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Essentials of oceanography

Author: Alan P Trujillo; Harold V Thurman
Publisher: Boston : Pearson, ©2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Eleventh edView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Textbooks
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Alan P Trujillo; Harold V Thurman
ISBN: 9780321814050 0321814053 9780321668127 032166812X 9780321820860 032182086X
OCLC Number: 815043823
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xxxi, 578 p. : ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 28 cm.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction To Planet "Earth" --
Essential Concepts --
1.1.How Many Oceans Exist on Earth? --
The Four Principal Oceans, Plus One --
Oceans versus Seas: What Are the Seven Seas? --
1.2.How Was Early Exploration Of the Oceans Achieved? --
Early History --
Diving Deeper 1.1 Historical Feature How Do Sailors Know Where They Are At Sea?: From Stick Charts to Satellites --
The Middle Ages --
The Age Of Discovery in Europe --
The Beginning Of Voyaging for Science --
History Of Oceanography ... To Be Continued --
1.3.What Is the Nature Of Scientific Inquiry? --
Observations --
Hypothesis --
Testing --
Theory --
Theories and the Truth --
1.4.How Were Earth and the Solar System Formed? --
The Nebular Hypothesis --
Protoearth --
Density and Density Stratification --
Earth's Internal Structure --
1.5.How Were Earth's Atmosphere and Oceans Formed? --
Origin Of Earth's Atmosphere --
Origin Of Earth's Oceans --
1.6.Did Life Begin in the Oceans? --
The Importance Of Oxygen to Life --
Stanley Miller's Experiment --
Evolution and Natural Selection --
Plants and Animals Evolve --
Diving Deeper 1.2 Historical Feature The Voyage Of HMS Beagle: How It Shaped Charles Darwin's Thinking About the Theory Of Evolution --
1.7.How Old Is Earth? --
Radiometric Age Dating --
The Geologic Time Scale --
Essential Concepts Review --
2.Plate Tectonics And The Ocean Floor --
Essential Concepts --
2.1.What Evidence Supports Continental Drift? --
Fit Of the Continents --
Matching Sequences Of Rocks and Mountain Chains --
Glacial Ages and Other Climate Evidence --
Distribution Of Organisms --
Objections to the Continental Drift Model --
2.2.What Evidence Supports Plate Tectonics? --
Earth's Magnetic Field and Paleomagnetism --
Diving Deeper 2.1 Research Methods In Oceanography Do Sea Turtles (and Other Animals) Use Earth's Magnetic Field for Navigation? --
Sea Floor Spreading and Features Of the Ocean Basins --
Other Evidence from the Ocean Basins --
The Acceptance Of a Theory --
2.3.What Features Occur at Plate Boundaries? --
Divergent Boundary Features --
Convergent Boundary Features --
Transform Boundary Features --
2.4.Testing the Model: What Are Some Applications Of Plate Tectonics? --
Hotspots and Mantle Plumes --
Seamounts and Tablemounts --
Coral Reef Development --
Detecting Plate Motion with Satellites --
2.5.How Has Earth Changed in the Past, and How Will it Look in the Future? --
The Past: Paleogeography --
The Future: Some Bold Predictions --
2.6.How Can Plate Tectonics Be Used As A Working Model? --
Diving Deeper 2.2 Historical Feature Ophiolites: A Gift From the Sea Floor to the Bronze Age --
Essential Concepts Review --
3.Marine Provinces --
Essential Concepts --
3.1.What Techniques Are Used to Determine Ocean Bathymetry? --
Soundings --
Echo Soundings --
Using Satellites to Map Ocean Properties from Space --
Seismic Reflection Profiles --
3.2.What Features Exist on Continental Margins? --
Passive versus Active Continental Margins --
Continental Shelf --
Continental Slope --
Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currents --
Continental Rise --
3.3.What Features Exist in the Deep-Ocean Basins? --
Abyssal Plains --
Volcanic Peaks Of the Abyssal Plains --
Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs --
3.4.What Features Exist Along the Mid-Ocean Ridge? --
Volcanic Features --
Diving Deeper 3.1 Research Methods In Oceanography Earth's Hypsographic Curve: Nearly Everything You Need to Know About Earth's Oceans and Landmasses in One Graph --
Hydrothermal Vents --
Fracture Zones and Transform Faults --
Diving Deeper 3.2 Research Methods In Oceanography Now You See it, Now You Don't: Recovering Oceanographic Equipment Stuck in Lava --
Oceanic Islands --
Essential Concepts Review --
4.Marine Sediments --
Essential Concepts --
4.1.How Are Marine Sediments Collected, and What Historical Events Do they Reveal? --
Collecting Marine Sediments --
Environmental Conditions Revealed by Marine Sediments --
Paleoceanography --
4.2.What Are the Characteristics Of Lithogenous Sediment? --
Origin Of Lithogenous Sediment --
Composition Of Lithogenous Sediment --
Sediment Texture --
