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Energy systems : a new approach to engineering thermodynamics

Author: Renaud Gicquel
Publisher: Boca Raton, Florida ; London [England] New York [New York] : CRC Press, 2011. ©2011
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Gicquel, Renaud.
Energy systems : a new approach to engineering thermodynamics.
Boca Raton, Florida ; London, [England] ; New York, [New York] : CRC Press, ©2011
xlix, 1003 pages
Material Type: Document
Document Type: Book, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Renaud Gicquel
ISBN: 9781466515383 1466515384
OCLC Number: 1001810390
Description: 1 online resource (1,056 pages) : illustrations, charts, graphs
Contents: Forewords, About the Author, General introduction, Structure of the book, Objectives, A working tool on many levels, Mind Maps, List of Symbols, Conversion FactorsI First Steps in Engineering Thermodynamics1 A New Educational Paradigm1.1 Introduction1.2 General remarks on the evolution of training specifi cations1.3 Specifi cs of applied thermodynamics teaching1.4 A new educational paradigm1.5 Diapason modules1.6 A three-step progressive approach1.7 Main pedagogic innovations brought by Thermoptim1.8 Digital resources of the Thermoptim-UNIT portal1.9 Comparison with other tools with teaching potential1.10 ConclusionReferences2 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Absolute Beginners 2.1 Architecture of the machines studied 2.1.1 Steam power plant 2.1.2 Gas turbine 2.1.3 Refrigeration machine 2.2 Four basic functions 2.3 Notions of thermodynamic system and state 2.4 Energy exchange between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings 2.5 Conservation of energy: first law of thermodynamics 2.6 Application to the four basic functions previously identified 2.6.1 Compression and expansion with work 2.6.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters 2.6.3 Heat exchange 2.6.4 Combustion chambers, boilers 2.7 Reference processes 2.7.1 Compression and expansion with work 2.7.2 Expansion without work: valves, filters 2.7.3 Heat exchange 2.7.4 Combustion chambers, boilers 2.8 Summary reminders on pure substance properties 2.9 Return to the concept of state and choice of state variables to consider 2.10 Thermodynamic charts 2.10.1 Different types of charts 2.10.2 (h, ln(P)) chart 2.11 Plot of cycles in the (h, ln(P)) chart 2.11.1 Steam power plant 2.11.2 Refrigeration machine 2.12 Modeling cycles with Thermoptim 2.12.1 Steam power plant 2.12.2 Gas turbine 2.12.3 Refrigeration machine 2.13 Conclusion 3 First Steps in Thermodynamics: Entropy and the Second Law 3.1 Heat in thermodynamic systems 3.2 Introduction of entropy 3.3 Second law of thermodynamics 3.3.1 Limits of the fi rst law of thermodynamics 3.3.2 Concept of irreversibility 3.3.3 Heat transfer inside an isolated system, conversion of heat into work 3.3.4 Statement of the second law 3.4 (T, s) Entropy chart 3.5 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines 3.6 Irreversibilities in industrial processes 3.6.1 Heat exchangers 3.6.2 Compressors and turbines 3.7 Plot of cycles in the entropy chart, qualitative comparison with the carnot cycle 3.7.1 Steam power plant 3.7.2 Gas turbine 3.7.3 Refrigeration machine 3.8 Conclusion II Methodology, Thermodynamics Fundamentals, Thermoptim, Components 4 Introduction 4.1 A two level methodology 4.1.1 Physical phenomena taking place in a gas turbine 4.1.2 Energy technologies: component assemblies 4.1.3 Generalities about numerical models 4.2 Practical implementation of the double analytical-systems approach 4.3 Methodology 4.3.1 Systems modeling: the General System 4.3.2 Systems-analysis of energy technologies 4.3.3 Component modeling 