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Encyclopedia of modern China

Author: David Pong
Publisher: Farmington Hills, MI : Charles Scribner's Sons/Gale Cengage Learning, [2009] ©2009
Series: Gale virtual reference library.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Provides critical information on the most populous country and most dynamic trade market in the world: the people, politics, economics, religion, philosophy, traditions, art, and literature of this ancient and enduring civilization are explored from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present day.
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Encyclopedias
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Encyclopedia of modern China.
Farmington Hills, MI : Charles Scribner's Sons/Gale Cengage Learning, ©2009
(DLC) 2009003279
(OCoLC)298185259
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: David Pong
ISBN: 9780684315713 0684315718 9780684325378 0684325373
OCLC Number: 432428521
Awards: Dartmouth Medal (nominated), 2010
Description: 1 online resource (4 volumes) : illustrations (some color), color maps.
Contents: v. 1. A-E --
v. 2. F-M --
v. 3. N-T --
v. 4. U-Z, index. v. 1. List of Maps --
Introduction --
List of Articles --
List of Contributors --
Thematic Outline --
Major Chronological Periods --
Timeline --
Academia Sinica (Zhongyang Yanjiuyuan) --
Academies (Shuyuan) --
Acupuncture --
Adoptions --
African States, Relations With --
Agricultural Production --
Ai Qing (Ai Ch'ing) 1910-1996 --
All-China Women's Federation --
Anarchism --
Anhui --
Anti-Christian/Anti-Missionary Movements --
Anti-Japanese War, 1937-1945 --
Archaeology and Western Explorers --
Archaeology, History of --
Archaeology, Politics of --
Architecture, Historiography of, Since 1800 --
Architecture, History of --
Archives, Public --
Armaments --
Army and Politics --
Art Exhibitions Abroad --
Art Exhibitions, 1850-1949 --
Art Exhibitions Since 1949 --
Art History and Historiography --
Art in New Media --
Art Market, 1800-1949 --
Art Market Since 1949 --
Art Museums --
Art Schools and Colleges --
Art Societies Since 1800 --
Art, History of --
Art, Japanese Influence on --
Art, National Essence Movement in --
Art, Policy on, Since 1949 --
Art, Soviet Influence on --
Asean, Relations with --
Australia, Relations with --
Automobile Industry --
Avant-Garde Fiction --
Avian Influenza --
Ba Jin 1904-2005 --
Bai Hua 1930- --
Banking --
Baojia System --
Beggars --
Beijing --
Beiyang Clique --
Bingxin 1900-1999 --
Boxer Uprising --
Brands --
Buck, Pearl S. 1892-1973 --
Buddhism --
Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Contracts --
Cadre System --
Cai Guo-Qiang 1957- --
Calendar --
Calligraphy --
Can Xue 1953- --
Cantonese --
Cao Yu 1910-1996 --
Catholicism --
Censorship --
Central Asian States, Relations with --
Central Planning --
Central State Organs Since 1949 --
Central-Local Relationships --
Chang, Eileen (Zhang Ailing) 1920-1995 --
Chang Yu (Sanyu) 1901 --
1966 --
Changsha --
Chen Duxiu 1879 --
1942 --
Chen Kaige 1952 --
--
Chen Shuibian 1950 --
--
Chen Yun 1905 --
1995 --
Chengdu --
Chiang Ching-kuo (Jiang Jingguo) 1910 --
1988 --
Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) 1887 --
1975 --
China Hands --
China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company --
China's Agenda 21 --
Chinese Maritime Customs Service --
Chinese Marxism --
Chinese Overseas --
Chinese Painting (Guohua) --
Chongqing --
Chu Anping 1909 --
1966 --
City and Regional Planning --
Civil Society --
Civil War, 1946-1949 --
Cixi, Empress Dowager 1835 --
1908 --
Classical Scholarship and Intellectual Debates --
Climate --
Clothing Since 1800 --
Codified Law, 1800-1949 --
Collections and Collecting --
Comintern in China --
Commercial Art --
Commercial Elite, 1800-1949 --
Communist Party --
Communist Party History Revised (1981) --
Communist Thought in China, Origins of --
Communist Youth League --
Community Care --
Companies --
Comprador --
Confucianism --
Connoisseurship --
Constitutionalism --
Constitutions Before 1949 --
Constitutions Since 1949 --
Consumption and Consumer Cultures --
Copper and Silver, 1800-1950 --
Corruption --
Cosmology --
Cui Jian 1961 --
--
Cultural Policy --
Cultural Revolution, 1966-1969 --
Customary Law, 1800-1949 --
Dalai Lama --
Dalian --
Dance --
Daoism --
Death Penalty Since 1800 --
Defense, 1800-1912 --
Democracy Wall --
Democratic Ideas, Reforms, and Experiments Since the 1880s --
