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Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Lebanon

Author: Renée ZakhiaHasnaa Bouharoun-TayounAnna-Bella FaillouxNabil HaddadUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris / 1971-2017).All authors
Publisher: 2017.
Dissertation: Thèse de doctorat : Virologie et Entomologie Médicale : Paris 6 : 2017.
Thèse de doctorat : Virologie et Entomologie Médicale : Université Libanaise. Faculté des Sciences (Beyrouth, Liban) : 2017.
Edition/Format:   Computer file : Document : Thesis/dissertation : English
Summary:
Le Virus du Nil Occidental (VNO) et le Virus de la Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift (VFVR) sont deux arbovirus transmis par le moustique Culex pipiens comprenant deux biotypes: pipiens et molestus. Au cours de ce projet, nous avons évalué la circulation du VNO au Liban dans des populations de moustiques, des humains, des chevaux et des poulets. Nous avons aussi évalué la compétence vectorielle des populations
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Details

Genre/Form: Thèses et écrits académiques
Material Type: Document, Thesis/dissertation, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Renée Zakhia; Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun; Anna-Bella Failloux; Nabil Haddad; Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris / 1971-2017).; Université Libanaise. Faculté des Sciences (Beyrouth, Liban).; École doctorale Complexité du vivant (Paris).
OCLC Number: 1035638993
Notes: Thèse soutenue en co-tutelle.
Titre provenant de l'écran-titre.
Description: 1 online resource
Responsibility: Renée Zakhia ; sous la direction de Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun et de Anna-Bella Failloux et de Nabil Haddad.

Abstract:

Le Virus du Nil Occidental (VNO) et le Virus de la Fièvre de la Vallée du Rift (VFVR) sont deux arbovirus transmis par le moustique Culex pipiens comprenant deux biotypes: pipiens et molestus. Au cours de ce projet, nous avons évalué la circulation du VNO au Liban dans des populations de moustiques, des humains, des chevaux et des poulets. Nous avons aussi évalué la compétence vectorielle des populations locales de Cx. pipiens à transmettre le VNO et le VFVR.Des moustiques ont été récoltés et testés pour la présence d'un gène spécifique du VNO. En plus, des sérums humains, de chevaux et de poulets ont été analysés pour rechercher des anticorps spécifiques par ELISA puis confirmés par neutralisation. En outre, des spécimens de Cx. pipiens ont été infectés avec la lignée 1 du VNO ou la souche de VFVR Clone 13. Ensuite, les taux d'infection, de dissémination et de transmission ont été déterminés à différents jours après infection des moustiques. La compétence vectorielle a été comparée entre les différents biotypes.Les résultats entomologiques ont révélé que Cx. pipiens est dominant (87.2%). Tous les moustiques analysés étaient négatifs pour le VNO. Les taux de séroprévalence étaient de 1.01% et 1.98% parmi les humains et les chevaux respectivement. De plus, Cx. pipiens s'est révélé bien plus compétent pour transmettre le VNO que le VFVR. Le biotype molestus est capable de transmettre le VNO plus tôt que celui de pipiens. Cette étude présente des preuves sur une faible circulation du VNO au Liban. Cx. pipiens s'est révélé compétent pour assurer cette transmission. Ainsi, il est essentiel d'établir des programmes de surveillance pour prévenir les éventuelles épidémies.

West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) are two emerging arboviruses that have never been reported in Lebanon. They can be transmitted by Culex pipiens mosquito species including two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. During this project, we assessed the circulation of WNV among mosquitoes, human, horse and chicken populations in Lebanon. Moreover, we evaluated, under experimental conditions, the capacity of local Cx. pipiens biotypes to transmit both viruses.Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified and tested to detect WNV RNA. Besides, human, horse and chicken blood samples were collected and screened for WNV antibodies using an in-house ELISA and then confirmed by neutralization assay. Moreover, local Cx. pipiens specimens were experimentally infected with WNV lineage 1 or RVFV Clone 13 strain. The viral infection, dissemination and transmission were then estimated at different days post infection.The vector competence was compared between Cx. pipiens biotypes.Entomological results revealed that 87.2% of collected adult mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens. Screened mosquitoes were negative for WNV. Seroprevalence rates were 1.01% and 1.98% among humans and horses respectively. Besides, local Cx. pipiens were highly competent for WNV transmission and to a lesser extent to RVFV. The molestus biotype was able to transmit WNV earlier than pipiens biotype.The present study provides new evidence of a low circulation of WNV among human and horses in Lebanon. Cx. pipiens is the suspected vector and is experimentally competent to ensure transmission. Therefore, there is a need to establish surveillance program to predict and prevent potential outbreaks.

