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EU law : directions

Author: Nigel G Foster
Publisher: Oxford : Oxford University Press, [2018] ©2018
Series: Directions (Oxford, England)
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Sixth editionView all editions and formats
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A considered balance of depth, detail, context, and critique, Directions books offer the most student-friendly guide to the subject; they empower students to evaluate the law, understand its  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Handbooks and manuals
Leermiddelen (vorm)
Problems, exercises, etc
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Nigel G Foster
ISBN: 9780198816539 0198816537
OCLC Number: 1028548793
Notes: Previous edition: 2016.
Description: LXI, 495 pages : map ; 25 cm.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: pt. 1 INSTITUTIONAL LAW --
ch. 1 The establishment and development of the European Union --
1.1.Why was the Union set up? The motives for European integration --
1.1.1.Reaction to the World Wars: the desire for peace --
1.1.2.Security against the rising Soviet threat --
1.1.3.Political willingness --
1.1.4.Economic development --
1.1.5.Summary of underlying motives and initial goals --
1.2.The founding of the European Communities --
1.2.1.The Schuman Plan (1950) --
1.2.2.The European Coal and Steel Community --
1.2.3.The proposed European Defence Community and European Political Community --
1.2.4.Progress to the EEC and EURATOM Treaties --
1.3.The basic objectives and nature of the Communities --
1.3.1.Was there an ultimate federal goal for the Union? --
1.4.Developments following the original Treaties --
1.4.1.The widening of the Communities --
1.5.The deepening of the Communities --
1.5.1.The primary Treaties Note continued: 1.5.2.The 1960s and the Luxembourg Accords --
1.5.3.Stagnation and `Eurosclerosis' --
1.5.4.The Court of Justice and integration --
1.5.5.Revival attempts --
1.5.6.The first Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) and the Single European Act (SEA) --
1.5.7.Beyond the SEA --
1.5.8.The Maastricht Treaty on European Union (TEU) --
1.5.9.The Amsterdam Intergovernmental Conference and Treaty --
1.5.10.The Nice Intergovernmental Conference and Treaty --
1.5.11.The 2001 Laeken Summit --
1.5.12.The Constitutional Treaty for Europe --
1.5.13.The 2007 Brussels Summit and the Lisbon Treaty --
1.5.14.An overview of developments to date and the future --
1.6.The relationship of the UK with the European Union --
1.6.1.The early relationship (up to the 1970s) --
1.6.2.Two applications rejected --
1.6.3.Third application accepted --
1.6.4.The timing of the entry --
1.6.5.1980 to 2015 --
1.6.6.The second UK Referendum on continuing EU membership --
1.6.7.Article 50 TEU Note continued: 1.6.8.Exit and the Repeal Bill/Act --
1.6.9.The new relationship with the EU --
1.7.The EU and the world: external relations --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 2 The Union institutions --
2.1.The Commission --
2.1.1.Composition of the Commission --
2.1.2.Appointment and removal of the Commission --
2.1.3.Tasks and duties --
2.2.The Council (of Ministers) of the EU --
2.2.1.Functions and powers --
2.2.2.The presidency of the Council --
2.2.3.Role and voting in the legislative procedures --
2.2.4.Forms of voting --
2.2.5.Council general law-making powers --
2.2.6.COREPER and the Council General Secretariat --
2.3.The European Council --
2.3.1.The European Council President --
2.3.2.The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy --
2.4.The European Parliament (EP) --
2.4.1.Membership --
2.4.2.Elections and political groupings --
2.4.3.Functions and powers Note continued: 2.5.The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU or CoJ) --
2.5.1.Composition and organisation --
2.5.2.Procedure --
2.5.3.Jurisdiction --
2.5.4.Methodology --
2.5.5.The General Court --
2.5.6.Length of proceedings --
2.5.7.The specialised courts --
2.5.8.The European Central Bank (ECB) --
2.5.9.The European Court of Auditors --
2.6.The Union's advisory bodies --
2.6.1.The Economic and Social Committee (EESC) --
2.6.2.The Committee of the Regions (CoR) --
2.7.Other Union bodies --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 3 Transfer of powers, competences, and law-making --
3.1.The transfer of sovereign powers --