Distribution Of Lithogenous Sediment --
4.3.What Are the Characteristics Of Biogenous Sediment? --
Origin Of Biogenous Sediment --
Composition Of Biogenous Sediment --
Diving Deeper 4.1 Oceans And People Diatoms: The Most Important Things You Have (Probably) Never Heard Of --
Distribution Of Biogenous Sediment --
4.4.What Are the Characteristics Of Hydrogenous Sediment? --
Origin Of Hydrogenous Sediment --
Composition and Distribution Of Hydrogenous Sediment --
4.5.What Are the Characteristics Of Cosmogenous Sediment? --
Origin, Composition, and Distribution Of Cosmogenous Sediment --
4.6.How Are Pelagic and Neritic Deposits Distributed? --
Mixtures Of Marine Sediment --
Neritic Deposits --
Pelagic Deposits --
How Sea Floor Sediments Represent Surface Conditions --
Worldwide Thickness Of Marine Sediments --
4.7.What Resources Do Marine Sediments Provide? --
Energy Resources --
Other Resources --
Essential Concepts Review --
5.Water And Seawater --
Essential Concepts --
5.1.Why Does Water Have Such Unusual Chemical Properties? --
Atomic Structure --
The Water Molecule --
5.2.What Other Important Properties Does Water Possess? --
Water's Thermal Properties --
Water Density --
5.3.How Salty Is Seawater? --
Salinity --
Determining Salinity --
Diving Deeper 5.1 Oceans And People How to Avoid Goiters --
Comparing Pure Water and Seawater --
5.4.Why Does Seawater Salinity Vary? --
Salinity Variations --
Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity --
Dissolved Components Added to and Removed from Seawater --
5.5.Is Seawater Acidic or Basic? --
The pH Scale --
The Carbonate Buffering System --
5.6.How Does Seawater Salinity Vary at the Surface and With Depth? --
Surface Salinity Variation --
Salinity Variation with Depth --
Halocline --
5.7.How Does Seawater Density Vary With Depth? --
Factors Affecting Seawater Density --
Temperature and Density Variation with Depth --
Thermocline and Pycnocline --
5.8.What Methods Are Used to Desalinate Seawater? --
Distillation --
Membrane Processes --
Other Methods Of Desalination --
Essential Concepts Review --
6.Air-Sea Interaction --
Essential Concepts --
6.1.What Causes Variations in Solar Radiation on Earth? --
What Causes Earth's Seasons? --
How Latitude Affects the Distribution Of Solar Radiation --
Oceanic Heat Flow --
6.2.What Physical Properties Does the Atmosphere Possess? --
Composition Of the Atmosphere --
Temperature Variation in the Atmosphere --
Density Variation in the Atmosphere --
Atmospheric Water Vapor Content --
Atmospheric Pressure --
Movement Of the Atmosphere --
An Example: A Nonspinning Earth --
6.3.How Does the Coriolis Effect Influence Moving Objects? --
Example 1: Perspectives and Frames Of Reference on a Merry-Go-Round --
Example 2: A Tale Of Two Missiles --
Changes in the Coriolis Effect with Latitude --
6.4.What Global Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Exist? --
Circulation Cells --
Pressure --
Wind Belts --
Boundaries --
Circulation Cells: Idealized or Real? --
6.5.What Weather and Climate Patterns Occur in the Oceans? --
Weather versus Climate --
Winds --
Diving Deeper 6.1 Historical Feature Why Christopher Columbus Never Set Foot on North America --
Storms and Fronts --
Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes) --
The Ocean's Climate Patterns --
6.6.How Do Sea Ice and Icebergs Form? --
Formation Of Sea Ice --
Formation Of Icebergs --
6.7.Can Power from Wind Be Harnessed as a Source Of Energy? --
Essential Concepts Review --
7.Ocean Circulation --
Essential Concepts --
7.1.How Are Ocean Currents Measured? --
Surface Current Measurement --
Diving Deeper 7.1 Oceans And People Running Shoes as Drift Meters: Just Do It --
Deep Current Measurement --
7.2.How Are Ocean Surface Currents Organized? --
Origin Of Surface Currents --
Main Components Of Ocean Surface Circulation --
Other Factors Affecting Ocean Surface Circulation --
Ocean Currents and Climate --
7.3.What Causes Upwelling and Downwelling? --
Diverging Surface Water --
Converging Surface Water --
Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling --
Other Causes Of Upwelling --
7.4.What Are The Main Surface Circulation Patterns in Each Ocean Basin? --
Antarctic Circulation --
Atlantic Ocean Circulation --
Diving Deeper 7.2 Historical Feature Benjamin Franklin: The World's Most Famous Physical Oceanographer --
Indian Ocean Circulation --
Pacific Ocean Circulation --
7.5.What Deep-Ocean Currents Exist? --
Origin Of Thermohaline Circulation --
Sources Of Deep Water --
Worldwide Deep-Water Circulation --
7.6.Can Power from Currents Be Harnessed as A Source Of Energy? --
Essential Concepts Review --
8.Waves And Water Dynamics --
Essential Concepts --
8.1.How Are Waves Generated, and How Do They Move? --
Disturbances Generate Ocean Waves --
Wave Movement --