4.3.4 Thermoptim primitive types 4.3.5 Thermoptim assets References 5 Thermodynamics Fundamentals 5.1 Basic concepts, definitions 5.1.1 Open and closed systems 5.1.2 State of a system, intensive and extensive quantities 5.1.3 Phase, pure substances, mixtures 5.1.4 Equilibrium, reversible process 5.1.5 Temperature 5.1.6 Symbols 5.2 Energy exchanges in a process 5.2.1 Work W of external forces on a closed system 5.2.2 Heat transfer 5.3 First law of thermodynamics 5.3.1 Definition of internal energy U (closed system) 5.3.2 Application to a fluid mass 5.3.3 Work provided, shaft work 5.3.4 Shaft work and enthalpy (open systems) 5.3.5 Establishment of enthalpy balance 5.3.6 Application to industrial processes 5.4 Second law of thermodynamics 5.4.1 Definition of entropy 5.4.2 Irreversibility 5.4.3 Carnot effectiveness of heat engines 5.4.4 Fundamental relations for a phase 5.4.5 Thermodynamic potentials 5.5 Exergy 5.5.1 Presentation of exergy for a monotherm open system in steady state 5.5.2 Multithermal open steady-state system 5.5.3 Application to a two-source reversible machine 5.5.4 Special case: heat exchange without work production 5.5.5 Exergy efficiency 5.6 Representation of substance properties 5.6.1 Solid, liquid, gaseous phases 5.6.2 Perfect and ideal gases 5.6.3 Ideal gas mixtures 5.6.4 Liquids and solids 5.6.5 Liquid-vapor equilibrium of a pure substance 5.6.6 Representations of real fluids 5.6.7 Moist mixtures 5.6.8 Real fluid mixtures References Further reading 6 Presentation of Thermoptim 6.1 General 6.1.1 Initiation applets 6.1.2 Interactive charts 6.1.3 Thermoptim's five working environments 6.2 Diagram editor 6.2.1 Presentation of the editor 6.2.2 Graphical component properties 6.2.3 Links between the simulator and the diagrams 6.3 Simulation environment 6.3.1 Main project screen 6.3.2 Main menus 6.3.3 Export of the results in the form of text file 6.3.4 Point screen 6.3.5 Point moist properties calculations 6.3.6 Node screen 6.4 Extension of Thermoptim by external classes 6.4.1 Extension system for Thermoptim by adding external classes 6.4.2 Software implementation 6.4.3 Viewing available external classes 6.4.4 Representation of an external component in the diagram editor 6.4.5 Loading an external class 6.4.6 Practical realization of an external class 6.5 Different versions of Thermoptim 7 Basic Components and Processes 7.1 Compressions 7.1.1 Thermodynamics of compression 7.1.2 Reference compression 7.1.3 Actual compressions 7.1.4 Staged compression 7.1.5 Calculation of a compression in Thermoptim 7.2 Displacement compressors 7.2.1 Piston compressors 7.2.2 Screw compressors 7.2.3 Criteria for the choice between displacement compressors 7.3 Dynamic compressors 7.3.1 General 7.3.2 Thermodynamics of permanent flow 7.3.3 Similarity and performance of turbomachines 7.3.4 Practical calculation of dynamic compressors7.3.5 Pumps and fans 7.4 Comparison of the various types of compressors 7.4.1 Comparison of dynamic and displacement compressors 7.4.2 Comparison between dynamic compressors 7.5 Expansion 7.5.1 Thermodynamics of expansion 7.5.2 Calculation of an expansion in Thermoptim 7.5.3 Turbines 7.5.4 Turbine performance maps 7.5.5 Degree of reaction of a stage 7.6 Combustion 7.6.1 Combustion phenomena, basic mechanisms 7.6.2 Study of complete combustion 7.6.3 Study of incomplete combustion 7.6.4 Energy properties of combustion reactions 7.6.5 Emissions of gaseous pollutants 7.6.6 Calculation of combustion in Thermoptim 7.6.7 Technological aspects 7.7 Throttling or flash 7.8 Water vapor/gas mixtures processes 7.8.1 Moist process screens 7.8.2 Moist mixers 7.8.3 Heating a moist mixture 7.8.4 Cooling of moist mix 7.8.5 Humidification of a gas 7.8.6 Dehumidification of