3.2.The division of competences --
3.2.1.Express policies, powers, and legal base --
3.2.2.The split between exclusive, concurrent, and complementary competences --
3.3.Extension of competences --
3.3.1.Express by Treaty amendment --
3.3.2.Residual powers --
3.3.3.Implied powers --
3.4.Tackling the competence creep Note continued: 3.4.1.Restrictive drafting --
3.4.2.The principle of subsidiarity --
3.4.3.Proportionality --
3.4.4.Further competence controls --
3.4.5.Summary --
3.5.The participation of the institutions in the legislative processes --
3.5.1.The legal base for legislative proposals --
3.6.Law-making principles and procedures --
3.6.1.The law-making procedures --
3.6.2.Why so many changes to the legislative procedures? --
3.7.The delegation of powers --
3.7.1.Implementing acts --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 4 Sources and forms of EU law --
4.1.The EU legal system --
4.1.1.The style of the EU legal system --
4.1.2.The classification of the elements of EU law --
4.2.The sources and forms of Union law --
4.3.EU primary law --
4.3.1.The Treaties --
4.3.2.The Protocols attached to the Treaties --
4.3.3.Declarations --
4.3.4.The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights --
4.3.5.Human or fundamental rights Note continued: 4.3.6.Equality and non-discrimination --
4.4.General principles --
4.5.Secondary sources of EU law --
4.5.1.International agreements and conventions --
4.5.2.EU secondary legislation --
4.6.The Court of Justice's contribution to the sources of law --
4.6.1.General principles of procedural law and natural justice --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 5 Supremacy of EU law --
5.1.The supremacy of EU law --
5.1.1.The view of the Court of Justice --
5.1.2.Supremacy and member state constitutional law --
5.1.3.Supremacy and international law --
5.1.4.Section summary --
5.2.EU law in the member states --
5.2.1.Theories of incorporation of international law: monism and dualism --
5.2.2.EU law in the UK --
5.3.Reception of EU law in other member states --
5.3.1.Germany --
5.3.2.Italy --
5.3.3.France --
5.3.4.The Czech Republic --
5.3.5.Denmark --
5.3.6.Spain --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading Note continued: pt. 2 PROCEDURAL ACTIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND REMEDIES IN EU LAW --
ch. 6 The preliminary ruling (Article 267 TFEU) --
6.1.Article 267 TFEU: the preliminary ruling procedure --
6.1.1.Which bodies can refer? --
6.1.2.Is the question relevant and admissible? --
6.1.3.The question referred: an overall view --
6.1.4.A discretion or an obligation to refer? --
6.1.5.The discretion of lower courts --
6.1.6.The timing of the reference --
6.1.7.Courts of last instance --
6.1.8.Avoiding the obligation to refer: the development of precedent and acte clair --
6.2.The effect of an Article 267 TFEU ruling --
6.2.1.The effect on the Court of Justice --
6.2.2.The effect on the national courts --
6.3.Interim measures within an Article 267 TFEU reference --
6.4.The evolution of Article 267 TFEU references --
6.5.Reforms and future --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 7 Treaty enforcement actions against member states Note continued: 7.1.Enforcement actions by the Commission --
7.1.1.What constitutes a breach? --
7.1.2.Identifying and reporting breaches --
7.1.3.Defendants in an Article 258 TFEU action --
7.1.4.The procedure of an Article 258 TFEU action --
7.2.Suspensory orders and interim measures --
7.3.The application and effect of judgments --
7.3.1.Article 260 TFEU --
7.4.Actions brought by one member state against another (Article 259 TFEU) --
7.4.1.The involvement of the Commission --
7.4.2.Complaining state may then refer the matter to the Court of Justice --
7.5.Alternative actions to secure member states' compliance --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 8 Remedies: direct and indirect effects and state liability --
8.1.Directly applicable and direct effects --
8.1.1.Definitions and the distinction between `directly applicable' and `direct effects' --
8.1.2.`Directly applicable' or `direct applicability' --
8.1.3.`Direct effects' Note continued: 8.2.Overcoming the lack of horizontal direct effect for Directives --
8.2.1.Extending the definition of `the state' --
8.2.2.Indirect effects --
8.2.3.General principles and direct effects --
8.2.4.`Incidental' and `triangular' horizontal effects --