8.2.What Characteristics Do Waves Possess? --
Wave Terminology --
Circular Orbital Motion --
Deep-Water Waves --
Shallow-Water Waves --
Transitional Waves --
8.3.How Do Wind-Generated Waves Develop? --
Wave Development --
Interference Patterns --
Rogue Waves --
8.4.How Do Waves Change in the Surf Zone? --
Physical Changes as Waves Approach Shore --
Breakers and Surfing --
Wave Refraction --
Wave Reflection --
8.5.How Are Tsunami Created? --
Coastal Effects --
Some Examples Of Historic and Recent Tsunami --
Diving Deeper 8.1 Oceans And People Waves Of Destruction: The 2011 Japanese Tsunami --
Tsunami Warning System --
8.6.Can Power from Waves Be Harnessed as a Source Of Energy? --
Wave Power Plants and Wave Farms --
Global Coastal Wave Energy Resources --
Essential Concepts Review --
9.Tides --
Essential Concepts --
9.1.What Causes Ocean Tides? --
Tide-Generating Forces --
Tidal Bulges: The Moon's Effect --
Tidal Bulges: The Sun's Effect --
Earth's Rotation and the Tides --
9.2.How Do Tides Vary During a Monthly Tidal Cycle? --
The Monthly Tidal Cycle --
Complicating Factors --
Idealized Tide Prediction --
Note continued: 9.3.What Do Tides Look Like in the Ocean? --
Amphidromic Points and Cotidal Lines --
Effect Of the Continents --
Other Considerations --
9.4.What Types Of Tidal Patterns Exist? --
Diurnal Tidal Pattern --
Semidiurnal Tidal Pattern --
Mixed Tidal Pattern --
9.5.What Tidal Phenomena Occur in Coastal Regions? --
Diving Deeper 9.1 Oceans And People Tidal Bores: Boring Waves These Are Not! --
An Example Of Tidal Extremes: The Bay Of Fundy --
Coastal Tidal Currents --
Whirlpools: Fact or Fiction? --
Grunion: Doing What Comes Naturally on the Beach --
9.6.Can Tidal Power Be Harnessed as a Source Of Energy? --
Tidal Power Plants --
Essential Concepts Review --
10.The Coast: Beaches And Shoreline Processes --
Essential Concepts --
10.1.How Are Coastal Regions Defined? --
Beach Terminology --
Beach Composition --
10.2.How Does Sand Move on the Beach? --
Movement Perpendicular to the Shoreline --
Movement Parallel to the Shoreline --
10.3.What Features Exist Along Erosional and Depositional Shores? --
Features Of Erosional Shores --
Diving Deeper 10.1 Oceans And People Warning: Rip Currents ... Do You Know What to Do? --
Features Of Depositional Shores --
10.4.How Do Changes in Sea Level Produce Emerging and Submerging Shorelines? --
Features Of Emerging Shorelines --
Features Of Submerging Shorelines --
Changes in Sea Level --
10.5.What Characteristics Do U.S. Coasts Exhibit? --
The Atlantic Coast --
The Gulf Coast --
The Pacific Coast --
10.6.How Does Hard Stabilization Affect Coastlines? --
Groins and Groin Fields --
Jetties --
Breakwaters --
Seawalls --
Alternatives to Hard Stabilization --
Essential Concepts Review --
11.The Coastal Ocean --
Essential Concepts --
11.1.What Laws Govern Ocean Ownership? --
Mare Liberum and the Territorial Sea --
Law Of the Sea --
11.2.What Characteristics Do Coastal Waters Exhibit? --
Salinity --
Temperature --
Coastal Geostrophic Currents --
11.3.What Types Of Coastal Waters Exist? --
Estuaries --
Lagoons --
Marginal Seas --
11.4.What Issues Face Coastal Wetlands? --
Types Of Coastal Wetlands --
Characteristics Of Coastal Wetlands --
Serious Loss Of Valuable Wetlands --
11.5.What Is Pollution? --
Marine Pollution: A Definition --
Environmental Bioassay --
The Issue Of Waste Disposal in the Ocean --
11.6.What Are the Main Types Of Marine Pollution? --
Petroleum --
Diving Deeper 11.1 Focus On The Environment The 2010 Gulf Of Mexico Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill --
Sewage Sludge --
DDT and PCBs --
Mercury and Minamata Disease --
Nonpoint Source Pollution and Trash --
Biological Pollution: Non-Native Species --
Essential Concepts Review --
12.Marine Life And The Marine Environment --
Essential Concepts --
12.1.What Are Living Things, and How Are They Classified? --
A Working Definition Of Life --
The Three Domains Of Life --
The Five Kingdoms Of Organisms --
Linnaeus and Taxonomic Classification --
12.2.How Are Marine Organisms Classified? --
Plankton (Drifters) --
Nekton (Swimmers) --
Benthos (Bottom Dwellers) --
12.3.How Many Marine Species Exist? --
Why Are There So Few Marine Species? --
Species in Pelagic and Benthic Environments --
12.4.How Are Marine Organisms Adapted for the Physical Conditions Of the Ocean? --
Need for Physical Support --
Water's Viscosity --
Temperature --
Salinity --
Dissolved Gases --
Water's High Transparency --
Pressure --
Diving Deeper 12.1 Historical Feature Diving into the Marine Environment --
12.5.What Are the Main Divisions Of the Marine Environment? --
Pelagic (Open Sea) Environment --
Benthic (Sea Bottom) Environment --
Essential Concepts Review --
13.Biological Productivity And Energy Transfer --
Essential Concepts --