Democratic Parties --
Deng Xiaoping 1904-1997 --
Desertification --
Dialect Groups --
Ding Ling 1904-1986 --
Dissidents --
Domestic Trade --
Domestic Violence --
Drugs and Narcotics --
Earthquakes Since 1800 --
East Central European States, Relations with --
East India Company, 1800-1834 --
Economic Development --
Economic Reform Since 1978 --
Education --
Education Through Labor, Reform Through Labor --
Elections and Assemblies, 1909-1949 --
Emperors, 1800-1912 --
Employees' Health Insurance --
Encyclopedias --
Endangered Species, Protection of --
Energy --
Entrepreneurs Since 1949 --
Environment --
Epidemics --
Epigraphic School of Art --
European Union, Relations with --
Examination System, 1800-1905 --
Extraterritoriality. v. 2. Falun Gong --
Family --
Famine Since 1800 --
Fan Changjiang 1909-1970 --
Fang Lizhi 1936- --
Fascism --
Fashion --
Federalism --
Federation of Literary and Art Circles --
Feng Guifen 1809-1874 --
Feng Xiaogang 1958- --
Feng Zikai 1898-1975 --
Fengshui --
Festivals --
Filial Piety --
Film Industry --
Financial Markets --
Financial Regulation --
Five-Year Plans --
Folk Art --
Food Since 1800 --
Footbinding --
Forbidden City --
Foreign Concessions, Settlements, and Leased Territories --
Foreign Currency Reserves --
Foreign Investment, 1800-1949 --
Foreign Investment Since 1949 --
Foreign Loans, 1800-1949 --
Foreign Policy Frameworks and Theories --
Foreign Trade, 1800-1950 --
Foreign Trade Since 1950 --
Four Modernizations --
France, Relations with --
Fujian --
Furniture --
Fuzhou --
Games and Play --
Gansu --
Gao Xingjian 1940- --
Gardens and Parks --
Ge Gongzhen 1890-1935 --
Gender Relations --
Geographical Regions, Natural and Human --
Germany, Relations with --
Giquel, Prosper 1835-1886 --
Gong Zizhen 1792-1841 --
Gordon, Charles 1833-1885 --
Government Administration, 1800-1912 --
Government Administration, 1912-1949 --
Government-Organized Nongovernmental Organization --
Gramophone and Gramophone Records --
Grand Canal --
Great Depression --
Gu Hua 1942- --
Gu Wenda 1955- --
Guangdong --
Guangxi --
Guangzhou (Canton) --
Guizhou --
Guo Moruo 1892-1978 --
Hainan --
Hairstyles --
Hakka --
Handicrafts --
Hangzhou --
Harbin --
Harmonious Society --
Hart, Robert 1835-1911 --
Health Care, 1800-1949 --
Heavy Industry --
Hebei --
Heilongjiang --
Henan --
Heritage Protection --
High Technology --
History --
HIV/AIDS --
Hokkien (MIN) --
Homosexuality --
Hong Kong --
Household Registration --
Household Responsibility System (Baogan Daohu) --
Housing --
Hu Die 1908-1989 --
Hu Feng 1902-1985 --
Hu Jintao 1942- --
Hu Shi 1891-1962 --
Hu Yaobang 1915-1989 --
Hua Guofeng 1921-2008 --
Huang Binhong 1865-1955 --
Huizhou --
Human Rights Since 1949 --
Hunan and Hubei --
Hundred Days' Reform --
Hundred Flowers Campaign --
Hutong --
Identification and Belonging --
Identity, Chinese --
Illiteracy --
Imperial Household Department --
Imperial Palaces --
Imperialism --
Income --
India, Relations with --
Individual and the State, 1800-1949 --
Industrial Development Since 1949 --
Industrial Policy Since 1949 --
Industrialization, 1860-1949 --
Influences Abroad --
Inner Mongolia --
Inspection and Audit --
Internal Migration and Internal Colonization Since 1800 --
International Development AID --
International Development Programs in China --
International Organizations, Relations with, 1900-1949 --
International Organizations, Relations with, Since 1949 --
International Relations --
International Students --
Internet --
Interpreters of Things Chinese to the West --
Irrigation and Management of Water Resources --
Islam --
Japan, Relations with --
Jewish Communities and Refugees --
Jia Pingwa 1952- --
Jiang Zemin 1926- --
Jiangsu --
Jiangxi --
Jilin --
Jinan --
Journalism --
Kang Youwei 1858-1927 --
Kaohsiung (Gaoxiong) --
Korea, Relations with (North and South) --
Korean Community in China --
Korean War, 1950-1953 --
Labor --
Land Tenure Since 1800 --
Land Use, History of --
Language and Language Policy --
Lao She 1899-1966 --
Latin American States, Relations with --
Law Courts, 1800-1949 --
Law on the Protection of Women and Children --
Law Since 1949 --
League of Left-Wing Writers --
Lee, Ang 1954- --
Legal Training and the Legal Profession, 1800-1949 --
Legge, James 1815-1897 --
Leisure --
Leisure and Culture for the Elderly --
Lexicography --
Li Denghui (Lee Teng-Hui) 1923- --
Li Hongzhang 1823-1901 --
Li Hua 907-1994 --
Li Keran 1907-1989 --