8.3.State liability: the principle in Francovich --
8.3.1.The extension of Francovich --
8.4.National procedural law and the system of remedies --
8.4.1.The principle of national procedural autonomy --
8.4.2.Further intervention by the Court of Justice --
8.4.3.A more balanced approach --
8.4.4.Section summary --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 9 Direct actions before the Court of Justice --
9.1.Actions to annul EU acts --
9.1.1.Admissibility --
9.1.2.Locus standi: who may apply? --
9.1.3.Non-privileged applicants' locus standi --
9.1.4.Acts addressed to the applicant --
9.1.5.An act that is of direct and individual concern to the applicant Note continued: 9.1.6.Interest groups and party actions --
9.1.7.The challenge to regulatory acts --
9.1.8.Merits or grounds for annulment --
9.1.9.Schematic of the admissibility and merits stages of Article 263 --
9.1.10.The effect of a successful action and annulment --
9.1.11.A restrictive approach? --
9.1.12.Alternatives to Article 263 TFEU --
9.2.Action for failure to act (Article 265 TFEU) --
9.2.1.Admissibility and locus standi --
9.2.2.Acts subject to an Article 265 TFEU action --
9.2.3.Procedural requirements --
9.3.Action for damages under the non-contractual liability of the EU --
9.3.1.Admissibility --
9.3.2.The defendant institution and act --
9.3.3.An autonomous or independent action --
9.3.4.The requirements of liability --
9.3.5.Administrative/non-discretionary acts --
9.3.6.Liability for employees --
9.3.7.Liability for legislative acts --
9.3.8.A new single test for liability? --
9.3.9.Liability for lawful acts --
9.3.10.The damage Note continued: 9.3.11.The causal connection --
9.3.12.Concurrent liability/choice of court --
9.3.13.Section summary --
9.4.The plea of illegality (Article 277 TFEU) --
9.4.1.Locus standi --
9.4.2.Acts that can be reviewed --
9.4.3.Grounds of review --
9.4.4.Effect of a successful challenge --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
pt. 3 SUBSTANTIVE LAW --
ch. 10 Free movement of goods I: tariff and tax barriers --
10.1.Legislative provisions --
10.1.1.The Treaties --
10.1.2.Secondary legislation --
10.2.Progress towards the Treaty goals --
10.2.1.A free trade area --
10.2.2.A customs union --
10.2.3.A common market --
10.2.4.An economic union --
10.2.5.Which stage has the EU reached? --
10.3.The establishment of the internal market --
10.3.1.The common commercial policy (CCP) and common customs tariff (CCT) --
10.3.2.The prohibition of customs duties --
10.3.3.A charge having equivalent effect (CHEE) Note continued: 10.3.4.The distinction between internal taxation and charges having equivalent effect --
10.4.The prohibition of discriminatory taxation --
10.4.1.Direct and indirect taxation (Article 101(1) TFEU) --
10.4.2.`Similar' or `other products' --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 11 Free movement of goods II: non-tariff barriers --
11.1.Legislation --
11.2.Quantitative restrictions and measures having equivalent effect --
11.2.1.The general scope of the Treaty prohibition --
11.2.2.The meaning of `quantitative restrictions' --
11.2.3.Measures having equivalent effect --
11.2.4.Examples of measures coming within the scope of the prohibition --
11.3.Article 36 TFEU derogations --
11.3.1.General purpose and scope --
11.3.2.Public morality --
11.3.3.Public policy --
11.3.4.Public security --
11.3.5.Protection of the health or life of humans or animals --
11.3.6.Artistic, historic, or archaeological heritage Note continued: 11.3.7.The protection of industrial or commercial property --
11.3.8.The second sentence of Article 36 TFEU --
11.3.9.Decision 3052/95 and Regulation 764/2008 --
11.4.Equally applicable measures (indistinctly applicable measures) --
11.4.1.The Cassis de Dijon case --
11.4.2.Application of the rule of reason: the requirements in detail --
11.4.3.Technical standards and legislative intervention --
11.4.4.Summary of Cassis de Dijon --
11.4.5.Equal burden or dual burden rules --
11.5.Keck and Mithouard: certain selling arrangements --
11.5.1.Post-Keck case law --
11.5.2.Market access or discrimination, or both? --
11.5.3.Product use or residual rules cases --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 12 Free movement of persons --
12.1.The legal framework: primary and secondary legislation --
12.1.1.Treaty provisions --
12.1.2.Secondary legislation --