13.1.What Is Primary Productivity? --
Measurement Of Primary Productivity --
Factors Affecting Primary Productivity --
Light Transmission in Ocean Water --
Why Are the Margins Of the Oceans So Rich in Life? --
13.2.What Kinds Of Photosynthetic Marine Organisms Exist? --
Seed-Bearing Plants (Anthophyta) --
Macroscopic (Large) Algae --
Microscopic (Small) Algae --
Ocean Eutrophication and Dead Zones --
Photosynthetic Bacteria --
13.3.How Does Regional Primary Productivity Vary? --
Productivity in Polar (High Latitude) Oceans --
Productivity in Tropical (Low-Latitude) Oceans --
Productivity in Middle Latitude (Temperate) Oceans --
Comparing Regional Productivity --
13.4.How Are Energy and Nutrients Passed Along in Marine Ecosystems? --
Flow Of Energy in Marine Ecosystems --
Flow Of Nutrients in Marine Ecosystems --
Oceanic Feeding Relationships --
13.5.What Issues Affect Marine Fisheries? --
Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries --
Overfishing --
Diving Deeper 13.1 Focus On The Environment Fishing Down the Food Web: Seeing Is Believing --
Incidental Catch --
Fisheries Management --
Seafood Choices --
Essential Concepts Review --
14.Animals Of The Pelagic Environment --
Essential Concepts --
14.1.How Are Marine Organisms Able to Stay Above the Ocean Floor? --
Use Of Gas Containers --
Ability to Float --
Ability to Swim --
The Diversity Of Planktonic Animals --
14.2.What Adaptations Do Pelagic Organisms Possess for Seeking Prey? --
Mobility: Lungers versus Cruisers --
Swimming Speed --
Diving Deeper 14.1 Oceans And People Some Myths (and Facts) About Sharks --
Cold-Blooded versus Warm-Blooded Organisms --
Adaptations Of Deep-Water Nekton --
14.3.What Adaptations Do Pelagic Organisms Possess to Avoid Being Prey? --
Schooling --
Symbiosis --
Other Adaptations --
14.4.What Characteristics Do Marine Mammals Possess? --
Mammalian Characteristics --
Order Carnivora --
Order Sirenia --
Order Cetacea --
14.5.An Example Of Migration: Why Do Gray Whales Migrate? --
Migration Route --
Reasons for Migration --
Timing Of Migration --
Are Gray Whales an Endangered Species? --
Whaling and the International Whaling Commission --
Essential Concepts Review --
15.Animals Of The Benthic Environment --
Essential Concepts --
15.1.What Communities Exist along Rocky Shores? --
Intertidal Zonation --
The Spray (Supratidal) Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
The High Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
The Middle Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
The Low Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
15.2.What Communities Exist along Sediment-Covered Shores? --
Physical Environment Of the Sediment --
Intertidal Zonation --
Sandy Beaches: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
Mud Flats: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
15.3.What Communities Exist on the Shallow Offshore Ocean Floor? --
Rocky Bottoms (Subtidal): Organisms and Their Adaptations --
Coral Reefs: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
15.4.What Communities Exist on the Deep-Ocean Floor? --
The Physical Environment --
Food Sources and Species Diversity --
Diving Deeper 15.1 Research Methods In Oceanography How Long Would Your Remains Remain on the Sea Floor? --
Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Biocommunities: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
Low-Temperature Seep Biocommunities: Organisms and Their Adaptations --
The Deep Biosphere: A New Frontier --
Essential Concepts Review --
16.The Oceans And Climate Change --
Essential Concepts --
16.1.What Comprises Earth's Climate System? --
16.2.Earth's Recent Climate Change: Is It Natural or Caused by Human Influence? --
Determining Earth's Past Climate: Proxy Data and Paleoclimatology --
Natural Causes Of Climate Change --
The IPCC: Documenting Human-Caused Climate Change --
16.3.What Causes the Atmosphere's Greenhouse Effect? --
Earth's Heat Budget and Changes in Wavelength --
Which Gases Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect? --
What Documented Changes Are Occurring Because Of Global Warming? --
16.4.What Changes Are Occurring in the Oceans as a Result Of Global Warming? --
Increasing Ocean Temperatures --
Diving Deeper 16.1 Focus On The Environment The ATOC Experiment: SOFAR So Good? --
Increasing Hurricane Activity --
Changes in Deep-Water Circulation --
Melting Of Polar Ice --
Recent Increase in Ocean Acidity --
Rising Sea Level --
Other Predicted and Observed Changes --
16.5.What Should Be Done to Reduce Greenhouse Gases? --
The Ocean's Role in Reducing Global Warming --
Possibilities for Reducing Greenhouse Gases --
The Kyoto Protocol: Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions --
Essential Concepts Review.
Responsibility: Alan P. Trujillo, Harold V. Thurman.