a mix by desiccation 7.8.7 Determination of supply conditions 7.8.8 Air conditioning processes in a psychrometric chart 7.9 Examples of components represented by external classes 7.9.1 Nozzles 7.9.2 Diffusers 7.9.3 Ejectors References Further reading 8 Heat Exchangers 8.1 Principles of operation of a heat exchanger 8.1.1 Heat flux exchanged 8.1.2 Heat exchange coefficient U 8.1.3 Fin effectiveness 8.1.4 Values of convection coefficients h 8.2 Phenomenological models for the calculation of heat exchangers 8.2.1 Number of transfer units method 8.2.2 Relationship between NTU and 8.2.3 Matrix formulation 8.2.4 Heat exchanger assemblies 8.2.5 Relationship with the LMTD method 8.2.6 Heat exchanger pinch 8.3 Calculation of heat exchangers in Thermoptim 8.3.1 "Exchange" processes 8.3.2 Creation of a heat exchanger in the diagram editor 8.3.3 Heat exchanger screen 8.3.4 Simple heat exchanger design 8.3.5 Generic liquid 8.3.6 Off-design calculation of heat exchangers 8.3.7 Thermocouplers 8.4 Technological aspects 8.4.1 Tube exchangers 8.4.2 Plate heat exchangers 8.4.3 Other types of heat exchangers 8.5 Summary References Further reading 9 Examples of Applications 9.1 Steam power plant cycle 9.1.1 Principle of the machine and problem data 9.1.2 Creation of the diagram 9.1.3 Creation of simulator elements 9.1.4 Setting points 9.1.5 Setting of processes 9.1.6 Plotting the cycle on thermodynamic chart 9.1.7 Design of condenser 9.1.8 Cycle improvements 9.1.9 Modification of the model 9.2 Single stage compression refrigeration cycle 9.2.1 Principle of the machine and problem data 9.2.2 Creation of the diagram 9.2.3 Creation of simulator elements 9.2.4 Setting points 9.2.5 Setting of processes 9.3 Gas turbine cycle 9.3.1 Principle of the machine and problem data 9.3.2 Creation of the diagram 9.3.3 Creation of simulator elements 9.3.4 Setting points 9.3.5 Setting of processes 9.4 Air conditioning installation 9.4.1 Principle of installation and problem data 9.4.2 Supply conditions 9.4.3 Properties of the mix (outdoor air/recycled air) 9.4.4 Air treatment 9.4.5 Plot on the psychrometric chart 10 General Issues on Cycles, Energy and Exergy Balances 10.1 General issues on cycles, notations 10.1.1 Motor cycles 10.1.2 Refrigeration cycles 10.1.3 Carnot cycle 10.1.4 Regeneration cycles 10.1.5 Theoretical and real cycles 10.1.6 Notions of efficiency and effectiveness 10.2 Energy and exergy balance 10.2.1 Energy balances 10.2.2 Exergy balances 10.2.3 Practical implementation in a spreadsheet 10.2.4 Exergy balances of complex cycles 10.3 Productive structures 10.3.1 Establishment of a productive structure 10.3.2 Relationship between the diagram and the productive structure 10.3.3 Implementation in Thermoptim 10.3.4 Automation of the creation of the productive structure 10.3.5 Examples 10.3.6 Conclusion References III Main Conventional Cycles 11 Introduction: Changing Technologies 11.1 Limitation of fossil resources and geopolitical constraints 11.2 Local and global environmental impact of energy 11.2.1 Increase in global greenhouse effect 11.2.2 Reduction of the ozone layer 11.2.3 Urban pollution and acid rain 11.3 Technology transfer from other sectors 11.4 Technological innovation key to energy future References Further reading 12 Internal Combustion Turbomotors 12.1 Gas turbines 12.1.1 Operating principles 12.1.2 Examples of gas turbines 12.1.3 Major technological constraints 12.1.4 Basic cycles 12.1.5 Cycle improvements 12.1.6 Mechanical configurations 12.1.7 Emissions of pollutants 12.1.8 Outlook for gas turbines 12.2 Aircraft engines 12.2.1 Turbojet and turboprop engines 12.2.2 Reaction engines without rotating machine References Further reading 13 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines 