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Essentials of English grammar

Author: Otto Jespersen
Publisher: London : Routledge, 2013.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Otto Jespersen
ISBN: 9780415847469 041584746X
OCLC Number: 862065169
Description: 387 pages ; 24 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: What is grammar? --
Local and social dialects. --
Spoken and written language. --
Formulas and free expressions. --
Expression, suppression, and impression. --
Prescriptive, descriptive, explanatory, historical, appreciative grammar. --
Purpose and plan of this grammar. --
Phonetic script. --
Lips. --
Tip of the tongue. --
Blade. --
Front and back of the tongue. --
Vowels. --
Soft palate. --
Vocal chords. --
Table of consonants. --
Syllables. --
Diphthongs. --
Length. --
Stress and tone. --
Sound laws. --
Alternations. --
Stress. --
The great vowel-shift. --
New [a,]. --
Weakening of r. --
Short vowels before r. --
ar, or, etc. --
Alternations with and without r. --
Influence of stress on vowels. --
Loss of e. --
Vowels in weak syllables. --
Loss of vowels in groups. --
Alternations in compounds. --
Strong and weak forms of the same word. --
Consonants. --
Tolerated consonant groups. --
Consonants dropped. --
Voiced and voiceless consonants. Contents note continued: H. --
Assibilation. --
Stump-words. --
Causes of unphonetic spelling. --
French influence: ch, g, c, ou, u, o. --
Doubling of letters. --
Differentiation of i, j, u, v. --
Learned spellings. --
Substantives. --
Adjectives. --
Verbs. --
Pronouns. --
Numerals. --
Particles. --
Provisional survey of inflexions. --
Derivation of word-classes. --
Three ranks. --
Primaries: Adjectives. --
Adverbs. --
Pronouns. --
The prop-word one. --
Secondaries: Substantives. --
Pronouns. --
Adverbs. --
Tertiaries: Substantives. --
Adjectives. --
Pronouns. --
Rank of word-groups. --
Adjunct and adnex. --
Restrictive and non-restrictive adjuncts. --
Relation between adjunct and primary. --
Adjuncts of composite names. --
Apposition. --
Participles. --
Extraposition. --
Nexus. --
Dependent nexus. --
Subject and predicate. --
Object. --
Word-order. --
Inversion. --
Amorphous sentences. --
Agent and sufferer. --
Double-faced verbs. --
Split subjects. --
Object. Contents note continued: Instrumental. --
Result. --
Cognate. --
Same verb different objects. --
Prepositional phrases. --
Reflexive. --
Reciprocal. --
Indirect object. --
The to-phrase. --
Transitive and intransitive. --
Objects after adjectives. --
Formation or the passive. --
Why is this turn chosen? --
The subject of a passive verb. --
Converted subject. --
Extraposition. --
Quasi-predicatives. --
Real predicatives. --
Linkverb. --
No verb. --
Predicatives of becoming. --
What can be a predicative? --
Article or no article with substantives as predicatives. --
Predicative left out. --
Cases in pronouns. --
Nominative and objective. --
After than and as. --
But, save, except. --
Case after let. --
Relative attraction. --
Predicative. --
Objective in independent position. --
Himself. --
Who. --
Second person. --
Cases in substantives. --
Common case and genitive. --
Group-genitive. --
Difficulties with pronouns. --
The meaning of genitive. Contents note continued: Restrictions in the use of the genitive. --
Lifeless things. --
Measures. --
Genitives as primaries. --
Genitive after of. --
Three persons. --
Substitutes for pronouns. --
Indirect speech. --
Vocative. --
Imperative. --
Verbs. --
Difficulties. --
Generic person. --
Division of pronouns. --
Pronouns of contextual indication (Personal pronouns). --
Ambiguities. --
Unspecified they. --
The self-pronouns. --
It. --
Preparatory it. --
Unspecified it. --
Emphatic it. --
Pronouns of pointing: this, that, yon. --
Representative that. --
Indefinite that. --
Hereafter, etc. --
Thus. --
So. --
The definite article. --
Demonstrative the. --
The article of complete determination. --
Words without article. --
Proper names. --
Times and dates. --
The typical. --
Distributive. --
Languages. --
Diseases. --
No article. --
Repetition. --
The article of incomplete determination. --
Adjectives with proper names. --
The pronoun of identity (same). Contents note continued: The pronoun of similarity (such). --
Indefinite unity (one). --
Indefinite article. --
Place of indefinite article. --
Pronoun of difference (other). --
Pronoun of discretion (certain). --
Pronoun of unspecified quantity (some). --
Pronouns of indifference (any, either). --
Positive (all, both, every, each). --
Negative (no, none, neither). --
Sex and gender. --
Substantives. --
Three words. --
Two words. --
Man. --
Derived words. --
One word. --
Indication of sex. --
Pronouns. --
It used of living beings. --
He or she of lifeless things. --
Countries. --
Abstracts. --
Who and which. --
Numerals. --
Ordinals. --
Singular and plural. --
Substantives. --
Irregularities. --
Learned plurals. --
The unchanged plural. --
Compounds. --
Pronouns. --
The meaning of plural. --
Special meaning in plural. --
Words used in plural only. --
Thing-words (countables) and mass-words (uncountables). --
Same word used in both ways. --
Plural mass-words. --
Vacillation. Contents note continued: Individualization. --
Collectives. --
Special complications. --
Higher units. --
The generic number. --
Number in secondary words. --
First part of compounds. --
Verbs. --
Positive, comparative and superlative. --
Regular forms. --
Irregularities. --
More and most. --
Meaning. --
Superiority, equality and inferiority. --
Seeming comparatives. --
Gradual increase. --
Parallel increase. --
Weakened comparatives. --