12.1.3.The basic right of non-discrimination Note continued: 12.2.Who may claim the rights of free movement? --
12.2.1.Nationality --
12.2.2.Union status as a worker or self-employed --
12.2.3.The scope and distinction of establishment and the provision of services --
12.3.The material rights of free movement --
12.3.1.Rights of entry, residence, and exit --
12.3.2.The rights provided by Regulation 492/2011 and Directive 2004/38 --
12.3.3.Worker's family and carer rights --
12.3.4.Right to remain --
12.3.5.Directive 2014/54 --
12.4.Free movement rights of the self-employed --
12.4.1.Intervention of the Court of Justice --
12.4.2.Legislative developments --
12.4.3.The free movement of lawyers --
12.5.Derogations from the free movement regimes --
12.5.1.Procedural safeguards --
12.5.2.Restrictions on the grounds of public policy, security, and health --
12.5.3.Public service exemptions --
12.6.The extension of free movement rights --
12.6.1.Receiving services --
12.6.2.The general free movement Directives Note continued: 12.7.The Maastricht Treaty and European citizenship --
12.7.1.The definition of `citizenship' --
12.7.2.Case law on the citizenship Articles --
12.7.3.Citizenship law summary --
12.8.Wholly internal situations --
12.9.The treatment of third-country nationals (TCNs) --
12.9.1.Association and cooperation agreements --
12.9.2.Workers `posted' abroad --
12.9.3.General rights for TCNs --
12.9.4.Case law on TCNs --
12.9.5.Summary of TCN rights --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 13 An introduction to EU competition policy and law --
13.1.Competition policy and law --
13.2.Competition policy and law in the EU --
13.2.1.Legislative outline --
13.2.2.Application and interpretation --
13.3.Article 101 TFEU (anti-competitive behaviour) --
13.3.1.Article 101(1) TFEU definitions --
13.3.2.The object or effect of restricting or distorting competition --
13.3.3.Types of prohibited agreements Note continued: 13.3.4.Agreements that may affect trade between member states --
13.3.5.Exemptions from Article 101(1) TFEU --
13.4.The de minimis doctrine/agreements of minor importance --
13.5.Article 101(2) TFEU and the consequence of a breach --
13.6.Article 101(3) TFEU exemptions --
13.6.1.Individual notification --
13.6.2.Negative clearance and comfort letters --
13.6.3.Block exemptions --
13.7.Article 102 TFEU and the abuse of a dominant position --
13.7.1.Article 102 TFEU requirements --
13.7.2.Consequences of breaching Article 102 TFEU --
13.8.The relationship between Articles 101 and 102 TFEU --
13.9.Enforcement of EU competition law --
13.9.1.Regulation 1/2003 --
13.9.2.Leniency notice --
13.9.3.Judicial review of enforcement --
13.9.4.Private enforcement --
13.10.Conflict of EU and national law --
13.11.EU merger control --
13.11.1.The Mergers Regulations (4064/89 and 139/04) --
13.11.2.Enforcement of Regulation 139/04 --
Summary --
Questions Note continued: Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading --
ch. 14 Discrimination law --
14.1.The legislative framework --
14.1.1.Treaty Articles --
14.1.2.Secondary legislation --
14.2.Article 157 TFEU and the scope of the principle of equal pay --
14.2.1.The meaning of `pay' --
14.2.2.The original Equal Pay Directive (Directive 75/117) --
14.2.3.The basis of comparison --
14.2.4.Part-time work and indirect discrimination --
14.2.5.Work of equal value --
14.2.6.Enforcement and remedies --
14.3.Equal treatment --
14.3.1.The concept of equal treatment/no discrimination on the grounds of sex --
14.3.2.The scope of equal treatment --
14.3.3.Equality with regard to employment access, working conditions, dismissal, and retirement ages --
14.3.4.Exempt occupations --
14.3.5.The protection of women regarding childbirth and maternity --
14.3.6.The promotion of equal opportunity by removing existing inequalities affecting opportunities --
14.3.7.Judicial enforcement and remedies Note continued: 14.4.The Social Security Directive (Directive 79/7) --
14.5.The Pregnant and Breastfeeding Workers Directive (Directive 92/85) --
14.6.Article 19 TFEU: the expansion of EU equality law --
14.6.1.Secondary legislation issued under Article 19 TFEU --
14.6.2.The Lisbon Treaty and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights --
Summary --
Questions --
Sample exam Q&A --
Further reading.
Series Title: Directions (Oxford, England)
Responsibility: Nigel Foster, FRSA.