Li Rui 1917- --
Li Xianglan 1920- --
Liang Qichao 1873-1929 --
Liang Sicheng 1901-1972 --
Liaoning --
Liberalism --
Libraries, Origins and Early Development of --
Life Cycle --
Lin Biao 1907-1971 --
Lin Fengmian 1900-1991 --
Lin Huiyin 1904-1955 --
Lin Yutang 1895-1976 --
Lin Zexu 1785-1850 --
Lineage --
Ling Shuhua 1904-1990 --
Lingnan School of Painting --
Literary Societies --
Literati Painting (Wenrenhua) --
Literature of National Defense --
Literature Since 1800 --
Lithographic and Modern Printing --
Little, Alicia 1845-1926 --
Liu Binyan 1925-2005 --
Liu Guosong (Liu Kuo-Sung) 1932- --
Liu Haisu 1896-1994 --
Liu Hongsheng 1888-1956 --
Liu Shaoqi 1898-1969 --
Liu Xiaobo 1955- --
Liuqiu Islands --
Local Gazetteers --
Locust Plagues Since 1800 --
Long March --
Love and Friendship --
Lu Xun 1881-1936 --
Lu Zuofu 1893-1952 --
Luo Gongliu 1916-2004 --
Ma, Yo-Yo 1955- --
Macau --
Major, Ernest 1841-1908 --
Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) --
Manchuria --
Mandarin Duck and Butterfly Literature --
Mao Dun 1896-1981 --
Mao Zedong 1893-1976 --
Marco Polo Bridge Incident, 1937 --
Margary Affair, 1875-1876 --
Marriage --
Marriage Laws --
May Fourth Movement --
Medical Care Since 1949 --
Medicine, Traditional --
Medicine, Western, 1800-1949 --
Medicine, Western, Since 1949 --
Mei Lanfang 1894-1961 --
Miao Uprisings --
Microfinancing --
Middle Eastern States, Relations with --
Migrant Workers --
Militarism --
Military, 1912-1949 --
Military Culture and Tradition --
Militia --
Mines and Metallurgy, 1800-1949 --
Minority Nationalities --
Missionaries --
Mo Yan 1955- --
Model Operas and Ballets --
Modernist Art of the 1920s and 1930s --
Money and Banking, 1800-1949 --
Money and Monetary Policy, 1800-1927 --
Mongolia, People's Republic of, Relations with --
Monuments --
Morality --
Morrison, George E. 1862-1920 --
Morrison, Robert 1782-1834 --
Most-Favored-Nation Treatment --
Museums --
Music, Impact in the West --
Music, Popular --
Music, Propaganda, and Mass Mobilization --
Music, Western and Russian Influence on --
Muslim Uprisings. v. 3. Nanjing (Nanking) --
Nanjing Massacre --
National Flags and National Anthems --
National Products Movement --
Nationalism --
Nationalist Government, 1927-1949 --
Nationalist Party --
Natural Resources --
Nepotism and Guanxi --
New Democracy, 1949-1953 --
New Left --
New Print Movement --
New Wave Movement, '85 --
New Year's Movies --
Newspapers --
Nian Uprising --
Ningbo (Ningpo) --
Ningxia --
Northern Expedition --
Oil Painting (Youhua) --
Olympics --
Olympics, 2008 Beijing Olympic Games --
Opium, 1800-1950 --
Opium Wars --
Pakistan, Relations With --
Pan Tianshou 1897-1971 --
Pan Yuliang 1895-1977 --
Pan-Asianism --
Pang Xunqin 1906-1985 --
Parsis --
Peace Settlement After World War II --
Peasantry, 1800-1900 --
Peasantry Since 1900 --
Peasants --
PEI, I.M. 1917- --
Peking Opera and Regional Operas --
Penal Systems, 1800-1949 --
Penal Systems Since 1949 --
Peng Dehuai 1898-1974 --
People's Liberation Army --
Personality Cults --
Photography, History of --
Physical Education --
Pictorial Magazines Since 1880 --
Piracy, Maritime --
Plays (Huaju) --
Poetry --
Police, 1800-1949 --
Police, Secret --
Political Control Since 1949 --
Political Culture 1800-1900 --
Political Culture Since 1900 --
Political Parties, 1905-1949 --
Political Pop and Cynical Realism --
Political Representation --
Political Succession --
Popular Religion --
Population Policy --
Poverty --
Price System --
Privacy --
Private Enterprises --
Prodemocracy Movement (1989) --
Propaganda --
Propaganda Art --
Prostitution, History of --
Protestantism --
Provincial and Subprovincial Government Structure Since 1949 --
Public Finance Since 1900 --
Publishing Industry --
Qian Zhongshu 1910-1998 --
Qigong --
Qing Dynasty in 1800 --
Qing Restoration --
Qingdao --
Qinghai --
Qiu Jin 1875-1907 --
Radio --
Rape --
Red Guards --
Reform Under the Qing Dynasty, 1800-1912 --
Regionalism --
Religious Organizations --
Religious Policy --
Religious Specialists Since 1800 --
Ren Xiong 1823-1857 --
Ren Yi (Ren Bonian) 1840-1895 --
Research in Engineering --
Research in the Sciences --
Research Organizations --
Revolution of 1911 --
Richard, Timothy 1845-1919 --
Rights Defense Movement --
River Systems --
Rong Zongjing 1873-1938 --
Root-Searching Literature --
Ruan Lingyu 1910-1935 --
Ruan Yuan 1764-1849 --
Rural Cooperative Medical Systems --
Rural Development, 1949-1978 --