13.1 General operation mode 13.1.1 Four- and two-stroke cycles 13.1.2 Methods of cooling 13.2 Analysis of theoretical cycles of reciprocating engines 13.2.1 Beau de Rochas ideal cycle 13.2.2 Diesel cycle 13.2.3 Mixed cycle 13.2.4 Theoretical associated cycles 13.3 Characteristic curves of piston engines 13.3.1 Effective performance, MEP and power factor 13.3.2 Influence of the rotation speed 13.3.3 Indicated performance, IMEP 13.3.4 Effective performance, MEP 13.3.5 Specific consumption of an engine 13.4 Gasoline engine 13.4.1 Limits of knocking and octane number 13.4.2 Strengthening of turbulence 13.4.3 Formation of fuel mix, fuel injection electronic systems 13.4.4 Real cycles of gasoline engines 13.5 Diesel engines 13.5.1 Compression ignition conditions 13.5.2 Ignition and combustion delays 13.5.3 Air utilization factor 13.5.4 Thermal and mechanical fatigue 13.5.5 Cooling of walls 13.5.6 Fuels burnt in diesel engines 13.5.7 Real cycles of diesel engines 13.6 Design of reciprocating engines 13.7 Supercharging 13.7.1 General 13.7.2 Basic principles 13.7.3 Conditions of autonomy of a turbocharger 13.7.4 Adaptation of the turbocharger 13.7.5 Conclusions on supercharging 13.8 Engine and pollutant emission control 13.8.1 Emissions of pollutants: Mechanisms involved 13.8.2 Combustion optimization 13.8.3 Catalytic purification converters 13.8.4 Case of diesel engines 13.9 Technological prospects 13.9.1 Traction engines 13.9.2 Large gas and diesel engines References Further reading 14 Stirling Engines 14.1 Principle of operation 14.2 Piston drive 14.3 Thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engines 14.3.1 Theoretical cycle 14.3.2 Ideal Stirling cycle 14.3.3 Paraisothermal Stirling cycle 14.4 Influence of the pressure 14.5 Choice of the working fluid 14.6 Heat exchangers 14.6.1 Cooler 14.6.2 Regenerator 14.6.3 Boiler 14.7 Characteristics of a Stirling engine 14.8 Simplified Stirling engine Thermoptim model References Further reading 15 Steam Facilities (General) 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Steam enthalpy and exergy 15.3 General configuration of steam facilities 15.4 Water deaeration 15.4.1 Chemical deaeration 15.4.2 Thermal deaeration 15.5 Blowdown 15.6 Boiler and steam generators 15.6.1 Boilers 15.6.2 Steam generators 15.6.3 Boiler operation 15.6.4 Optimization of pressure level 15.7 Steam turbines 15.7.1 Different types of steam turbines 15.7.2 Behavior in off-design mode 15.7.3 Degradation of expansion efficiency function of steam quality 15.7.4 Temperature control by desuperheating 15.8 Condensers, cooling towers 15.8.1 Principle of operation of cooling towers 15.8.2 Phenomenological model 15.8.3 Behaviour models 15.8.4 Modeling a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim References Further reading 16 Classical Steam Power Cycles 16.1 Conventional flame power cycles 16.1.1 Basic Hirn or Rankine cycle with superheating 16.1.2 Energy and exergy balance 16.1.3 Thermodynamic limits of simple Hirn cycle 16.1.4 Cycle with reheat 16.1.5 Cycle with extraction 16.1.6 Supercritical cycles 16.1.7 Binary cycles 16.2 Technology of flame plants 16.2.1 General technological constraints 16.2.2 Main coal power plants 16.2.3 Emissions of pollutants 16.3 Nuclear power plant cycles 16.3.1 Primary circuit 16.3.2 Steam generator 16.3.3 Secondary circuit 16.3.4 Industrial PWR evolution Reference Further reading 17 Combined Cycle Power Plants 17.1 Combined cycle without afterburner 17.1.1 Overall performance 17.1.2 Reduced efficiency and power 17.2 Combined cycle with afterburner 17.3 Combined cycle optimization 17.4 Gas turbine and combined cycles variations 17.5 Diesel combined cycle 17.6 Conclusions and outlook References Further