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Primary Entity

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    schema:description "Note continued: 7.1.Enforcement actions by the Commission -- 7.1.1.What constitutes a breach? -- 7.1.2.Identifying and reporting breaches -- 7.1.3.Defendants in an Article 258 TFEU action -- 7.1.4.The procedure of an Article 258 TFEU action -- 7.2.Suspensory orders and interim measures -- 7.3.The application and effect of judgments -- 7.3.1.Article 260 TFEU -- 7.4.Actions brought by one member state against another (Article 259 TFEU) -- 7.4.1.The involvement of the Commission -- 7.4.2.Complaining state may then refer the matter to the Court of Justice -- 7.5.Alternative actions to secure member states' compliance -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 8 Remedies: direct and indirect effects and state liability -- 8.1.Directly applicable and direct effects -- 8.1.1.Definitions and the distinction between `directly applicable' and `direct effects' -- 8.1.2.`Directly applicable' or `direct applicability' -- 8.1.3.`Direct effects'"@en ;
    schema:description "Machine generated contents note: pt. 1 INSTITUTIONAL LAW -- ch. 1 The establishment and development of the European Union -- 1.1.Why was the Union set up? The motives for European integration -- 1.1.1.Reaction to the World Wars: the desire for peace -- 1.1.2.Security against the rising Soviet threat -- 1.1.3.Political willingness -- 1.1.4.Economic development -- 1.1.5.Summary of underlying motives and initial goals -- 1.2.The founding of the European Communities -- 1.2.1.The Schuman Plan (1950) -- 1.2.2.The European Coal and Steel Community -- 1.2.3.The proposed European Defence Community and European Political Community -- 1.2.4.Progress to the EEC and EURATOM Treaties -- 1.3.The basic objectives and nature of the Communities -- 1.3.1.Was there an ultimate federal goal for the Union? -- 1.4.Developments following the original Treaties -- 1.4.1.The widening of the Communities -- 1.5.The deepening of the Communities -- 1.5.1.The primary Treaties"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 9.1.6.Interest groups and party actions -- 9.1.7.The challenge to regulatory acts -- 9.1.8.Merits or grounds for annulment -- 9.1.9.Schematic of the admissibility and merits stages of Article 263 -- 9.1.10.The effect of a successful action and annulment -- 9.1.11.A restrictive approach? -- 9.1.12.Alternatives to Article 263 TFEU -- 9.2.Action for failure to act (Article 265 TFEU) -- 9.2.1.Admissibility and locus standi -- 9.2.2.Acts subject to an Article 265 TFEU action -- 9.2.3.Procedural requirements -- 9.3.Action for damages under the non-contractual liability of the EU -- 9.3.1.Admissibility -- 9.3.2.The defendant institution and act -- 9.3.3.An autonomous or independent action -- 9.3.4.The requirements of liability -- 9.3.5.Administrative/non-discretionary acts -- 9.3.6.Liability for employees -- 9.3.7.Liability for legislative acts -- 9.3.8.A new single test for liability? -- 9.3.9.Liability for lawful acts -- 9.3.10.The damage"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 8.2.Overcoming the lack of horizontal direct effect for Directives -- 8.2.1.Extending the definition of `the state' -- 8.2.2.Indirect effects -- 8.2.3.General principles and direct effects -- 8.2.4.`Incidental' and `triangular' horizontal effects -- 8.3.State liability: the principle in Francovich -- 8.3.1.The extension of Francovich -- 8.4.National procedural law and the system of remedies -- 8.4.1.The principle of national procedural autonomy -- 8.4.2.Further intervention by the Court of Justice -- 8.4.3.A more balanced approach -- 8.4.4.Section summary -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 9 Direct actions before the Court of Justice -- 9.1.Actions to annul EU acts -- 9.1.1.Admissibility -- 9.1.2.Locus standi: who may apply? -- 9.1.3.Non-privileged applicants' locus standi -- 9.1.4.Acts addressed to the applicant -- 9.1.5.An act that is of direct and individual concern to the applicant"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 1.5.2.The 1960s and the Luxembourg Accords -- 1.5.3.Stagnation and `Eurosclerosis' -- 1.5.4.The Court of Justice and integration -- 1.5.5.Revival attempts -- 1.5.6.The first Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) and