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   schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1043671> ; # Oceanography
   schema:about <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85093937> ; # Oceanography
   schema:about <http://dewey.info/class/551.46/e23/> ;
   schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/843352#Topic/meereskunde> ; # Meereskunde
   schema:bookEdition "Eleventh ed." ;
   schema:bookFormat bgn:PrintBook ;
   schema:contributor <http://viaf.org/viaf/5020389> ; # Harold V. Thurman
   schema:copyrightYear "2014" ;
   schema:creator <http://viaf.org/viaf/68249434> ; # Alan P. Trujillo
   schema:datePublished "2014" ;
   schema:description "Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction To Planet "Earth" -- Essential Concepts -- 1.1.How Many Oceans Exist on Earth? -- The Four Principal Oceans, Plus One -- Oceans versus Seas: What Are the Seven Seas? -- 1.2.How Was Early Exploration Of the Oceans Achieved? -- Early History -- Diving Deeper 1.1 Historical Feature How Do Sailors Know Where They Are At Sea?: From Stick Charts to Satellites -- The Middle Ages -- The Age Of Discovery in Europe -- The Beginning Of Voyaging for Science -- History Of Oceanography ... To Be Continued -- 1.3.What Is the Nature Of Scientific Inquiry? -- Observations -- Hypothesis -- Testing -- Theory -- Theories and the Truth -- 1.4.How Were Earth and the Solar System Formed? -- The Nebular Hypothesis -- Protoearth -- Density and Density Stratification -- Earth's Internal Structure -- 1.5.How Were Earth's Atmosphere and Oceans Formed? -- Origin Of Earth's Atmosphere -- Origin Of Earth's Oceans -- 1.6.Did Life Begin in the Oceans? -- The Importance Of Oxygen to Life -- Stanley Miller's Experiment -- Evolution and Natural Selection -- Plants and Animals Evolve -- Diving Deeper 1.2 Historical Feature The Voyage Of HMS Beagle: How It Shaped Charles Darwin's Thinking About the Theory Of Evolution -- 1.7.How Old Is Earth? -- Radiometric Age Dating -- The Geologic Time Scale -- Essential Concepts Review -- 2.Plate Tectonics And The Ocean Floor -- Essential Concepts -- 2.1.What Evidence Supports Continental Drift? -- Fit Of the Continents -- Matching Sequences Of Rocks and Mountain Chains -- Glacial Ages and Other Climate Evidence -- Distribution Of Organisms -- Objections to the Continental Drift Model -- 2.2.What Evidence Supports Plate Tectonics? -- Earth's Magnetic Field and Paleomagnetism -- Diving Deeper 2.1 Research Methods In Oceanography Do Sea Turtles (and Other Animals) Use Earth's Magnetic Field for Navigation? -- Sea Floor Spreading and Features Of the Ocean Basins -- Other Evidence from the Ocean Basins -- The Acceptance Of a Theory -- 2.3.What Features Occur at Plate Boundaries? -- Divergent Boundary Features -- Convergent Boundary Features -- Transform Boundary Features -- 2.4.Testing the Model: What Are Some Applications Of Plate Tectonics? -- Hotspots and Mantle Plumes -- Seamounts and Tablemounts -- Coral Reef Development -- Detecting Plate Motion with Satellites -- 2.5.How Has Earth Changed in the Past, and How Will it Look in the Future? -- The Past: Paleogeography -- The Future: Some Bold Predictions -- 2.6.How Can Plate Tectonics Be Used As A Working Model? -- Diving Deeper 2.2 Historical Feature Ophiolites: A Gift From the Sea Floor to the Bronze Age -- Essential Concepts Review -- 3.Marine Provinces -- Essential Concepts -- 3.1.What Techniques Are Used to Determine Ocean Bathymetry? -- Soundings -- Echo Soundings -- Using Satellites to Map Ocean Properties from Space -- Seismic Reflection Profiles -- 3.2.What Features Exist on Continental Margins? -- Passive versus Active Continental Margins -- Continental Shelf -- Continental Slope -- Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currents -- Continental Rise -- 3.3.What Features Exist in the Deep-Ocean Basins? -- Abyssal Plains -- Volcanic Peaks Of the Abyssal Plains -- Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs -- 3.4.What Features Exist Along the Mid-Ocean Ridge? -- Volcanic Features -- Diving Deeper 3.1 Research Methods In Oceanography Earth's Hypsographic Curve: Nearly Everything You Need to Know About Earth's Oceans and Landmasses in One Graph -- Hydrothermal Vents -- Fracture Zones and Transform Faults -- Diving Deeper 3.2 Research Methods In Oceanography Now You See it, Now You Don't: Recovering Oceanographic Equipment Stuck in Lava -- Oceanic Islands -- Essential Concepts Review -- 4.Marine Sediments -- Essential Concepts -- 4.1.How Are Marine Sediments Collected, and What Historical Events Do they Reveal? -- Collecting Marine Sediments -- Environmental Conditions Revealed by Marine Sediments -- Paleoceanography -- 4.2.What Are the Characteristics Of Lithogenous Sediment? -- Origin Of Lithogenous Sediment -- Composition