reading 18 Cogeneration and Trigeneration 18.1 Performance indicators 18.2 Boilers and steam turbines 18.3 Internal combustion engines 18.3.1 Reciprocating engines 18.3.2 Gas turbines 18.4 Criteria for selection 18.5 Examples of industrial plants 18.5.1 Micro-gas turbine cogeneration 18.5.2 Industrial gas turbine cogeneration 18.6 Trigeneration 18.6.1 Production of central heating and cooling for a supermarket 18.6.2 Trigeneration by micro turbine and absorption cycle References Further reading 19 Compression Refrigeration Cycles, Heat Pumps 19.1 Principles of operation 19.2 Current issues 19.2.1 Stopping CFC production 19.2.2 Substitution of fluids 19.3 Basic refrigeration cycle 19.3.1 Principle of operation 19.3.2 Energy and exergy balances 19.4 Superheated and sub-cooled cycle 19.4.1 Single-stage cycle without heat exchanger 19.4.2 Single-stage cycle with exchanger 19.5 Two-stage cycles 19.5.1 Two-stage compression cycle with intermediate cooling 19.5.2 Compression and expansion multistage cycles 19.6 Special cycles 19.6.1 Cascade cycles 19.6.2 Cycles using blends 19.6.3 Cycles using ejectors 19.6.4 Reverse Brayton cycles 19.7 Heat pumps 19.7.1 Basic cycle 19.7.2 Exergy balance 19.8 Technological aspects 19.8.1 Desirable properties for fluids 19.8.2 Refrigeration compressors 19.8.3 Expansion valves 19.8.4 Heat exchangers 19.8.5 Auxiliary devices 19.8.6 Variable speed References Further reading 20 Liquid Absorption Refrigeration Cycles 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Study of a NH3-H2O absorption cycle 20.3 Modeling LiBr-H2O absorption cycle in Thermoptim References 21 Air Conditioning 21.1 Basics of an air conditioning system 21.2 Examples of cycles 21.2.1 Summer air conditioning 21.2.2 Winter air conditioning References Further reading 22 Optimization by Systems Integration 22.1 Basic principles 22.1.1 Pinch point 22.1.2 Integration of complex heat system 22.2 Design of exchanger networks 22.3 Minimizing the pinch 22.3.1 Implementation of the algorithm 22.3.2 Establishment of actual composite curves 22.3.3 Plot of the Carnot factor difference curve (CFDC) 22.3.4 Matching exchange streams 22.3.5 Thermal machines and heat integration 22.4 Optimization by irreversibility analysis 22.4.1 Component irreversibility and systemic irreversibility 22.4.2 Optimization method 22.5 Implementation in Thermoptim 22.5.1 Principle 22.5.2 Optimization frame 22.6 Example 22.6.1 Determination of HP and LP flow rates 22.6.2 Matching fluids in heat exchangers References Further reading IV Innovative Advanced Cycles, including Low Environmental Impact 23 External Class Development 23.1 General, external substances 23.1.1 Introducing custom components 23.1.2 Simple substance: example of DowTherm A 23.1.3 Coupling to a thermodynamic properties server 23.2 Flat plate solar collectors 23.2.1 Design of the external component 23.3 Calculation of moist mixtures in external classes 23.3.1 Introduction 23.3.2 Methods available in the external classes 23.4 External combustion 23.4.1 Model of biomass combustion 23.4.2 Presentation of the external class 23.5 Cooling coil with condensation 23.5.1 Modeling a cooling coil with condensation in Thermoptim 23.5.2 Study of the external class DehumidifyingCoil 23.6 Cooling towers 23.6.1 Modeling of a direct contact cooling tower in Thermoptim 23.6.2 Study of external class DirectCoolingTower 23.7 External drivers 23.7.1 Stirling engine driver 23.7.2 Creation of the class: visual interface 23.7.3 Recognition of component names 23.7.4 Calculations and display 23.8 External class manager 24 Advanced Gas Turbines Cycles 24.1 Humid air gas turbine 24.2 Supercritical CO2 cycles 24.2.1 Simple regeneration cycle 24.2.2 Pre-compression cycle 