the Single European Act (SEA) -- 1.5.7.Beyond the SEA -- 1.5.8.The Maastricht Treaty on European Union (TEU) -- 1.5.9.The Amsterdam Intergovernmental Conference and Treaty -- 1.5.10.The Nice Intergovernmental Conference and Treaty -- 1.5.11.The 2001 Laeken Summit -- 1.5.12.The Constitutional Treaty for Europe -- 1.5.13.The 2007 Brussels Summit and the Lisbon Treaty -- 1.5.14.An overview of developments to date and the future -- 1.6.The relationship of the UK with the European Union -- 1.6.1.The early relationship (up to the 1970s) -- 1.6.2.Two applications rejected -- 1.6.3.Third application accepted -- 1.6.4.The timing of the entry -- 1.6.5.1980 to 2015 -- 1.6.6.The second UK Referendum on continuing EU membership -- 1.6.7.Article 50 TEU"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 12.2.Who may claim the rights of free movement? -- 12.2.1.Nationality -- 12.2.2.Union status as a worker or self-employed -- 12.2.3.The scope and distinction of establishment and the provision of services -- 12.3.The material rights of free movement -- 12.3.1.Rights of entry, residence, and exit -- 12.3.2.The rights provided by Regulation 492/2011 and Directive 2004/38 -- 12.3.3.Worker's family and carer rights -- 12.3.4.Right to remain -- 12.3.5.Directive 2014/54 -- 12.4.Free movement rights of the self-employed -- 12.4.1.Intervention of the Court of Justice -- 12.4.2.Legislative developments -- 12.4.3.The free movement of lawyers -- 12.5.Derogations from the free movement regimes -- 12.5.1.Procedural safeguards -- 12.5.2.Restrictions on the grounds of public policy, security, and health -- 12.5.3.Public service exemptions -- 12.6.The extension of free movement rights -- 12.6.1.Receiving services -- 12.6.2.The general free movement Directives"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 12.7.The Maastricht Treaty and European citizenship -- 12.7.1.The definition of `citizenship' -- 12.7.2.Case law on the citizenship Articles -- 12.7.3.Citizenship law summary -- 12.8.Wholly internal situations -- 12.9.The treatment of third-country nationals (TCNs) -- 12.9.1.Association and cooperation agreements -- 12.9.2.Workers `posted' abroad -- 12.9.3.General rights for TCNs -- 12.9.4.Case law on TCNs -- 12.9.5.Summary of TCN rights -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 13 An introduction to EU competition policy and law -- 13.1.Competition policy and law -- 13.2.Competition policy and law in the EU -- 13.2.1.Legislative outline -- 13.2.2.Application and interpretation -- 13.3.Article 101 TFEU (anti-competitive behaviour) -- 13.3.1.Article 101(1) TFEU definitions -- 13.3.2.The object or effect of restricting or distorting competition -- 13.3.3.Types of prohibited agreements"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 1.6.8.Exit and the Repeal Bill/Act -- 1.6.9.The new relationship with the EU -- 1.7.The EU and the world: external relations -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 2 The Union institutions -- 2.1.The Commission -- 2.1.1.Composition of the Commission -- 2.1.2.Appointment and removal of the Commission -- 2.1.3.Tasks and duties -- 2.2.The Council (of Ministers) of the EU -- 2.2.1.Functions and powers -- 2.2.2.The presidency of the Council -- 2.2.3.Role and voting in the legislative procedures -- 2.2.4.Forms of voting -- 2.2.5.Council general law-making powers -- 2.2.6.COREPER and the Council General Secretariat -- 2.3.The European Council -- 2.3.1.The European Council President -- 2.3.2.The High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy -- 2.4.The European Parliament (EP) -- 2.4.1.Membership -- 2.4.2.Elections and political groupings -- 2.4.3.Functions and powers"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 13.3.4.Agreements that may affect trade between member states -- 13.3.5.Exemptions from Article 101(1) TFEU -- 13.4.The de minimis doctrine/agreements of minor importance -- 13.5.Article 101(2) TFEU and the consequence of a breach -- 13.6.Article 101(3) TFEU exemptions -- 13.6.1.Individual notification -- 13.6.2.Negative clearance and comfort letters -- 13.6.3.Block exemptions -- 13.7.Article 102 TFEU and the abuse of a dominant position -- 13.7.1.Article 102 TFEU requirements -- 13.7.2.Consequences of breaching Article 102 TFEU -- 13.8.The relationship