Rural Development Since 1978 --
Russia, Relations with --
Russian Émigrés --
Rustic Realism in Art --
Sai Jinhua 1874-1936 --
Salt, 1800-1949 --
Scar (Wound) Art --
Scar (Wound) Literature --
Science and Technology Policy --
Scientific Community --
Scientific Exchanges --
Scramble for Concessions --
Sculpture and Public Art --
Secret Societies --
Sent-Down Educated Youth --
Service Sector (Tertiary Industry) --
Servile Statuses --
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome --
Sex Education --
Sex Ratio --
Sexual Dysfunction --
Sexuality --
Shaanxi --
Shandong --
Shanghai --
Shanghai Mixed Court --
Shanghai School of Painting --
Shanxi --
Shao Xunmei 1906-1968 --
Shen Baozhen 1820-1879 --
Shen Congwen 1902-1988 --
Shenyang --
Shops --
Sichuan --
Silk Since 1800 --
Sincere Department Stores --
Sino-French War, 1884-1885 --
Sino-Japanese War, 1894-1895 --
Sinology --
Sino-Soviet Schism --
Smuggling --
Snow, Edgar 1905-1972 --
Social and Community Organizations --
Social Classes Before 1949 --
Social Classes Since 1978 --
Social Policy Programs --
Social Rituals --
Social Sciences --
Social Welfare --
Socialism --
Socialist Market Economy --
Socialist Realism in Art --
Socialization and Pedagogy --
Socioeconomic Indicators --
Song Qingling --
Song Ziwen (T.V. Soong) --
South China Sea --
Southeast Asian States, Relations With --
Space Program --
Special Administrative Regions --
Special Economic Zones --
Sports --
Sports Figures --
Standard of Living --
Stars (Xingxing) Painting Group, 1979-1983 --
State Cult --
State-Owned Enterprises --
Statistics --
Stilwell, Joseph --
Strikes --
Student Organizations and Activism, 1900-1949 --
Study Abroad --
Sun Daolin --
Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian) --
Suzhou --
Taibei (Taipei) --
Taiping Uprising --
Taiwan, Republic of China --
Tan Dun --
Taxation and Fiscal Policies, 1800-1912 --
Taxation Since 1978 --
Tea Since 1800 --
Teacher Education --
Television --
Textiles --
Three Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi) --
Three-Self Patriotic Movement --
Tiananmen Incident (1976) --
Tianjin (Tientsin) --
Tibet --
Tourism --
Township and Village Enterprises --
Transition Economy --
Translation of Foreign Literature --
Transport Infrastructure --
Transsexuality and Sex-Change Operations --
Treaty Ports --
Trotskyism. v. 4. Unit (Danwei) --
United Front Work --
United Kingdom, Relations with --
United States, Relations with --
Urban China --
Urban Employment to 1949 --
Urban Employment and Unemployment Since 1949 --
Vietnam, Relations with --
Villages Since 1800 --
Vocational Education --
Wade, Thomas 1818-1895 --
Waley, Arthur 1889-1966 --
Wang Anyi 1954- --
Wang Guowei 1877-1927 --
Wang Jingwei 1883-1944 --
Wang Meng 1934- --
Wang Shiwei 1906-1947 --
Wang Shuo 1958- --
Wang Zhen (Wang Yiting) 1867-1938 --
War Crimes --
Warlord Era (1916-1928) --
Wars and the Military, 1800-1912 --
Wars Since 1800 --
Wei Yuan 1794-1857 --
Weights and Measures --
Wen Jiabao 1942- --
Wenzhou --
Westernization --
White Lotus --
Wing on Department Stores --
Women, Employment of --
Women, Status of --
Women in Politics --
Women in the Visual Arts --
Woodblock Printing (Xylography) --
Workers, Industrial, 1860-1949 --
Wu Changshi (Wu Junqing) 1844-1927 --
Wu Hufan 1894-1968 --
Wu Shujuan (Wu Xingfen) 1853-1930 --
Wuhan --
Xi'an --
Xiafang --
Xiamen (Amoy) --
Xiao Qian (Xiao Bingqian) 1910-1999 --
Xie Jin 1923-2008 --
Xinjiang --
Xu Beihong 1895-1953 --
Xu Bing 1955- --
Xu Zhimo 1897-1931 --
Yan Fu 1853-1921 --
Yan'an --
Yan'an Forum --
Yang Mo (Yang Chengye) 1914-1996 --
Yang Zhenning 1922- --
Yangzhou --
Youth --
Yu Dafu 1896-1945 --
Yu Hua 1960- --
Yuan Shikai 1859-1916 --
Yunnan --
Zeng Guofan 1811-1872 --
Zhang Daqian (Chang Dai-Chien) 1899-1983 --
Zhang Jian 1853-1926 --
Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang) 1887-1969 --
Zhang Yimou 1950- --
Zhang Zhidong 1837-1909 --
Zhao Dan 1915-1980 --
Zhao Shuli 1906-1970 --
Zhao Ziyang 1919-2005 --
Zhejiang --
Zhongguo --
Zhou Enlai 1898-1976 --
Zhou Xuan 1918-1957 --
Zhou Yang 1908-1989 --
Zhu De 1886-1976 --
Zhu Rongji 1928- --
Zhu Ziqing (Zhu Zihua) 1899?-1948 --
Zuo Zongtang 1812-1885 --
Appendixes --
Tables: International Relations, Treaties --
Primary Sources --
Bibliography --
Conversion Tables, Chinese Romanization --
Glossary of Chinese Characters --
Index.
Series Title: Gale virtual reference library.
Responsibility: David Pong, editor in chief.