24.2.3 Recompression cycle 24.2.4 Partial cooling cycle 24.3 Advanced combined cycles 24.3.1 Air combined cycle 24.3.2 Steam fl ash combined cycle 24.3.3 Steam recompression combined cycle 24.3.4 Kalina cycle References 25 Evaporation, Mechanical Vapor Compression, Desalination, Drying by Hot Gas 25.1 Evaporation 25.1.1 Single-effect cycle 25.1.2 Multi-effect cycle 25.1.3 Boiling point elevation 25.2 Mechanical vapor compression 25.2.1 Evaporative mechanical vapor compression cycle 25.2.2 Types of compressors used 25.2.3 Design parameters of a VC 25.3 Desalination 25.3.1 Simple effect distillation 25.3.2 Double effect desalination cycle 25.3.3 Mechanical vapor compression desalination cycle 25.3.4 Desalination ejector cycle 25.3.5 Multi-stage fl ash desalination cycle 25.3.6 Reverse osmosis desalination 25.4 Drying by hot gas References 26 Cryogenic Cycles 26.1 Joule-Thomson isenthalpic expansion process 26.1.1 Basic cycle 26.1.2 Linde cycle 26.1.3 Linde cycles for nitrogen liquefaction 26.2 Reverse Brayton cycle 26.3 Mixed processes: Claude cycle 26.4 Cascade cycles References 27 Electrochemical Converters 27.1 Fuel cells 27.1.1 SOFC modeling 27.1.2 Improving the cell model 27.1.3 Model with a thermocoupler 27.1.4 Coupling SOFC fuel cell with a gas turbine 27.1.5 Change in the model to replace H2 by CH4 27.2 Reforming 27.2.1 Modeling of a reformer in Thermoptim 27.2.2 Results 27.3 Electrolysers 27.3.1 Modeling of a high temperature electrolyser in Thermoptim 27.3.2 Results References 28 Global Warming and Capture and Sequestration of CO2 28.1 Problem data 28.2 Carbon capture and storage 28.2.1 Introduction 28.2.2 Capture strategies 28.3 Techniques implemented 28.3.1 Post-combustion techniques 28.3.2 Pre-combustion techniques 28.3.3 Oxycombustion techniques References 29 Future Nuclear Reactors 29.1 Introduction 29.2 Reactors coupled to Hirn cycles 29.2.1 Sodium cooled fast neutron reactors 29.2.2 Supercritical water reactors 29.3 Reactors coupled to Brayton cycles 29.3.1 Small capacity modular reactor PBMR 29.3.2 GT-MHR reactors 29.3.3 Very high temperature reactors 29.3.4 Gas cooled fast neutron reactors 29.3.5 Lead cooled fast reactors 29.3.6 Molten salt reactors 29.3.7 Thermodynamic cycles of high temperature reactors 29.4 Summary References 30 Solar Thermodynamic Cycles 30.1 Direct conversion of solar energy 30.1.1 Introduction 30.1.2 Thermal conversion of solar energy 30.1.2 Thermodynamic cycles considered 30.2 Performance of solar collectors 30.2.1 Low temperature solar collectors 30.2.2 Low temperature fl at plate solar collector model 30.2.3 High temperature solar collectors 30.2.4 Modeling high temperature concentration collectors 30.3 Parabolic trough plants 30.3.1 Optimization of the collector temperature 30.3.2 Plant model 30.4 Parabolic dish systems 30.5 Power towers 30.6 Hybrid systems References 31 Other than Solar NRE cycles 31.1 Solar ponds 31.1.1 Analysis of the problem 31.1.2 Plot of the cycle in the entropy chart 31.1.3 Exergy balance 31.1.4 Auxiliary consumption 31.2 Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) 31.2.1 OTEC closed cycle 31.2.2 OTEC open-cycle 31.2.3 Uehara cycle 31.3 Geothermal cycles 31.3.1 Direct-steam plants 31.3.2 Simple fl ash plant 31.3.3 Double fl ash plant 31.3.4 Binary cycle plants 31.3.5 Kalina cycle 31.3.6 Combined cycles 31.3.7 Mixed cycle 31.4 Use of biomass energy 31.4.1 Introduction 31.4.2 Modeling thermochemical conversion References 32 Heat and Compressed Air Storage 32.1 Introduction 32.2 Methodological aspects 32.3 Cold storage in phase change nodules 32.4 Project Sether (electricity storage as high temperature heat) 32.5 Compressed air storage devices 32.5.1 CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) concept 