Higher degree than the positive. --
Too. --
Prefer. --
Superlative. --
Superlative in speaking of two. --
Limited superlative. --
Most. --
Latin comparatives. --
Time and tense. --
Past, present and future time with sub divisions. --
Tenses of English verbs. --
Present tense. --
Formation of preterit. --
Tense-phrases. --
Perfect and pluperfect. --
Expanded tenses. --
Use of the present tense. --
Present time. --
Past time. --
Future time. --
Auxiliaries of the perfect and pluperfect. --
Old and modern use of be. --
Inclusive time. Contents note continued: I have got. --
Use of the preterit and perfect. --
Used to. --
Preterit for before-past time. --
The pluperfect. --
Infinitive. --
Imperative. --
Participles. --
Second participle. --
Perfect participle. --
Gerund. --
Tenses in the passive. --
Conclusive verbs. --
Present tense. --
Preterit. --
Perfect, etc. --
Other auxiliaries in the passive. --
Imaginative use of the tenses. --
The preterit of imagination. --
Wishes. --
Conditions. --
Was and were. --
Could, might, ought, should. --
Time he went. --
Pluperfect of imagination. --
Infinitive of imagination. --
Indirect speech. --
Expanded tenses. --
Special cases. --
Passive. --
Conclusion. --
Full verb will. --
Auxiliary will. --
Volition. --
Habit. --
Volition-coloured future. --
First person. --
Second person. --
Condition. --
Pure future. --
I will. --
Before-future. --
Supposition. --
Shall. --
Obligation. --
Command. --
Promise or threat. --
Questions. --
Pure future. --
First person. Contents note continued: Before-future. --
Questions. --
Summary. --
Would. --
Real past. --
Habit. --
Imaginative. --
I would. --
Would you. --
Wishes. --
Conditioned sentences. --
First person. --
Should. --
Real past. --
Imaginative. --
Obligation. --
Advice. --
Obligation effaced. --
Conditional clauses. --
Emotional should. --
Will, shall, would, should in indirect speech. --
Notional survey of time-expressions. --
Forms. --
Indicative. --
Subjunctive. --
Main sentences. --
Clauses. --
Imperative. --
Let. --
Affirmation. --
Emphatic. --
Negation. --
Two tendencies. --
Reconciliation. --
Do. --
Negation to special word. --
With infinitive. --
May not, must not. --
Attraction. --
The meaning of negation. --
Quantitative terms. --
Not and no with comparatives. --
Not all, etc. --
Double negation. --
Weakened and implied negation. --
Questions. --
Two kinds. --
Nexus-questions. --
X-questions. --
Pronouns. --
Prepositions last. --
Adverbs. --
Intonation. --
Word order. --
Do. Contents note continued: Double-barrelled questions. --
Elliptical questions. --
Exclamations. --
Dependent questions. --
Different forms of dependent nexus. --
Simple nexus as object. --
Object of result. --
Have. --
After other verbs. --
Passive. --
Nexus object of preposition. --
Simple nexus as tertiary. --
Reason or condition. --
Time. --
Description. --
Condensed expressions. --
Word-order. --
Formed from predicatives or from verbs. --
Subject or object. --
Genitive or of. --
Active or passive import. --
Both subject and object. --
Concrete meaning of nexus-substantive. --
Hybrid between substantive and verb. --
Treated as substantive. --
Similarities with verbs. --
Active and passive meaning. --
Object. --
Subject. --
Genitive or possessive. --
Difficulties. --
Common case. --
Personal pronouns. --
Gerund or participle? --
Of and by. --
The gerundial nexus itself subject. --
It and there. --
Substantive or verb? --
Bare infinitive and to-infinitive. Contents note continued: Infinitives as primaries. --
Object without to. --
With to. --
Have to. --
Verbs, substantives and adjectives with to. --
Infinitive after preposition. --
After than. --
Infinitives as secondaries. --
To do. --
Passive meaning. --
Is to. --
Infinitives as tertiaries. --
Purpose. --
Result. --
Primaries of an infinitive-nexus. --
Subject not mentioned. --
Infinitival nexus as object. --
As object of result. --
After a preposition. --
For, with this construction. --
Subject and infinitive itself subject. --
Split subject. --
Passive. --
For construction. --
There. --
Final remarks. --
Place of adverbs. --
To as representative of infinitive. --
Infinitive and gerund. --
Infinitive itself a sentence. --
Content-clauses. --
Use of it. --
Content-clause after preposition. --
Clauses without that. --
Interrogative clauses as primaries. --
Clauses without conjunction. --
Clause after preposition. --
Infinitive clauses. --
No preposition before clause. Contents note continued: Relative clauses as primaries. --
Correct analysis. --
Use of who in such clauses. --
Pronouns with ever. --
Extraposition. --
Mental parenthesis. --
Relative or interrogative. --
Relative clauses. --
Restrictive and non-restrictive. --
Double restriction. --
It is. --
Form of relative clauses. --
Clauses with wh-pronouns. --
Which as adjunct. --
Two co-ordinated clauses. --
Contact clauses. --
Clauses with that. --
Wh-pronouns preferred in speaking of persons. --
That however used. --
Other cases. --
That a conjunction. --
As. --
But. --
Final remarks. --
Place of preposition. --
Irregular continuation. --
Concatenation of clauses. --
Adverbs whereof, etc. --
Place. --
Time. --
Contrast. --
Manner. --
Comparison. --
Cause. --
Purpose. --
Result. --
Condition. --
Restriction. --
Concession. --
Indifference. --
Parallelism. --
Amorphous clauses. --
Synopsis of grammatical means. --
The unchanged word. --
Stress and tone. --
Other modifications. Contents note continued: Endings. --
Separate roots. --
Grammatical words. --
Word-order. --
Grammatical synonyms.
Responsibility: Otto Jesperson.

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