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Primary Entity<\/h3>\n
<http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/oclc\/1035638993<\/a>> # Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Lebanon<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nbgn:Thesis<\/a>, schema:CreativeWork<\/a>, bgn:ComputerFile<\/a>, schema:MediaObject<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nbgn:inSupportOf<\/a> \"Th\u00E8se de doctorat : Virologie et Entomologie M\u00E9dicale : Paris 6 : 2017.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nbgn:inSupportOf<\/a> \"Th\u00E8se de doctorat : Virologie et Entomologie M\u00E9dicale : Universit\u00E9 Libanaise. Facult\u00E9 des Sciences (Beyrouth, Liban) : 2017.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:oclcnum<\/a> \"1035638993<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nlibrary:placeOfPublication<\/a> <http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/dewey.info\/class\/616.9\/<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/virus_du_nil_occidental<\/a>> ; # Virus du Nil Occidental<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Topic\/fievre_a_virus_west_nile_liban<\/a>> ; # Fi\u00E8vre \u00E0 virus West Nile--Liban<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Topic\/moustique_commun<\/a>> ; # Moustique commun<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/virus_de_la_fievre_de_la_vallee_du_rift<\/a>> ; # Virus de la fi\u00E8vre de la Vall\u00E9e du Rift<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/culex_pipiens<\/a>> ; # Culex pipiens<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/seroprevalence<\/a>> ; # S\u00E9ropr\u00E9valence<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/competence_vectorielle<\/a>> ; # Comp\u00E9tence vectorielle<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:about<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/liban<\/a>> ; # Liban<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:author<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Person\/zakhia_renee_1989<\/a>> ; # Ren\u00E9e Zakhia<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Organization\/universite_pierre_et_marie_curie_paris_1971_2017<\/a>> ; # Universit\u00E9 Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris \/ 1971-2017).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Organization\/universite_libanaise_faculte_des_sciences_beyrouth_liban<\/a>> ; # Universit\u00E9 Libanaise. Facult\u00E9 des Sciences (Beyrouth, Liban).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Organization\/ecole_doctorale_complexite_du_vivant_paris<\/a>> ; # \u00C9cole doctorale Complexit\u00E9 du vivant (Paris).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Person\/failloux_anna_bella<\/a>> ; # Anna-Bella Failloux<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Person\/haddad_nabil<\/a>> ; # Nabil Haddad<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:contributor<\/a> <http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Person\/bouharoun_tayoun_hasnaa<\/a>> ; # Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:datePublished<\/a> \"2017<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) are two emerging arboviruses that have never been reported in Lebanon. They can be transmitted by Culex pipiens mosquito species including two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. During this project, we assessed the circulation of WNV among mosquitoes, human, horse and chicken populations in Lebanon. Moreover, we evaluated, under experimental conditions, the capacity of local Cx. pipiens biotypes to transmit both viruses.Adult mosquitoes were collected, identified and tested to detect WNV RNA. Besides, human, horse and chicken blood samples were collected and screened for WNV antibodies using an in-house ELISA and then confirmed by neutralization assay. Moreover, local Cx. pipiens specimens were experimentally infected with WNV lineage 1 or RVFV Clone 13 strain. The viral infection, dissemination and transmission were then estimated at different days post infection.The vector competence was compared between Cx. pipiens biotypes.Entomological results revealed that 87.2% of collected adult mosquitoes were Cx. pipiens. Screened mosquitoes were negative for WNV. Seroprevalence rates were 1.01% and 1.98% among humans and horses respectively. Besides, local Cx. pipiens were highly competent for WNV transmission and to a lesser extent to RVFV. The molestus biotype was able to transmit WNV earlier than pipiens biotype.The present study provides new evidence of a low circulation of WNV among human and horses in Lebanon. Cx. pipiens is the suspected vector and is experimentally competent to ensure transmission. Therefore, there is a need to establish surveillance program to predict and prevent potential outbreaks.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:description<\/a> \"Le Virus du Nil Occidental (VNO) et le Virus de la Fi\u00E8vre de la Vall\u00E9e du Rift (VFVR) sont deux arbovirus transmis par le moustique Culex pipiens comprenant deux biotypes: pipiens et molestus. Au cours de ce projet, nous avons \u00E9valu\u00E9 la circulation du VNO au Liban dans des populations de moustiques, des humains, des chevaux et des poulets. Nous avons aussi \u00E9valu\u00E9 la comp\u00E9tence vectorielle des populations locales de Cx. pipiens \u00E0 transmettre le VNO et le VFVR.Des moustiques ont \u00E9t\u00E9 r\u00E9colt\u00E9s et test\u00E9s pour la pr\u00E9sence d\'un g\u00E8ne sp\u00E9cifique du VNO. En plus, des s\u00E9rums humains, de chevaux et de poulets ont \u00E9t\u00E9 analys\u00E9s pour rechercher des anticorps sp\u00E9cifiques par ELISA puis confirm\u00E9s par neutralisation. En outre, des sp\u00E9cimens de Cx. pipiens ont \u00E9t\u00E9 infect\u00E9s avec la lign\u00E9e 1 du VNO ou la souche de VFVR Clone 13. Ensuite, les taux d\'infection, de diss\u00E9mination et de transmission ont \u00E9t\u00E9 d\u00E9termin\u00E9s \u00E0 diff\u00E9rents jours apr\u00E8s infection des moustiques. La comp\u00E9tence vectorielle a \u00E9t\u00E9 compar\u00E9e entre les diff\u00E9rents biotypes.Les r\u00E9sultats entomologiques ont r\u00E9v\u00E9l\u00E9 que Cx. pipiens est dominant (87.2%). Tous les moustiques analys\u00E9s \u00E9taient n\u00E9gatifs pour le VNO. Les taux de s\u00E9ropr\u00E9valence \u00E9taient de 1.01% et 1.98% parmi les humains et les chevaux respectivement. De plus, Cx. pipiens s\'est r\u00E9v\u00E9l\u00E9 bien plus comp\u00E9tent pour transmettre le VNO que le VFVR. Le biotype molestus est capable de transmettre le VNO plus t\u00F4t que celui de pipiens. Cette \u00E9tude pr\u00E9sente des preuves sur une faible circulation du VNO au Liban. Cx. pipiens s\'est r\u00E9v\u00E9l\u00E9 comp\u00E9tent pour assurer cette transmission. Ainsi, il est essentiel d\'\u00E9tablir des programmes de surveillance pour pr\u00E9venir les \u00E9ventuelles \u00E9pid\u00E9mies.<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:exampleOfWork<\/a> <http:\/\/worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/id\/5114454145<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:genre<\/a> \"Th\u00E8ses et \u00E9crits acad\u00E9miques<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:inLanguage<\/a> \"en<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Epidemiology of West Nile Virus in Lebanon<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:productID<\/a> \"1035638993<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <https:\/\/tel.archives-ouvertes.fr\/tel-02314613<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2017PA066466\/abes<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:url<\/a> <http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2017PA066466\/document<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nwdrs:describedby<\/a> <http:\/\/www.worldcat.org\/title\/-\/oclc\/1035638993<\/a>> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n\n