Of Lithogenous Sediment -- Sediment Texture -- Distribution Of Lithogenous Sediment -- 4.3.What Are the Characteristics Of Biogenous Sediment? -- Origin Of Biogenous Sediment -- Composition Of Biogenous Sediment -- Diving Deeper 4.1 Oceans And People Diatoms: The Most Important Things You Have (Probably) Never Heard Of -- Distribution Of Biogenous Sediment -- 4.4.What Are the Characteristics Of Hydrogenous Sediment? -- Origin Of Hydrogenous Sediment -- Composition and Distribution Of Hydrogenous Sediment -- 4.5.What Are the Characteristics Of Cosmogenous Sediment? -- Origin, Composition, and Distribution Of Cosmogenous Sediment -- 4.6.How Are Pelagic and Neritic Deposits Distributed? -- Mixtures Of Marine Sediment -- Neritic Deposits -- Pelagic Deposits -- How Sea Floor Sediments Represent Surface Conditions -- Worldwide Thickness Of Marine Sediments -- 4.7.What Resources Do Marine Sediments Provide? -- Energy Resources -- Other Resources -- Essential Concepts Review -- 5.Water And Seawater -- Essential Concepts -- 5.1.Why Does Water Have Such Unusual Chemical Properties? -- Atomic Structure -- The Water Molecule -- 5.2.What Other Important Properties Does Water Possess? -- Water's Thermal Properties -- Water Density -- 5.3.How Salty Is Seawater? -- Salinity -- Determining Salinity -- Diving Deeper 5.1 Oceans And People How to Avoid Goiters -- Comparing Pure Water and Seawater -- 5.4.Why Does Seawater Salinity Vary? -- Salinity Variations -- Processes Affecting Seawater Salinity -- Dissolved Components Added to and Removed from Seawater -- 5.5.Is Seawater Acidic or Basic? -- The pH Scale -- The Carbonate Buffering System -- 5.6.How Does Seawater Salinity Vary at the Surface and With Depth? -- Surface Salinity Variation -- Salinity Variation with Depth -- Halocline -- 5.7.How Does Seawater Density Vary With Depth? -- Factors Affecting Seawater Density -- Temperature and Density Variation with Depth -- Thermocline and Pycnocline -- 5.8.What Methods Are Used to Desalinate Seawater? -- Distillation -- Membrane Processes -- Other Methods Of Desalination -- Essential Concepts Review -- 6.Air-Sea Interaction -- Essential Concepts -- 6.1.What Causes Variations in Solar Radiation on Earth? -- What Causes Earth's Seasons? -- How Latitude Affects the Distribution Of Solar Radiation -- Oceanic Heat Flow -- 6.2.What Physical Properties Does the Atmosphere Possess? -- Composition Of the Atmosphere -- Temperature Variation in the Atmosphere -- Density Variation in the Atmosphere -- Atmospheric Water Vapor Content -- Atmospheric Pressure -- Movement Of the Atmosphere -- An Example: A Nonspinning Earth -- 6.3.How Does the Coriolis Effect Influence Moving Objects? -- Example 1: Perspectives and Frames Of Reference on a Merry-Go-Round -- Example 2: A Tale Of Two Missiles -- Changes in the Coriolis Effect with Latitude -- 6.4.What Global Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Exist? -- Circulation Cells -- Pressure -- Wind Belts -- Boundaries -- Circulation Cells: Idealized or Real? -- 6.5.What Weather and Climate Patterns Occur in the Oceans? -- Weather versus Climate -- Winds -- Diving Deeper 6.1 Historical Feature Why Christopher Columbus Never Set Foot on North America -- Storms and Fronts -- Tropical Cyclones (Hurricanes) -- The Ocean's Climate Patterns -- 6.6.How Do Sea Ice and Icebergs Form? -- Formation Of Sea Ice -- Formation Of Icebergs -- 6.7.Can Power from Wind Be Harnessed as a Source Of Energy? -- Essential Concepts Review -- 7.Ocean Circulation -- Essential Concepts -- 7.1.How Are Ocean Currents Measured? -- Surface Current Measurement -- Diving Deeper 7.1 Oceans And People Running Shoes as Drift Meters: Just Do It -- Deep Current Measurement -- 7.2.How Are Ocean Surface Currents Organized? -- Origin Of Surface Currents -- Main Components Of Ocean Surface Circulation -- Other Factors Affecting Ocean Surface Circulation -- Ocean Currents and Climate -- 7.3.What Causes Upwelling and Downwelling? -- Diverging Surface Water -- Converging Surface Water -- Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling -- Other Causes Of Upwelling -- 7.4.What Are The Main Surface Circulation Patterns in Each Ocean Basin? -- Antarctic Circulation -- Atlantic Ocean Circulation -- Diving Deeper 7.2 Historical Feature Benjamin Franklin: The World's Most Famous Physical Oceanographer -- Indian Ocean Circulation -- Pacific Ocean Circulation -- 7.5.What Deep-Ocean Currents Exist? -- Origin Of Thermohaline Circulation -- Sources Of Deep Water -- Worldwide Deep-Water Circulation -- 7.6.Can Power from Currents Be Harnessed as A Source Of Energy? -- Essential Concepts Review -- 8.Waves And Water Dynamics -- Essential Concepts -- 8.1.How Are Waves Generated, and How Do They Move? -- Disturbances Generate Ocean Waves -- Wave Movement -- 8.2.What Characteristics