Abstract:

Provides critical information on the most populous country and most dynamic trade market in the world: the people, politics, economics, religion, philosophy, traditions, art, and literature of this ancient and enduring civilization are explored from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present day.

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    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/919051954#Place/china> ; # China
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    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/919051954#Topic/history_asia_china> ; # HISTORY--Asia--China
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/862898> ; # Civilization
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/919051954#Event/since_1644> ; # Since 1644
    schema:awards "Dartmouth Medal (nominated), 2010" ;
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    schema:contributor <http://viaf.org/viaf/271223760> ; # David Pong
    schema:copyrightYear "2009" ;
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    schema:description "v. 1. A-E -- v. 2. F-M -- v. 3. N-T -- v. 4. U-Z, index."@en ;
    schema:description "v. 4. Unit (Danwei) -- United Front Work -- United Kingdom, Relations with -- United States, Relations with -- Urban China -- Urban Employment to 1949 -- Urban Employment and Unemployment Since 1949 -- Vietnam, Relations with -- Villages Since 1800 -- Vocational Education -- Wade, Thomas 1818-1895 -- Waley, Arthur 1889-1966 -- Wang Anyi 1954- -- Wang Guowei 1877-1927 -- Wang Jingwei 1883-1944 -- Wang Meng 1934- -- Wang Shiwei 1906-1947 -- Wang Shuo 1958- -- Wang Zhen (Wang Yiting) 1867-1938 -- War Crimes -- Warlord Era (1916-1928) -- Wars and the Military, 1800-1912 -- Wars Since 1800 -- Wei Yuan 1794-1857 -- Weights and Measures -- Wen Jiabao 1942- -- Wenzhou -- Westernization -- White Lotus -- Wing on Department Stores -- Women, Employment of -- Women, Status of -- Women in Politics -- Women in the Visual Arts -- Woodblock Printing (Xylography) -- Workers, Industrial, 1860-1949 -- Wu Changshi (Wu Junqing) 1844-1927 -- Wu Hufan 1894-1968 -- Wu Shujuan (Wu Xingfen) 1853-1930 -- Wuhan -- Xi'an -- Xiafang -- Xiamen (Amoy) -- Xiao Qian (Xiao Bingqian) 1910-1999 -- Xie Jin 1923-2008 -- Xinjiang -- Xu Beihong 1895-1953 -- Xu Bing 1955- -- Xu Zhimo 1897-1931 -- Yan Fu 1853-1921 -- Yan'an -- Yan'an Forum -- Yang Mo (Yang Chengye) 1914-1996 -- Yang Zhenning 1922- -- Yangzhou -- Youth -- Yu Dafu 1896-1945 -- Yu Hua 1960- -- Yuan Shikai 1859-1916 -- Yunnan -- Zeng Guofan 1811-1872 -- Zhang Daqian (Chang Dai-Chien) 1899-1983 -- Zhang Jian 1853-1926 -- Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang) 1887-1969 -- Zhang Yimou 1950- -- Zhang Zhidong 1837-1909 -- Zhao Dan 1915-1980 -- Zhao Shuli 1906-1970 -- Zhao Ziyang 1919-2005 -- Zhejiang -- Zhongguo -- Zhou Enlai 1898-1976 -- Zhou Xuan 1918-1957 -- Zhou Yang 1908-1989 -- Zhu De 1886-1976 -- Zhu Rongji 1928- -- Zhu Ziqing (Zhu Zihua) 1899?-1948 -- Zuo Zongtang 1812-1885 -- Appendixes -- Tables: International Relations, Treaties -- Primary Sources -- Bibliography -- Conversion Tables, Chinese Romanization -- Glossary of Chinese Characters -- Index."@en ;
    schema:description "v. 2. Falun Gong -- Family -- Famine Since 1800 -- Fan Changjiang 1909-1970 -- Fang Lizhi 1936- -- Fascism -- Fashion -- Federalism -- Federation of Literary and Art Circles -- Feng Guifen 1809-1874 -- Feng Xiaogang 1958- -- Feng Zikai 1898-1975 -- Fengshui -- Festivals -- Filial Piety -- Film Industry -- Financial Markets -- Financial Regulation -- Five-Year Plans -- Folk Art -- Food Since 1800 -- Footbinding -- Forbidden City -- Foreign Concessions, Settlements, and Leased Territories -- Foreign Currency Reserves -- Foreign Investment, 1800-1949 -- Foreign Investment Since 1949 -- Foreign Loans, 1800-1949 -- Foreign Policy Frameworks and Theories -- Foreign Trade, 1800-1950 -- Foreign Trade Since 1950 -- Four Modernizations -- France, Relations with -- Fujian -- Furniture -- Fuzhou -- Games and Play -- Gansu -- Gao Xingjian 1940- -- Gardens and Parks -- Ge Gongzhen 1890-1935 -- Gender Relations -- Geographical Regions, Natural and Human -- Germany, Relations with -- Giquel, Prosper 1835-1886 -- Gong Zizhen 1792-1841 -- Gordon, Charles 1833-1885 -- Government Administration, 1800-1912 -- Government Administration, 1912-1949 -- Government-Organized Nongovernmental Organization -- Gramophone and Gramophone Records -- Grand Canal -- Great Depression -- Gu Hua 1942- -- Gu