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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Organization\/universite_pierre_et_marie_curie_paris_1971_2017<\/a>> # Universit\u00E9 Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris \/ 1971-2017).<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Organization<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Universit\u00E9 Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris \/ 1971-2017).<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
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<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Person\/haddad_nabil<\/a>> # Nabil Haddad<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Haddad<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Nabil<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Nabil Haddad<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Person\/zakhia_renee_1989<\/a>> # Ren\u00E9e Zakhia<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Person<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:birthDate<\/a> \"1989<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:deathDate<\/a> \"\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:familyName<\/a> \"Zakhia<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:givenName<\/a> \"Ren\u00E9e<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Ren\u00E9e Zakhia<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/competence_vectorielle<\/a>> # Comp\u00E9tence vectorielle<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Comp\u00E9tence vectorielle<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/culex_pipiens<\/a>> # Culex pipiens<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Culex pipiens<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/liban<\/a>> # Liban<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Liban<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/seroprevalence<\/a>> # S\u00E9ropr\u00E9valence<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"S\u00E9ropr\u00E9valence<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/virus_de_la_fievre_de_la_vallee_du_rift<\/a>> # Virus de la fi\u00E8vre de la Vall\u00E9e du Rift<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Virus de la fi\u00E8vre de la Vall\u00E9e du Rift<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Thing\/virus_du_nil_occidental<\/a>> # Virus du Nil Occidental<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Thing<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Virus du Nil Occidental<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Topic\/fievre_a_virus_west_nile_liban<\/a>> # Fi\u00E8vre \u00E0 virus West Nile--Liban<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Fi\u00E8vre \u00E0 virus West Nile--Liban<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/experiment.worldcat.org\/entity\/work\/data\/5114454145#Topic\/moustique_commun<\/a>> # Moustique commun<\/span>\n\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Intangible<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nschema:name<\/a> \"Moustique commun<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/id.loc.gov\/vocabulary\/countries\/fr<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0a \nschema:Place<\/a> ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\ndcterms:identifier<\/a> \"fr<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n
<http:\/\/www.theses.fr\/2017PA066466\/document<\/a>>\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\nrdfs:comment<\/a> \"Acc\u00E8s au texte int\u00E9gral<\/span>\" ;\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\u00A0.\n\n\n<\/div>\n