Do Waves Possess? -- Wave Terminology -- Circular Orbital Motion -- Deep-Water Waves -- Shallow-Water Waves -- Transitional Waves -- 8.3.How Do Wind-Generated Waves Develop? -- Wave Development -- Interference Patterns -- Rogue Waves -- 8.4.How Do Waves Change in the Surf Zone? -- Physical Changes as Waves Approach Shore -- Breakers and Surfing -- Wave Refraction -- Wave Reflection -- 8.5.How Are Tsunami Created? -- Coastal Effects -- Some Examples Of Historic and Recent Tsunami -- Diving Deeper 8.1 Oceans And People Waves Of Destruction: The 2011 Japanese Tsunami -- Tsunami Warning System -- 8.6.Can Power from Waves Be Harnessed as a Source Of Energy? -- Wave Power Plants and Wave Farms -- Global Coastal Wave Energy Resources -- Essential Concepts Review -- 9.Tides -- Essential Concepts -- 9.1.What Causes Ocean Tides? -- Tide-Generating Forces -- Tidal Bulges: The Moon's Effect -- Tidal Bulges: The Sun's Effect -- Earth's Rotation and the Tides -- 9.2.How Do Tides Vary During a Monthly Tidal Cycle? -- The Monthly Tidal Cycle -- Complicating Factors -- Idealized Tide Prediction --"@en ;
   schema:description "Note continued: 9.3.What Do Tides Look Like in the Ocean? -- Amphidromic Points and Cotidal Lines -- Effect Of the Continents -- Other Considerations -- 9.4.What Types Of Tidal Patterns Exist? -- Diurnal Tidal Pattern -- Semidiurnal Tidal Pattern -- Mixed Tidal Pattern -- 9.5.What Tidal Phenomena Occur in Coastal Regions? -- Diving Deeper 9.1 Oceans And People Tidal Bores: Boring Waves These Are Not! -- An Example Of Tidal Extremes: The Bay Of Fundy -- Coastal Tidal Currents -- Whirlpools: Fact or Fiction? -- Grunion: Doing What Comes Naturally on the Beach -- 9.6.Can Tidal Power Be Harnessed as a Source Of Energy? -- Tidal Power Plants -- Essential Concepts Review -- 10.The Coast: Beaches And Shoreline Processes -- Essential Concepts -- 10.1.How Are Coastal Regions Defined? -- Beach Terminology -- Beach Composition -- 10.2.How Does Sand Move on the Beach? -- Movement Perpendicular to the Shoreline -- Movement Parallel to the Shoreline -- 10.3.What Features Exist Along Erosional and Depositional Shores? -- Features Of Erosional Shores -- Diving Deeper 10.1 Oceans And People Warning: Rip Currents ... Do You Know What to Do? -- Features Of Depositional Shores -- 10.4.How Do Changes in Sea Level Produce Emerging and Submerging Shorelines? -- Features Of Emerging Shorelines -- Features Of Submerging Shorelines -- Changes in Sea Level -- 10.5.What Characteristics Do U.S. Coasts Exhibit? -- The Atlantic Coast -- The Gulf Coast -- The Pacific Coast -- 10.6.How Does Hard Stabilization Affect Coastlines? -- Groins and Groin Fields -- Jetties -- Breakwaters -- Seawalls -- Alternatives to Hard Stabilization -- Essential Concepts Review -- 11.The Coastal Ocean -- Essential Concepts -- 11.1.What Laws Govern Ocean Ownership? -- Mare Liberum and the Territorial Sea -- Law Of the Sea -- 11.2.What Characteristics Do Coastal Waters Exhibit? -- Salinity -- Temperature -- Coastal Geostrophic Currents -- 11.3.What Types Of Coastal Waters Exist? -- Estuaries -- Lagoons -- Marginal Seas -- 11.4.What Issues Face Coastal Wetlands? -- Types Of Coastal Wetlands -- Characteristics Of Coastal Wetlands -- Serious Loss Of Valuable Wetlands -- 11.5.What Is Pollution? -- Marine Pollution: A Definition -- Environmental Bioassay -- The Issue Of Waste Disposal in the Ocean -- 11.6.What Are the Main Types Of Marine Pollution? -- Petroleum -- Diving Deeper 11.1 Focus On The Environment The 2010 Gulf Of Mexico Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill -- Sewage Sludge -- DDT and PCBs -- Mercury and Minamata Disease -- Nonpoint Source Pollution and Trash -- Biological Pollution: Non-Native Species -- Essential Concepts Review -- 12.Marine Life And The Marine Environment -- Essential Concepts -- 12.1.What Are Living Things, and How Are They Classified? -- A Working Definition Of Life -- The Three Domains Of Life -- The Five Kingdoms Of Organisms -- Linnaeus and Taxonomic Classification -- 12.2.How Are Marine Organisms Classified? -- Plankton (Drifters) -- Nekton (Swimmers) -- Benthos (Bottom Dwellers) -- 12.3.How Many Marine Species Exist? -- Why Are There So Few Marine Species? -- Species in Pelagic and Benthic Environments -- 12.4.How Are Marine Organisms Adapted for the Physical Conditions Of the Ocean? -- Need for Physical Support -- Water's Viscosity -- Temperature -- Salinity -- Dissolved Gases -- Water's High Transparency -- Pressure -- Diving Deeper 12.1 Historical Feature Diving into the Marine Environment -- 12.5.What Are the Main Divisions Of the Marine Environment? -- Pelagic (Open Sea) Environment -- Benthic (Sea Bottom) Environment -- Essential Concepts Review -- 13.Biological Productivity And Energy Transfer -- Essential Concepts -- 13.1.What Is