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The feasibility of using Psyllobora vigintimaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a mycophagous ladybird beetle, for management of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales). Aperçu de cet ouvrage
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The feasibility of using Psyllobora vigintimaculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a mycophagous ladybird beetle, for management of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales).

Auteur : Andrew Mason Sutherland
Éditeur: 2009.
Dissertation: Ph. D. University of California, Davis 2009
Édition/format:   Thèse/dissertation : Document : Thèse/mémoire   Fichier d'ordinateur : Anglais
Résumé:
Obligate mycophagy on the hyphae and conidia of powdery mildew (PM) fungi (Erysiphales), as exhibited by the beetle tribe Halyziini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), may be utilized through augmentative biological control and/or decision support for disease management. Mycophagous coccinellids, a previously understudied group, are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous worldwide in regions where PM fungi are prevalent. Based on  Lire la suite...
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Détails

Genre/forme: Academic theses
Dissertations, Academic
Type d’ouvrage: Document, Thèse/mémoire
Type de document: Livre, Fichier d'ordinateur
Tous les auteurs / collaborateurs: Andrew Mason Sutherland
Numéro OCLC: 469142108
Notes: Degree granted in Entomology.
Plus d’informations:

Résumé:

Obligate mycophagy on the hyphae and conidia of powdery mildew (PM) fungi (Erysiphales), as exhibited by the beetle tribe Halyziini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), may be utilized through augmentative biological control and/or decision support for disease management. Mycophagous coccinellids, a previously understudied group, are cosmopolitan and ubiquitous worldwide in regions where PM fungi are prevalent. Based on biological records, the host range of Halyziini is estimated to be wide, perhaps encompassing all PM genera. A tabular list of these host complexes is provided. Quantification of the PM consumption rate and feeding capacity of Psyllobora vigintimaculata, a western North American species within Halyziini, was attempted through laboratory measurement, linear modeling, and extrapolation via population simulation modeling. The feeding capacity of larvae was measured by means of digital photography and image analysis. These larval consumption data were then used to construct a vector with age-specific feeding capacities. Population development of a hypothetical cohort was predicted using a Leslie matrix and previously established biological parameters. These models were combined to create a release-rate calculator for a system with known leaf area and PM severity. Model output was evaluated through a comparison with observed data resulting from a caged feeding efficacy trial. Adult P. vigintimaculata have been recorded to respond in an aggregative manner to increasing levels of PM severity. This phenomenon, coupled with the observation that adults also are locally attracted to yellow sticky cards, led to the hypothesis that local insect density could serve as an indicator of PM and as a decision support device for PM management. This positive correlative relationship between insect density and disease severity was confirmed through three successive years of monitoring in a commercial vineyard setting. In some cases, beetle catches were more sensitive to annual anomalies in disease phenology than was an established predictive model based on weather data. Mechanical transmission of PM conidia by movement of spore-laden insects such as mycophagous coccinellids may represent an important means of new infection centers, possibly compromising the service of PM removal by these potential biological control agents. A series of growth chamber experiments were instituted in order to test the hypothesis that P. vigintimaculata contributes to disease development and severity via mechanical transmission. There was no difference in PM transmission rate or severity over time when uninfected plants were exposed to infected plants either with or without the presence of a small population of P. vigintimaculata.

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