Wenda 1955- -- Guangdong -- Guangxi -- Guangzhou (Canton) -- Guizhou -- Guo Moruo 1892-1978 -- Hainan -- Hairstyles -- Hakka -- Handicrafts -- Hangzhou -- Harbin -- Harmonious Society -- Hart, Robert 1835-1911 -- Health Care, 1800-1949 -- Heavy Industry -- Hebei -- Heilongjiang -- Henan -- Heritage Protection -- High Technology -- History -- HIV/AIDS -- Hokkien (MIN) -- Homosexuality -- Hong Kong -- Household Registration -- Household Responsibility System (Baogan Daohu) -- Housing -- Hu Die 1908-1989 -- Hu Feng 1902-1985 -- Hu Jintao 1942- -- Hu Shi 1891-1962 -- Hu Yaobang 1915-1989 -- Hua Guofeng 1921-2008 -- Huang Binhong 1865-1955 -- Huizhou -- Human Rights Since 1949 -- Hunan and Hubei -- Hundred Days' Reform -- Hundred Flowers Campaign -- Hutong -- Identification and Belonging -- Identity, Chinese -- Illiteracy -- Imperial Household Department -- Imperial Palaces -- Imperialism -- Income -- India, Relations with -- Individual and the State, 1800-1949 -- Industrial Development Since 1949 -- Industrial Policy Since 1949 -- Industrialization, 1860-1949 -- Influences Abroad -- Inner Mongolia -- Inspection and Audit -- Internal Migration and Internal Colonization Since 1800 -- International Development AID -- International Development Programs in China -- International Organizations, Relations with, 1900-1949 -- International Organizations, Relations with, Since 1949 -- International Relations -- International Students -- Internet -- Interpreters of Things Chinese to the West -- Irrigation and Management of Water Resources -- Islam -- Japan, Relations with -- Jewish Communities and Refugees -- Jia Pingwa 1952- -- Jiang Zemin 1926- -- Jiangsu -- Jiangxi -- Jilin -- Jinan -- Journalism -- Kang Youwei 1858-1927 -- Kaohsiung (Gaoxiong) -- Korea, Relations with (North and South) -- Korean Community in China -- Korean War, 1950-1953 -- Labor -- Land Tenure Since 1800 -- Land Use, History of -- Language and Language Policy -- Lao She 1899-1966 -- Latin American States, Relations with -- Law Courts, 1800-1949 -- Law on the Protection of Women and Children -- Law Since 1949 -- League of Left-Wing Writers -- Lee, Ang 1954- -- Legal Training and the Legal Profession, 1800-1949 -- Legge, James 1815-1897 -- Leisure -- Leisure and Culture for the Elderly -- Lexicography -- Li Denghui (Lee Teng-Hui) 1923- -- Li Hongzhang 1823-1901 -- Li Hua 907-1994 -- Li Keran 1907-1989 -- Li Rui 1917- -- Li Xianglan 1920- -- Liang Qichao 1873-1929 -- Liang Sicheng 1901-1972 -- Liaoning -- Liberalism -- Libraries, Origins and Early Development of -- Life Cycle -- Lin Biao 1907-1971 -- Lin Fengmian 1900-1991 -- Lin Huiyin 1904-1955 -- Lin Yutang 1895-1976 -- Lin Zexu 1785-1850 -- Lineage -- Ling Shuhua 1904-1990 -- Lingnan School of Painting -- Literary Societies -- Literati Painting (Wenrenhua) -- Literature of National Defense -- Literature Since 1800 -- Lithographic and Modern Printing -- Little, Alicia 1845-1926 -- Liu Binyan 1925-2005 -- Liu Guosong (Liu Kuo-Sung) 1932- -- Liu Haisu 1896-1994 -- Liu Hongsheng 1888-1956 -- Liu Shaoqi 1898-1969 -- Liu Xiaobo 1955- -- Liuqiu Islands -- Local Gazetteers -- Locust Plagues Since 1800 -- Long March -- Love and Friendship -- Lu Xun 1881-1936 -- Lu Zuofu 1893-1952 -- Luo Gongliu 1916-2004 -- Ma, Yo-Yo 1955- -- Macau -- Major, Ernest 1841-1908 -- Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) -- Manchuria -- Mandarin Duck and Butterfly Literature -- Mao Dun 1896-1981 -- Mao Zedong 1893-1976 -- Marco Polo Bridge Incident, 1937 -- Margary Affair, 1875-1876 -- Marriage -- Marriage Laws -- May Fourth Movement -- Medical Care Since 1949 -- Medicine, Traditional -- Medicine, Western, 1800-1949 -- Medicine, Western, Since 1949 -- Mei Lanfang 1894-1961 -- Miao Uprisings -- Microfinancing -- Middle Eastern States, Relations with -- Migrant Workers -- Militarism -- Military, 1912-1949 -- Military Culture and Tradition -- Militia -- Mines and Metallurgy, 1800-1949 -- Minority Nationalities -- Missionaries -- Mo Yan 1955- -- Model Operas and Ballets -- Modernist Art of the 1920s and 1930s -- Money and Banking, 1800-1949 -- Money and Monetary Policy, 1800-1927 -- Mongolia, People's Republic of, Relations with -- Monuments -- Morality -- Morrison, George E. 1862-1920 -- Morrison, Robert 1782-1834 -- Most-Favored-Nation Treatment -- Museums -- Music, Impact in the West -- Music, Popular -- Music, Propaganda, and Mass Mobilization -- Music, Western and Russian Influence on -- Muslim Uprisings."@en ;