between Articles 101 and 102 TFEU -- 13.9.Enforcement of EU competition law -- 13.9.1.Regulation 1/2003 -- 13.9.2.Leniency notice -- 13.9.3.Judicial review of enforcement -- 13.9.4.Private enforcement -- 13.10.Conflict of EU and national law -- 13.11.EU merger control -- 13.11.1.The Mergers Regulations (4064/89 and 139/04) -- 13.11.2.Enforcement of Regulation 139/04 -- Summary -- Questions"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 3.4.1.Restrictive drafting -- 3.4.2.The principle of subsidiarity -- 3.4.3.Proportionality -- 3.4.4.Further competence controls -- 3.4.5.Summary -- 3.5.The participation of the institutions in the legislative processes -- 3.5.1.The legal base for legislative proposals -- 3.6.Law-making principles and procedures -- 3.6.1.The law-making procedures -- 3.6.2.Why so many changes to the legislative procedures? -- 3.7.The delegation of powers -- 3.7.1.Implementing acts -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 4 Sources and forms of EU law -- 4.1.The EU legal system -- 4.1.1.The style of the EU legal system -- 4.1.2.The classification of the elements of EU law -- 4.2.The sources and forms of Union law -- 4.3.EU primary law -- 4.3.1.The Treaties -- 4.3.2.The Protocols attached to the Treaties -- 4.3.3.Declarations -- 4.3.4.The EU Charter of Fundamental Rights -- 4.3.5.Human or fundamental rights"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 10.3.4.The distinction between internal taxation and charges having equivalent effect -- 10.4.The prohibition of discriminatory taxation -- 10.4.1.Direct and indirect taxation (Article 101(1) TFEU) -- 10.4.2.`Similar' or `other products' -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 11 Free movement of goods II: non-tariff barriers -- 11.1.Legislation -- 11.2.Quantitative restrictions and measures having equivalent effect -- 11.2.1.The general scope of the Treaty prohibition -- 11.2.2.The meaning of `quantitative restrictions' -- 11.2.3.Measures having equivalent effect -- 11.2.4.Examples of measures coming within the scope of the prohibition -- 11.3.Article 36 TFEU derogations -- 11.3.1.General purpose and scope -- 11.3.2.Public morality -- 11.3.3.Public policy -- 11.3.4.Public security -- 11.3.5.Protection of the health or life of humans or animals -- 11.3.6.Artistic, historic, or archaeological heritage"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 9.3.11.The causal connection -- 9.3.12.Concurrent liability/choice of court -- 9.3.13.Section summary -- 9.4.The plea of illegality (Article 277 TFEU) -- 9.4.1.Locus standi -- 9.4.2.Acts that can be reviewed -- 9.4.3.Grounds of review -- 9.4.4.Effect of a successful challenge -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- pt. 3 SUBSTANTIVE LAW -- ch. 10 Free movement of goods I: tariff and tax barriers -- 10.1.Legislative provisions -- 10.1.1.The Treaties -- 10.1.2.Secondary legislation -- 10.2.Progress towards the Treaty goals -- 10.2.1.A free trade area -- 10.2.2.A customs union -- 10.2.3.A common market -- 10.2.4.An economic union -- 10.2.5.Which stage has the EU reached? -- 10.3.The establishment of the internal market -- 10.3.1.The common commercial policy (CCP) and common customs tariff (CCT) -- 10.3.2.The prohibition of customs duties -- 10.3.3.A charge having equivalent effect (CHEE)"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 14.4.The Social Security Directive (Directive 79/7) -- 14.5.The Pregnant and Breastfeeding Workers Directive (Directive 92/85) -- 14.6.Article 19 TFEU: the expansion of EU equality law -- 14.6.1.Secondary legislation issued under Article 19 TFEU -- 14.6.2.The Lisbon Treaty and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading."