratory AnalysisSee alsoFurther ReadingXeromyces: The Most Extreme Xerophilic Fungus AbstractIntroductionFungal DescriptionFungal PhysiologyTaxonomyEcology and SourcesIsolation TechniquesIncubation ConditionsPreservation and Strains SupplyingSee alsoFurther ReadingY Yeasts: Production and Commercial Uses AbstractIntroductionHistoryClassificationSaccharomyces cerevisiaeCommercial Production of Bakers' YeastGrowth RequirementsManufacturing Processes Used for Bakers' YeastYeast Products and UsesFuture DevelopmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingYERSINIA | Introduction AbstractIntroductionCharacteristics of the GenusCharacteristics and Pathogenesis of Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosisGeneral Characteristics of Other Yersinia SpeciesGeneral Aspects of Detection and Isolation ProceduresSee alsoReferencesFurther ReadingYERSINIA | Yersinia enterocolitica AbstractDetection of YEP+ StrainsDye-Binding Techniques for DetectionRecovery of YEP+ Clones by CR-BindingIsolation of Pathogenic YEP+ Strains from FoodsDirect Detection, Isolation, and Maintenance of Pathogenic YEP+ SerotypesEffect of Freeze-Stress on the Enrichment, Isolation, and Virulence of YEP+ in FoodDisclaimerAcknowledgmentsSee alsoFurther ReadingZ Zygosaccharomyces AbstractIntroductionTaxonomy, Morphological Characteristics, and Ecology of Zygosaccharomyces spp.Physiological Traits of Zygosaccharomyces spp. Associated with Their Spoilage CapacityResistance CharacteristicsMechanisms of Resistance to Food PreservativesMechanisms of Resistance to High Osmotic PressureHeat ResistanceSpoilage in Food and BeveragesBeneficial Biological Activities of Zygosaccharomyces spp.Recovery, Enumeration, and Identification of Zygosaccharomyces spp.Genetic Tools and Functional Genomic AnalysisSee alsoFurther ReadingZymomonas AbstractCharacteristicsMethod of Detection and IsolationImportance to the Food IndustryImportance to the Biofuel IndustrySee alsoFurther ReadingSubject indexAuthor Index
Responsibility: editor-in-chief: Carl A. Batt, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA, editor: Mary Lou Tortorello, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Bedford Park, IL, USA.


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