    schema:description "v. 1. List of Maps -- Introduction -- List of Articles -- List of Contributors -- Thematic Outline -- Major Chronological Periods -- Timeline -- Academia Sinica (Zhongyang Yanjiuyuan) -- Academies (Shuyuan) -- Acupuncture -- Adoptions -- African States, Relations With -- Agricultural Production -- Ai Qing (Ai Ch'ing) 1910-1996 -- All-China Women's Federation -- Anarchism -- Anhui -- Anti-Christian/Anti-Missionary Movements -- Anti-Japanese War, 1937-1945 -- Archaeology and Western Explorers -- Archaeology, History of -- Archaeology, Politics of -- Architecture, Historiography of, Since 1800 -- Architecture, History of -- Archives, Public -- Armaments -- Army and Politics -- Art Exhibitions Abroad -- Art Exhibitions, 1850-1949 -- Art Exhibitions Since 1949 -- Art History and Historiography -- Art in New Media -- Art Market, 1800-1949 -- Art Market Since 1949 -- Art Museums -- Art Schools and Colleges -- Art Societies Since 1800 -- Art, History of -- Art, Japanese Influence on -- Art, National Essence Movement in -- Art, Policy on, Since 1949 -- Art, Soviet Influence on -- Asean, Relations with -- Australia, Relations with -- Automobile Industry -- Avant-Garde Fiction -- Avian Influenza -- Ba Jin 1904-2005 -- Bai Hua 1930- -- Banking -- Baojia System -- Beggars -- Beijing -- Beiyang Clique -- Bingxin 1900-1999 -- Boxer Uprising -- Brands -- Buck, Pearl S. 1892-1973 -- Buddhism -- Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Contracts -- Cadre System -- Cai Guo-Qiang 1957- -- Calendar -- Calligraphy -- Can Xue 1953- -- Cantonese -- Cao Yu 1910-1996 -- Catholicism -- Censorship -- Central Asian States, Relations with -- Central Planning -- Central State Organs Since 1949 -- Central-Local Relationships -- Chang, Eileen (Zhang Ailing) 1920-1995 -- Chang Yu (Sanyu) 1901 -- 1966 -- Changsha -- Chen Duxiu 1879 -- 1942 -- Chen Kaige 1952 -- -- Chen Shuibian 1950 -- -- Chen Yun 1905 -- 1995 -- Chengdu -- Chiang Ching-kuo (Jiang Jingguo) 1910 -- 1988 -- Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi) 1887 -- 1975 -- China Hands -- China Merchants' Steam Navigation Company -- China's Agenda 21 -- Chinese Maritime Customs Service -- Chinese Marxism -- Chinese Overseas -- Chinese Painting (Guohua) -- Chongqing -- Chu Anping 1909 -- 1966 -- City and Regional Planning -- Civil Society -- Civil War, 1946-1949 -- Cixi, Empress Dowager 1835 -- 1908 -- Classical Scholarship and Intellectual Debates -- Climate -- Clothing Since 1800 -- Codified Law, 1800-1949 -- Collections and Collecting -- Comintern in China -- Commercial Art -- Commercial Elite, 1800-1949 -- Communist Party -- Communist Party History Revised (1981) -- Communist Thought in China, Origins of -- Communist Youth League -- Community Care -- Companies -- Comprador -- Confucianism -- Connoisseurship -- Constitutionalism -- Constitutions Before 1949 -- Constitutions Since 1949 -- Consumption and Consumer Cultures -- Copper and Silver, 1800-1950 -- Corruption -- Cosmology -- Cui Jian 1961 -- -- Cultural Policy -- Cultural Revolution, 1966-1969 -- Customary Law, 1800-1949 -- Dalai Lama -- Dalian -- Dance -- Daoism -- Death Penalty Since 1800 -- Defense, 1800-1912 -- Democracy Wall -- Democratic Ideas, Reforms, and Experiments Since the 1880s -- Democratic Parties -- Deng Xiaoping 1904-1997 -- Desertification -- Dialect Groups -- Ding Ling 1904-1986 -- Dissidents -- Domestic Trade -- Domestic Violence -- Drugs and Narcotics -- Earthquakes Since 1800 -- East Central European States, Relations with -- East India Company, 1800-1834 -- Economic Development -- Economic Reform Since 1978 -- Education -- Education Through Labor, Reform Through Labor -- Elections and Assemblies, 1909-1949 -- Emperors, 1800-1912 -- Employees' Health Insurance -- Encyclopedias -- Endangered Species, Protection of -- Energy -- Entrepreneurs Since 1949 -- Environment -- Epidemics -- Epigraphic School of Art -- European Union, Relations with -- Examination System, 1800-1905 -- Extraterritoriality."@en ;
    schema:description "Provides critical information on the most populous country and most dynamic trade market in the world: the people, politics, economics, religion, philosophy, traditions, art, and literature of this ancient and enduring civilization are explored from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present day."@en ;