@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 4.3.6.Equality and non-discrimination -- 4.4.General principles -- 4.5.Secondary sources of EU law -- 4.5.1.International agreements and conventions -- 4.5.2.EU secondary legislation -- 4.6.The Court of Justice's contribution to the sources of law -- 4.6.1.General principles of procedural law and natural justice -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 5 Supremacy of EU law -- 5.1.The supremacy of EU law -- 5.1.1.The view of the Court of Justice -- 5.1.2.Supremacy and member state constitutional law -- 5.1.3.Supremacy and international law -- 5.1.4.Section summary -- 5.2.EU law in the member states -- 5.2.1.Theories of incorporation of international law: monism and dualism -- 5.2.2.EU law in the UK -- 5.3.Reception of EU law in other member states -- 5.3.1.Germany -- 5.3.2.Italy -- 5.3.3.France -- 5.3.4.The Czech Republic -- 5.3.5.Denmark -- 5.3.6.Spain -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: pt. 2 PROCEDURAL ACTIONS, ENFORCEMENT, AND REMEDIES IN EU LAW -- ch. 6 The preliminary ruling (Article 267 TFEU) -- 6.1.Article 267 TFEU: the preliminary ruling procedure -- 6.1.1.Which bodies can refer? -- 6.1.2.Is the question relevant and admissible? -- 6.1.3.The question referred: an overall view -- 6.1.4.A discretion or an obligation to refer? -- 6.1.5.The discretion of lower courts -- 6.1.6.The timing of the reference -- 6.1.7.Courts of last instance -- 6.1.8.Avoiding the obligation to refer: the development of precedent and acte clair -- 6.2.The effect of an Article 267 TFEU ruling -- 6.2.1.The effect on the Court of Justice -- 6.2.2.The effect on the national courts -- 6.3.Interim measures within an Article 267 TFEU reference -- 6.4.The evolution of Article 267 TFEU references -- 6.5.Reforms and future -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 7 Treaty enforcement actions against member states"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 14 Discrimination law -- 14.1.The legislative framework -- 14.1.1.Treaty Articles -- 14.1.2.Secondary legislation -- 14.2.Article 157 TFEU and the scope of the principle of equal pay -- 14.2.1.The meaning of `pay' -- 14.2.2.The original Equal Pay Directive (Directive 75/117) -- 14.2.3.The basis of comparison -- 14.2.4.Part-time work and indirect discrimination -- 14.2.5.Work of equal value -- 14.2.6.Enforcement and remedies -- 14.3.Equal treatment -- 14.3.1.The concept of equal treatment/no discrimination on the grounds of sex -- 14.3.2.The scope of equal treatment -- 14.3.3.Equality with regard to employment access, working conditions, dismissal, and retirement ages -- 14.3.4.Exempt occupations -- 14.3.5.The protection of women regarding childbirth and maternity -- 14.3.6.The promotion of equal opportunity by removing existing inequalities affecting opportunities -- 14.3.7.Judicial enforcement and remedies"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 11.3.7.The protection of industrial or commercial property -- 11.3.8.The second sentence of Article 36 TFEU -- 11.3.9.Decision 3052/95 and Regulation 764/2008 -- 11.4.Equally applicable measures (indistinctly applicable measures) -- 11.4.1.The Cassis de Dijon case -- 11.4.2.Application of the rule of reason: the requirements in detail -- 11.4.3.Technical standards and legislative intervention -- 11.4.4.Summary of Cassis de Dijon -- 11.4.5.Equal burden or dual burden rules -- 11.5.Keck and Mithouard: certain selling arrangements -- 11.5.1.Post-Keck case law -- 11.5.2.Market access or discrimination, or both? -- 11.5.3.Product use or residual rules cases -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 12 Free movement of persons -- 12.1.The legal framework: primary and secondary legislation -- 12.1.1.Treaty provisions -- 12.1.2.Secondary legislation -- 12.1.3.The basic right of non-discrimination"@en ;
    schema:description "Note continued: 2.5.The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU or CoJ) -- 2.5.1.Composition and organisation -- 2.5.2.Procedure -- 2.5.3.Jurisdiction -- 2.5.4.Methodology -- 2.5.5.The General Court -- 2.5.6.Length of proceedings -- 2.5.7.The specialised courts -- 2.5.8.The European Central Bank (ECB) -- 2.5.9.The European Court of Auditors -- 2.6.The Union's advisory bodies -- 2.6.1.The Economic and Social Committee (EESC) -- 2.6.2.The Committee of the Regions (CoR) -- 2.7.Other Union bodies -- Summary -- Questions -- Sample exam Q&A -- Further reading -- ch. 3 Transfer of powers, competences, and law-making -- 3.1.The transfer of sovereign powers -- 3.2.The division of competences -- 3.2.1.Express policies, powers, and legal base -- 3.2.2.The split between exclusive, concurrent, and complementary competences -- 3.3.Extension of competences -- 3.3.1.Express by Treaty amendment -- 3.3.2.Residual powers -- 3.3.3.Implied powers -- 3.4.Tackling the competence creep"@en ;
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