32.5.2 Peaker concept of Electricite de Marseille company 32.5.3 Hydropneumatic energy storage HPES References 33 Calculation of Thermodynamic Solar Installations 33.1 Specific solar problems 33.2 Estimation of the solar radiation received by a solar collector 33.3 Cumulative frequency curves of irradiation 33.3.1 Curve construction 33.3.2 Curve smoothing 33.3.3 Estimation of CFCS from empirical formulas 33.3.4 Interpolation on tilt 33.4 Hourly simulation models 33.5 Simplified design methods 33.5.1 Principle of methods 33.5.2 Usability curves References V Technological Design and Off-design Operation 34 Technological Design and Off-design Operation, Model Reduction 34.1 Introduction 34.2 Component technological design 34.2.1 Heat exchangers 34.2.2 Displacement compressors 34.2.3 Expansion valves 34.2.4 Practical example: design of a cycle 34.3 Off-design calculations 34.3.1 Principle of computing coupled systems in Thermoptim 34.3.2 Off-design equations of the refrigerator 34.3.3 After processing of simulation results 34.3.4 Effect of change in UA 34.4 Development of simplified models of systems studied 34.4.1 Model reduction principle 34.4.2 Model reduction example 34.5 Methodological difficulties References 35 Technological Design and Off-design Behavior of Heat Exchangers 35.1 Introduction 35.1.1 General 35.1.2 Reminders on the NTU method 35.2 Modeling of heat transfer 35.2.1 Extended surfaces 35.2.2 Calculation of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers 35.2.3 Calculation of the Nusselt number 35.2.4 Calculation of multi-zone exchangers 35.3 Pressure drop calculation 35.3.1 Gas or liquid state pressure drop 35.3.2 Two-phase pressure drop 35.4 Heat exchanger technological screen 35.4.1 Heat exchanger technological screen 35.4.2 Correlations used in Thermoptim 35.5 Model parameter estimation 35.5.1 Direct setting from geometric data 35.5.2 Identification of exchanger parameters References 36 Modeling and Setting of Displacement Compressors 36.1 Behavior models 36.1.1 Operation at rated speed and full load 36.1.2 Operation at partial load and speed 36.2 Practical modeling problems 36.2.1 Technological screen of displacement compressors 36.2.3 Identification of compressor parameters 36.2.4 Calculation in design mode 36.2.5 Calculation in off-design mode 36.2.6 Fixed Vi screw compressors References 37 Modeling and Setting of Dynamic Compressors and Turbines 37.1 Supplements on turbomachinery 37.1.1 Analysis of the velocity triangle 37.1.2 Degree of reaction of one stage 37.1.3 Theoretical characteristics of turbomachinery 37.1.4 Real characteristics of turbomachinery 37.1.5 Factors of similarity 37.2 Pumps and fans 37.3 Dynamic compressors 37.3.1 Performance maps of dynamic compressors 37.3.2 Analysis of performance maps of dynamic compressors 37.3.3 Technological screen of dynamic compressors 37.4 Turbines 37.4.1 Performance maps of turbines 37.4.2 Isentropic efficiency law 37.4.3 Stodola's cone rule 37.4.4 Baumann rule 37.4.5 Loss by residual velocity 37.4.6 Technological screen of turbines 37.4.8 Identification of turbine parameters 37.5 Nozzles References 38 Case Studies 38.1 Introduction 38.2 Compressor filling a storage of compressed air 38.2.1 Modeling of the heat exchanger 38.2.2 Design of the driver 38.2.3 Analysis of the cooled compressor 38.2.4 Use of the model to simulate the filling of a compressed air storage 38.3 Steam power plant 38.3.1 Introduction, results 38.4 Refrigeration machine 38.4.1 Introduction, results 38.4.2 Principle of resolution 38.5 Single flow turbojet 38.5.1 Introduction, results 38.5.2 Presentation of the external class 3
Responsibility: Renaud Gicquel.

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