    schema:description "v. 3. Nanjing (Nanking) -- Nanjing Massacre -- National Flags and National Anthems -- National Products Movement -- Nationalism -- Nationalist Government, 1927-1949 -- Nationalist Party -- Natural Resources -- Nepotism and Guanxi -- New Democracy, 1949-1953 -- New Left -- New Print Movement -- New Wave Movement, '85 -- New Year's Movies -- Newspapers -- Nian Uprising -- Ningbo (Ningpo) -- Ningxia -- Northern Expedition -- Oil Painting (Youhua) -- Olympics -- Olympics, 2008 Beijing Olympic Games -- Opium, 1800-1950 -- Opium Wars -- Pakistan, Relations With -- Pan Tianshou 1897-1971 -- Pan Yuliang 1895-1977 -- Pan-Asianism -- Pang Xunqin 1906-1985 -- Parsis -- Peace Settlement After World War II -- Peasantry, 1800-1900 -- Peasantry Since 1900 -- Peasants -- PEI, I.M. 1917- -- Peking Opera and Regional Operas -- Penal Systems, 1800-1949 -- Penal Systems Since 1949 -- Peng Dehuai 1898-1974 -- People's Liberation Army -- Personality Cults -- Photography, History of -- Physical Education -- Pictorial Magazines Since 1880 -- Piracy, Maritime -- Plays (Huaju) -- Poetry -- Police, 1800-1949 -- Police, Secret -- Political Control Since 1949 -- Political Culture 1800-1900 -- Political Culture Since 1900 -- Political Parties, 1905-1949 -- Political Pop and Cynical Realism -- Political Representation -- Political Succession -- Popular Religion -- Population Policy -- Poverty -- Price System -- Privacy -- Private Enterprises -- Prodemocracy Movement (1989) -- Propaganda -- Propaganda Art -- Prostitution, History of -- Protestantism -- Provincial and Subprovincial Government Structure Since 1949 -- Public Finance Since 1900 -- Publishing Industry -- Qian Zhongshu 1910-1998 -- Qigong -- Qing Dynasty in 1800 -- Qing Restoration -- Qingdao -- Qinghai -- Qiu Jin 1875-1907 -- Radio -- Rape -- Red Guards -- Reform Under the Qing Dynasty, 1800-1912 -- Regionalism -- Religious Organizations -- Religious Policy -- Religious Specialists Since 1800 -- Ren Xiong 1823-1857 -- Ren Yi (Ren Bonian) 1840-1895 -- Research in Engineering -- Research in the Sciences -- Research Organizations -- Revolution of 1911 -- Richard, Timothy 1845-1919 -- Rights Defense Movement -- River Systems -- Rong Zongjing 1873-1938 -- Root-Searching Literature -- Ruan Lingyu 1910-1935 -- Ruan Yuan 1764-1849 -- Rural Cooperative Medical Systems -- Rural Development, 1949-1978 -- Rural Development Since 1978 -- Russia, Relations with -- Russian Émigrés -- Rustic Realism in Art -- Sai Jinhua 1874-1936 -- Salt, 1800-1949 -- Scar (Wound) Art -- Scar (Wound) Literature -- Science and Technology Policy -- Scientific Community -- Scientific Exchanges -- Scramble for Concessions -- Sculpture and Public Art -- Secret Societies -- Sent-Down Educated Youth -- Service Sector (Tertiary Industry) -- Servile Statuses -- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome -- Sex Education -- Sex Ratio -- Sexual Dysfunction -- Sexuality -- Shaanxi -- Shandong -- Shanghai -- Shanghai Mixed Court -- Shanghai School of Painting -- Shanxi -- Shao Xunmei 1906-1968 -- Shen Baozhen 1820-1879 -- Shen Congwen 1902-1988 -- Shenyang -- Shops -- Sichuan -- Silk Since 1800 -- Sincere Department Stores -- Sino-French War, 1884-1885 -- Sino-Japanese War, 1894-1895 -- Sinology -- Sino-Soviet Schism -- Smuggling -- Snow, Edgar 1905-1972 -- Social and Community Organizations -- Social Classes Before 1949 -- Social Classes Since 1978 -- Social Policy Programs -- Social Rituals -- Social Sciences -- Social Welfare -- Socialism -- Socialist Market Economy -- Socialist Realism in Art -- Socialization and Pedagogy -- Socioeconomic Indicators -- Song Qingling -- Song Ziwen (T.V. Soong) -- South China Sea -- Southeast Asian States, Relations With -- Space Program -- Special Administrative Regions -- Special Economic Zones -- Sports -- Sports Figures -- Standard of Living -- Stars (Xingxing) Painting Group, 1979-1983 -- State Cult -- State-Owned Enterprises -- Statistics -- Stilwell, Joseph -- Strikes -- Student Organizations and Activism, 1900-1949 -- Study Abroad -- Sun Daolin -- Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yixian) -- Suzhou -- Taibei (Taipei) -- Taiping Uprising -- Taiwan, Republic of China -- Tan Dun -- Taxation and Fiscal Policies, 1800-1912 -- Taxation Since 1978 -- Tea Since 1800 -- Teacher Education -- Television -- Textiles -- Three Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi) -- Three-Self Patriotic Movement -- Tiananmen Incident (1976) -- Tianjin (Tientsin) -- Tibet -- Tourism -- Township and Village Enterprises -- Transition Economy -- Translation of Foreign Literature -- Transport Infrastructure -- Transsexuality and Sex-Change Operations -- Treaty Ports -- Trotskyism."@en ;
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