Primary Productivity? -- Measurement Of Primary Productivity -- Factors Affecting Primary Productivity -- Light Transmission in Ocean Water -- Why Are the Margins Of the Oceans So Rich in Life? -- 13.2.What Kinds Of Photosynthetic Marine Organisms Exist? -- Seed-Bearing Plants (Anthophyta) -- Macroscopic (Large) Algae -- Microscopic (Small) Algae -- Ocean Eutrophication and Dead Zones -- Photosynthetic Bacteria -- 13.3.How Does Regional Primary Productivity Vary? -- Productivity in Polar (High Latitude) Oceans -- Productivity in Tropical (Low-Latitude) Oceans -- Productivity in Middle Latitude (Temperate) Oceans -- Comparing Regional Productivity -- 13.4.How Are Energy and Nutrients Passed Along in Marine Ecosystems? -- Flow Of Energy in Marine Ecosystems -- Flow Of Nutrients in Marine Ecosystems -- Oceanic Feeding Relationships -- 13.5.What Issues Affect Marine Fisheries? -- Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries -- Overfishing -- Diving Deeper 13.1 Focus On The Environment Fishing Down the Food Web: Seeing Is Believing -- Incidental Catch -- Fisheries Management -- Seafood Choices -- Essential Concepts Review -- 14.Animals Of The Pelagic Environment -- Essential Concepts -- 14.1.How Are Marine Organisms Able to Stay Above the Ocean Floor? -- Use Of Gas Containers -- Ability to Float -- Ability to Swim -- The Diversity Of Planktonic Animals -- 14.2.What Adaptations Do Pelagic Organisms Possess for Seeking Prey? -- Mobility: Lungers versus Cruisers -- Swimming Speed -- Diving Deeper 14.1 Oceans And People Some Myths (and Facts) About Sharks -- Cold-Blooded versus Warm-Blooded Organisms -- Adaptations Of Deep-Water Nekton -- 14.3.What Adaptations Do Pelagic Organisms Possess to Avoid Being Prey? -- Schooling -- Symbiosis -- Other Adaptations -- 14.4.What Characteristics Do Marine Mammals Possess? -- Mammalian Characteristics -- Order Carnivora -- Order Sirenia -- Order Cetacea -- 14.5.An Example Of Migration: Why Do Gray Whales Migrate? -- Migration Route -- Reasons for Migration -- Timing Of Migration -- Are Gray Whales an Endangered Species? -- Whaling and the International Whaling Commission -- Essential Concepts Review -- 15.Animals Of The Benthic Environment -- Essential Concepts -- 15.1.What Communities Exist along Rocky Shores? -- Intertidal Zonation -- The Spray (Supratidal) Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- The High Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- The Middle Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- The Low Tide Zone: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- 15.2.What Communities Exist along Sediment-Covered Shores? -- Physical Environment Of the Sediment -- Intertidal Zonation -- Sandy Beaches: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- Mud Flats: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- 15.3.What Communities Exist on the Shallow Offshore Ocean Floor? -- Rocky Bottoms (Subtidal): Organisms and Their Adaptations -- Coral Reefs: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- 15.4.What Communities Exist on the Deep-Ocean Floor? -- The Physical Environment -- Food Sources and Species Diversity -- Diving Deeper 15.1 Research Methods In Oceanography How Long Would Your Remains Remain on the Sea Floor? -- Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Biocommunities: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- Low-Temperature Seep Biocommunities: Organisms and Their Adaptations -- The Deep Biosphere: A New Frontier -- Essential Concepts Review -- 16.The Oceans And Climate Change -- Essential Concepts -- 16.1.What Comprises Earth's Climate System? -- 16.2.Earth's Recent Climate Change: Is It Natural or Caused by Human Influence? -- Determining Earth's Past Climate: Proxy Data and Paleoclimatology -- Natural Causes Of Climate Change -- The IPCC: Documenting Human-Caused Climate Change -- 16.3.What Causes the Atmosphere's Greenhouse Effect? -- Earth's Heat Budget and Changes in Wavelength -- Which Gases Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect? -- What Documented Changes Are Occurring Because Of Global Warming? -- 16.4.What Changes Are Occurring in the Oceans as a Result Of Global Warming? -- Increasing Ocean Temperatures -- Diving Deeper 16.1 Focus On The Environment The ATOC Experiment: SOFAR So Good? -- Increasing Hurricane Activity -- Changes in Deep-Water Circulation -- Melting Of Polar Ice -- Recent Increase in Ocean Acidity -- Rising Sea Level -- Other Predicted and Observed Changes -- 16.5.What Should Be Done to Reduce Greenhouse Gases? -- The Ocean's Role in Reducing Global Warming -- Possibilities for Reducing Greenhouse Gases -- The Kyoto Protocol: Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions -- Essential Concepts Review."@en ;
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